60 Works

Data from: Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Hannah L. Dugdale, Christina C. Buesching, Yung W. Sin, Terry Burke & David W. Macdonald
Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and...

Data from: Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations

Nicholas G. Davies & Andy Gardner
W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect...

Data from: Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects

Tim Harvey-Samuel, Thomas Ant, Neil Morrison, Hongfei Gong & Luke Alphey
Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in...

Data from: Diet quality in a wild grazer declines under the threat of an ambush predator

Florian Barnier, Marion Valeix, Patrick Duncan, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Philippe Barre, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Hervé Fritz & S. Chamaille-Jammes
Predators influence prey populations not only through predation itself, but also indirectly through prompting changes in prey behaviour. The behavioural adjustments of prey to predation risk may carry nutritional costs, but this has seldom been studied in the wild in large mammals. Here, we studied the effects of an ambush predator, the African lion (Panthera leo), on the diet quality of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. We combined information on movements...

Data from: Colour in a new light: a spectral perspective on the quantitative genetics of carotenoid coloration

Simon R. Evans & Ben C. Sheldon
1. Carotenoid-based colours are model traits for research on animal signalling and sexual selection but, whereas the consequences of variable expression have been extensively studied, its causes are rarely quantified. This issue is complicated by the composite nature of carotenoid-based colour patches, which combine pigments and a reflective background. Ultimately, the evolution of such colours will be determined by the processes that govern variable expression of these mechanisms. 2. We present a novel approach to...

Data from: Multi-serotype pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in vaccine naïve Nepalese children, assessed using molecular serotyping.

Rama Kandasamy, Meeru Gurung, Anushil Thapa, Susan Ndimah, Neelam Adhikari, David R. Murdoch, Dominic F. Kelly, Denise E. Waldron, Katherine A. Gould, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Jason Hinds & Andrew J. Pollard
Invasive pneumococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in young children in resource poor countries. Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insight into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. There are very few data on the concurrent carriage of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumococci carried in the nasopharynx of young healthy Nepalese children prior to the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using...

Data from: Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivore

Aino Kalske, Anne Muola, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred...

Data from: Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus)

Sarah Cubaynes, Daniel R. Mac Nulty, Daniel R. Stahler, Kira A. Quimby, Douglas W. Smith, Tim Coulson & Daniel R. MacNulty
1. Understanding the population dynamics of top predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. 2. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust...

Data from: Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children

Tom Jefferson, Mark A. Jones, Peter Doshi, Chris B. Del Mar, Rokuro Hama, Matthew J. Thompson, Elizabeth A. Spencer, Igho Onakpoya, Kamal R. Mahtani, David Nunan, Jeremy Howick, Carl J. Heneghan & Igho J Onakpoya
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN TWO OTHER ARTICLES. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2547 AND http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2545 FOR MORE INFORMATION. Background: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide. Objectives: To describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and...

Data from: An experimental test of whether cheating is context dependent

Melanie Ghoul, Stuart A. West, Steve P. Diggle & Ashleigh S. Griffin
Microbial cells rely on cooperative behaviours that can breakdown as a result of exploitation by cheats. Recent work on cheating in microbes, however, has produced examples of populations benefiting from the presence of cheats and/or cooperative behaviours being maintained despite the presence of cheats. These observations have been presented as evidence for selection favouring cheating at the population level. This apparent contradiction arises when cheating is defined simply by the reduced expression of a cooperative...

Data from: Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage

Roger B. J. Benson, Nicolás E. Campione, Matthew T. Carrano, Philip D. Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Paul Upchurch & David C. Evans
Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation,...

Data from: Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild

Ella F. Cole & John L. Quinn
Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting...

Data from: Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across dinosaur-bird transition

Stephen L. Brusatte, Graeme T. Lloyd, Steve C. Wang & Mark A. Norell
Brusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File1Supplementary appendices: list of phylogenetic characters, phylogenetic character-taxon matrix, list of taxon ages, list of supplementary figure captions (relevant to Dryad File 2)BrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile1.docxBrusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File2Supplementary figuresBrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile2.pdfBrusatte et al. 2014 Current Biology Dryad File3R code (Graeme T. Lloyd)BrusatteetalRevisionDryadFile3.zip

Data from: Loss of heterosis and family-dependent inbreeding depression in plant performance and resistance against multiple herbivores under drought stress

Nadine Prill, James M. Bullock, Nicole M. Van Dam & Roosa Leimu
1. Inbreeding depression (ID), outbreeding depression (OD) and heterosis can occur concurrently in plant populations. ID often increases under environmental stress, but the combined effects of inbreeding, outbreeding between populations and environmental stress, such as drought, on plant performance and herbivore resistance remain unclear. 2. In order to determine environment-dependent and family-dependent ID, OD and heterosis we conducted a common garden experiment with plants from five populations of Brassica nigra. Inbred, within-population outbred and between-population...

