16 Works

Data from: Genetic factors affecting food-plant specialization of an oligophagous seed predator

Liisa Laukkanen, Roosa Leimu, Anne Muola, Marianna Lilley & Pia Mutikainen
Several ecological and genetic factors affect the diet specialization of insect herbivores. The evolution of specialization may be constrained by lack of genetic variation in herbivore performance on different food plant species. By traditional view, trade-offs, i.e., negative genetic correlations between the performance of the herbivores on different food-plant species favour the evolution of specialization. To investigate whether there is genetic variation or trade-offs in herbivore performance between different food plants that may influence specialization...

Data from: Quorum sensing and cheating in bacterial biofilms

Roman Popat, Shanika A. Crusz, Marco Messina, Paul Williams, Stuart A. West & Stephen P. Diggle
The idea from human societies that self-interest can lead to a breakdown of cooperation at the group level is sometimes termed the public goods dilemma. We tested this idea in the opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by examining the influence of putative cheats that do not cooperate via cell-to-cell signalling (quorum-sensing, QS). We found that: (i) QS cheating occurs in biofilm populations owing to exploitation of QS-regulated public goods; (ii) the thickness and density of...

Data from: The cost of copy number in a selfish genetic element: the 2µM plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Ellie Harrison, Vassiliki Koufopanou, Austin Burt & R. Craig MacLean
Many autonomously replicating genetic elements exist as multiple copies within the cell. The copy number of these elements is often assumed to have important fitness consequences for both element and host, yet the forces shaping its evolution are not well understood. The 2µm is a multi-copy plasmid of Saccharomyces yeasts, encoding just four genes that are solely involved in plasmid replication. One simple model for the fitness relationship between yeasts and 2µm is that plasmid...

Data from: Integrating candidate gene and quantitative genetic approaches to understand variation in timing of breeding in wild tit populations

Miriam Liedvogel, Charlie K. Cornwallis & Ben C. Sheldon
Two commonly used techniques for estimating the effect of genes on traits in wild populations are the candidate gene approach and quantitative genetic analyses. However, whether these two approaches measure the same underlying processes remains unresolved. Here we use these two methods to test if they are alternative or complementary approaches to understanding genetic variation in the timing of reproduction – a key trait involved in adaptation to climate change - in wild tit populations....

Data from: Spite versus cheats: competition among social strategies shapes virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

R. Fredrik Inglis, Sam Paul Brown & Angus Buckling
Social interactions have been shown to play an important role in bacterial evolution and virulence. The majority of empirical studies conducted have only considered social traits in isolation, yet numerous social traits, such as the production of spiteful bacteriocins (anti-competitor toxins) and iron-scavenging siderophores (a public good) by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are frequently expressed simultaneously. Crucially, both bacteriocin production and siderophore cheating can be favoured under the same competitive conditions, and we develop...

Data from: Mhc-linked survival and lifetime reproductive success in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Shelly Lachish & Ben C. Sheldon
Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are frequently used as a model for adaptive genetic diversity. Although associations between Mhc and disease resistance are frequently documented, little is known about the fitness consequences of Mhc variation in wild populations. Further, most work to date has involved testing associations between Mhc genotypes and fitness components. However, the functional diversity of the Mhc, and hence the mechanism by which selection on Mhc acts, depends on how genotypes map...

Data from: Quality of descriptions of treatments: a review of published randomised controlled trials

Sara Schroter, Paul Glasziou & Carl Heneghan
OBJECTIVES: To be useable in clinical practice, treatments studied in trials must provide sufficient information to enable clinicians and researchers to replicate. We sought to assess the completeness of treatment descriptions in published randomised controlled trials using a checklist and to determine the extent to which peer reviewers and editors comment on the quality of reporting of treatments. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Trials published in the BMJ, a general medical journal. PARTICIPANTS: 51 trials published...

Data from: Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli

Samuel K. Sheppard, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Aaron E. Darling, David J. Kelly, Alison Cody, Frances M. Colles, Norval J.C. Strachan, Iain D. Ogden, Ken Forbes, Nigel P. French, Philip Carter, William G. Miller, Noel D. McCarthy, Robert Owen, Eva Litrup, Michael Egholm, Stephen D. Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Martin C. J. Maiden, Daniel Falush, Jason P. Affourtit, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ben Pascoe & Guillaume Meric
Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation to novel environments, but is potentially constrained by epistatic fitness interactions among cell components. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other by around 15% at the nucleotide level, corresponding to an average of nearly 40 amino acids per protein-coding gene. Using whole genome sequencing, we show that a single C. coli lineage, which has successfully colonized an agricultural niche, has been...

