12 Works

Data from: Abiotic heterogeneity drives parasite local adaptation in coevolving bacteria and phages

Angus Buckling, Laura Lopez Pascua & Sylvain Gandon
Spatial abiotic heterogenity can result in divergent selection, hence might increase the magnitude of host-parasite local adaptation (the mean difference in fitness of sympatric versus allopatric host-parasite combinations). We explicitly tested this hypothesis by measuring local adapation in experimentally coevolved populations of bacteria and viruses evolved in the same or different nutrient media. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean levels of evolved phage infectivity and bacteria resistance varied with nutrient concentration, with maximal...

Data from: Insects on plants: explaining the paradox of low diversity within specialist herbivore guilds

Vojtech Novotny, Scott E. Miller, Jan Hrcek, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Owen T. Lewis, Alan J. A. Stewart & George D. Weiblen
Classical niche theory explains the coexistence of species through their exploitation of different resources. Assemblages of herbivores coexisting on a particular plant species are thus expected to be dominated by species from host-specific guilds with narrow, coexistence-facilitating niches, rather than by species from generalist guilds. Exactly the opposite pattern is observed for folivores feeding on trees in New Guinea. The least specialized mobile chewers were most species-rich, followed by the moderately specialized semi-concealed and exposed...

Data from: Fecundity selection on ornamental plumage colour differs between ages and sexes and varies over small spatial scales

Timothy H. Parker, Teddy A. Wilkin, Iain R. Barr, Ben C. Sheldon, Louise Rowe & Simon C. Griffith
Avian plumage colours are some of the most conspicuous sexual ornaments, and yet standardized selection gradients for plumage colour have rarely been quantified. We examined patterns of fecundity selection on plumage colour in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.). When not accounting for environmental heterogeneity, we detected relatively few cases of selection. We found significant disruptive selection on adult male crown colour and yearling female chest colour and marginally nonsignificant positive linear selection on adult female...

Data from: Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint, and senescence

Hannah L Dugdale, Lisa C Pope, Chris Newman, David W Macdonald & Terry Burke
The Selection, Constraint, Restraint, and Senescence Hypotheses predict how breeding success should vary with age. The Selection Hypothesis predicts between-individual variation arising from quality differences; the other hypotheses predict within-individual variation due to differing skills or physiological condition (Constraint), residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint), or somatic and reproductive investment (Senescence). Studies tend to focus on either the initial increase in breeding success or later decrease; however, both require consideration when unravelling the underlying evolutionary processes. Additionally,...

Data from: Population genetic structure and secondary symbionts in host-associated populations of the pea aphid complex

Julia Ferrari, Joan A West, Sara Via & H. Charles J. Godfray
Polyphagous insect herbivores experience different selection pressures on their various host plant species. How this affects population divergence and speciation may be influenced by the bacterial endosymbionts that many harbor. Here, we study the population structure and symbiont community of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which feeds on a range of legume species and is known to form genetically differentiated host-adapted populations. Aphids were collected from eight legume genera in England and Germany. Extensive host...

Data from: Spatial and temporal patterns of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)

Clare D. Marsden, Rosie Woodroffe, Michael G. L. Mills, J. Weldon McNutt, Scott Creel, Rosemary Groom, Masenga Emmanuel, Sarah Cleaveland, Pieter Kat, Gregory S. A. Rasmussen, Joshua Ginsberg, Robin Lines, Jean-Marc André, Colleen Begg, Robert K. Wayne & Barbara K. Mable
Deciphering patterns of genetic variation within a species is essential for understanding population structure, local adaptation and differences in diversity between populations. Whilst neutrally evolving genetic markers can be used to elucidate demographic processes and genetic structure, they are not subject to selection and therefore are not informative about patterns of adaptive variation. As such, assessments of pertinent adaptive loci, such as the immunity genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), are increasingly being incorporated...

Data from: Characterization of microsatellite loci and reliable genotyping in a polyploid plant, Mercurialis perennis (Euphorbiaceae)

Tanja Pfeiffer, Anna M. Roschanski, John R. Pannell, Grażyna Korbecka & Martin Schnittler
For many applications in population genetics, codominant simple sequence repeats (SSRs) may have substantial advantages over dominant anonymous markers such as AFLPs. In high polyploids, however, allele dosage of SSRs cannot easily be determined and alleles are not easily attributable to potentially diploidized loci. Here, we argue that SSRs may nonetheless be better than AFLPs for polyploid taxa if they are analyzed as effectively dominant markers, because they are more reliable and more precise. We...

Data from: Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling

Christopher S. Drummond, Ruth J. Eastwood, Silvia T. S. Miotto & Colin E. Hughes
Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in...

Data from: Epistasis buffers the fitness effects of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Alex R. Hall & R. Craig MacLean
Epistatic interactions between resistance mutations in antibiotic-free environments potentially play a crucial role in the spread of resistance in pathogen populations by determining the fitness cost associated with resistance. We used an experimental evolution approach to test for epistatic interactions between 14 different pairs of rifampicin mutations in the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 42 different rifampicin-free environments. First, we show that epistasis between rifampicin-resistance mutations tends to be antagonistic: the fitness effect of having...

Data from: Multiplicity of infection does not accelerate infectivity evolution of viral parasites in laboratory microcosms

Alex R. Hall, Pauline D. Scanlan, Helen Leggett & Angus Buckling
Coinfection with multiple parasite genotypes (multiplicity of infection) creates within-host competition and opportunities for parasite recombination, and is therefore predicted to be important for both parasite and host evolution. We tested for a difference in the infectivity of viral parasites (lytic phage Φ2) and resistance of their bacterial hosts (Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25) under both high and low multiplicity of infection (MOI) during coevolution in laboratory microcosms. Results show that MOI has no effect on infectivity...

Data from: Selection experiments reveal trade-offs between swimming and twitching motilities in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Tiffany B Taylor & Angus Buckling
Bacteria possess a range of mechanisms to move in different environments, and these mechanisms have important direct and correlated impacts on the virulence of opportunistic pathogens. Bacteria use two surface organelles to facilitate motility: a single polar flagellum, and type IV pili, enabling swimming in aqueous habitats and twitching along hard surfaces, respectively. Here, we address whether there are trade-offs between these motility mechanisms, and hence whether different environments could select for altered motility. We...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of a carotenoid-based color: heritability and persistent natal environmental effects in the great tit

Simon Robin Evans, Ben C. Sheldon & Simon R. Evans
The information content of signals, such as animal coloration, depends on the extent to which variation reflects underlying biological processes. Although animal coloration has received considerable attention, little work has addressed the quantitative genetics of colour variation in natural populations. We investigated the quantitative genetics of a carotenoid-based colour patch - the ventral plumage of mature great tits (Parus major) - in a wild population. Carotenoid-based colours are often suggested to reflect environmental variation in...

Registration Year

  • 2011
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    12

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    12
  • University of Sheffield
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1
  • University of Pretoria
    1
  • Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
    1
  • University of Greifswald
    1
  • University of Glasgow
    1
  • University of Minnesota
    1
  • Smithsonian Institution
    1