Data from: Spatial structure and interspecific cooperation: theory and an empirical test using the mycorrhizal mutualism

Erik Verbruggen, Claire El Mouden, Jan Jansa, Geert Akkermans, Heike Bücking, Stuart A. West & E. Toby Kiers
Explaining mutualistic cooperation between species remains a major challenge for evolutionary biology. Why cooperate if defection potentially reaps greater benefits? It is commonly assumed that spatial structure (limited dispersal) aligns the interests of mutualistic partners. But does spatial structure consistently promote cooperation? Here, we formally model the role of spatial structure in maintaining mutualism. We show theoretically that spatial structure can actually disfavour cooperation by limiting the suite of potential partners. The effect of spatial...

Data from: Faunal turnover of marine tetrapods during the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition

Roger B. J. Benson & Patrick S. Druckenmiller
Marine and terrestrial animals show a mosaic of lineage extinctions and diversifications during the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition. However, despite its potential importance in shaping animal evolution, few palaeontological studies have focussed on this interval and the possible climate and biotic drivers of its faunal turnover. In consequence evolutionary patterns in most groups are poorly understood. We use a new, large morphological dataset to examine patterns of lineage diversity and disparity (variety of form) in the marine...

Data from: Evolution of the ARF gene family in land plants: old domains, new tricks

Cédric Finet, Annick Berne-Dedieu, Charles P. Scutt & Ferdinand Marlétaz
Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are key players in plant development. They mediate the cellular response to the plant hormone auxin by activating or repressing the expression of downstream developmental genes. The pivotal activation function of ARF proteins is enabled by their four-domain architecture, which includes both DNA-binding and protein dimerization motifs. To determine the evolutionary origin of this characteristic architecture, we built a comprehensive dataset of 224 ARF-related protein sequences that represents all major living...

Data from: Mindfulness online: a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of a web-based mindfulness course and the impact on stress

Adele Krusche, Eva Cyhlarova, Scott King & J. Mark G. Williams
OBJECTIVES: Stress has been shown to have a number of negative effects on health over time. Mindfulness interventions have been shown to decrease perceived stress but access to interventions is limited. Therefore, the effectiveness of an online mindfulness course for perceived stress was investigated. DESIGN: A preliminary evaluation of an online mindfulness course. PARTICIPANTS: This sample consisted of 100 self-referrals to the online course. The average age of participants was 48 years and 74% were...

Data from: A survey of palaeontological sampling biases in fishes based on the phanerozoic record of Great Britain

Graeme T. Lloyd & Matt Friedman
Fishes represent more than half of all living vertebrate species, but patterns of fish diversity remain little explored in the fossil record. A compendium of fossil occurrences from Great Britain was assembled in order to address a series of questions concerning the palaeontological record of fishes. There are broad similarities between British richness trajectories and those compiled from global data, including an initial peak in the mid-Palaeozoic (Devonian or Carboniferous, depending on the compilation), with...

Data from: Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds

Petra Griekspoor, Frances M. Colles, Noel D. McCarthy, Philip M. Hansbro, Chris Ashhurst-Smith, Björn Olsen, Dennis Hasselquist, Martin C. J. Maiden & Jonas Waldenström
Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic...

Data from: Model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift

Danna R. Gifford, J. Arjan G. M. De Visser & Lindi M. Wahl
Determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. Despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques permit the development of models with testable predictions. We developed a new model for the probability of surviving genetic drift, a major component of fixation probability, for novel beneficial mutations in the fungus Aspergillus...

Data from: Not just passengers: Pigeons, Columba livia, can learn homing routes while flying with a more experienced conspecific

Benjamin Pettit, Andrea Flack, Robin Freemain, Tim Guilford, Dora Biro & R. Freeman
For animals that travel in groups, the directional choices of conspecifics are potentially a rich source of information for spatial learning. In this study, we investigate how the opportunity to follow a locally experienced demonstrator affects route learning by pigeons over repeated homing flights. This test of social influences on navigation takes advantage of the individually distinctive routes that pigeons establish when trained alone. We found that pigeons learn routes just as effectively while flying...

Registration Year

  • 2012
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    16
  • Imperial College London
    2
  • VU University Amsterdam
    1
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    1
  • Linnaeus University
    1
  • Lund University
    1
  • South Dakota State University
    1
  • University of Aberdeen
    1
  • University of Nottingham
    1
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    1