Data from: Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species

Johanna L. Baily, Guillaume Méric, Sion Bayliss, Geoffrey Foster, Simon E. Moss, Eleanor Watson, Ben Pascoe, Jane Mikhail, Robert J. Goldstone, Romain Pizzi, David G. E. Smith, Kim Willoughby, Alisa J. Hall, Mark P. Dagleish, Samuel K. Sheppard & Ailsa J. Hall
Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to...

Data from: Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests

Lydia E. S. Cole, Shonil A. Bhagwat, Kathy J. Willis & Katherine J. Willis
1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three...

Data from: The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations

Nuno R. Faria, Andrew Rambaut, Marc A. Suchard, Guy Baele, Trevor Bedford, Melissa J. Ward, Andrew J. Tatem, João D. Sousa, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jacques Pépin, David Posada, Martine Peeters, Oliver P. Pybus & Philippe Lemey
Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M...

Data from: Ecological causes of multi-level covariance between size and first-year survival in a wild bird population

Sandra Bouwhuis, Oscar Vedder, Colin J. Garroway & Ben C. Sheldon
1. Estimates of selection in natural populations are frequent but our understanding of ecological causes of selection, and causes of variation in the direction, strength and form of selection, is limited. 2. Here, we apply a multi-level framework to partition effects of great tit fledging mass on first-year survival to hierarchical levels and quantify their ecological dependence using a data set spanning 51 years. 3. We show that estimates of the effect of fledging mass...

Data from: Automated stitching of microtubule centerlines across serial electron tomograms

Britta Weber, Erin M. Tranfield, Johanna L. Höög, Daniel Baum, Claude Antony, Tony Hyman, Jean-Marc Verbavatz & Steffen Prohaska
Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed...

Data from: Spiders spinning electrically charged nano-fibres

Katrin Kronenberger & Fritz Vollrath
Most spider threads are on the micrometre and sub-micrometre scale. Yet, there are some spiders that spin true nano-scale fibres such as the cribellate orb spider, Uloborus plumipes. Here, we analyse the highly specialized capture silk-spinning system of this spider and compare it with the silk extrusion systems of the more standard spider dragline threads. The cribellar silk extrusion system consists of tiny, morphologically basic glands each terminating through exceptionally long and narrow ducts in...

Data from: Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail

Deanna M. Soper, Kayla C. King, Daniela Vergara & Curt M. Lively
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilising, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of...

Data from: Improving the efficacy of web-based educational outreach in ecology

Gregory R. Goldsmith, Andrew D. Fulton, Colin D. Witherill & Javier F. Espeleta
Scientists are increasingly engaging the web to provide formal and informal science education opportunities. Despite the prolific growth of web-based resources, systematic evaluation and assessment of their efficacy remains limited. We used clickstream analytics, a widely available method for tracking website visitors and their behavior, to evaluate >60,000 visits over three years to an educational website focused on ecology. Visits originating from search engine queries were a small proportion of the traffic, suggesting the need...

Data from: Intermittent breeding and constraints on litter size: consequences for effective population size per generation (Ne) and per reproductive cycle (Nb)

Robin S. Waples & Tiago Antao
In iteroparous species, it is easier to estimate Nb = effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle than Ne = effective population size per generation. Nb can be used as a proxy for Ne and also can provide crucial insights into eco-evolutionary processes that occur during reproduction. We used analytical and numerical methods to evaluate effects of intermittent breeding and litter/clutch size on inbreeding Nb and Ne. Fixed or random litter sizes ≥ 3...

Data from: Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles

Roger B. J. Benson, Rachel A. Frigot, Anjali Goswami, Brian Andres & Richard J. Butler
The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope’s rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope’s rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain....

Data from: Cryptic ecology among host generalist Campylobacter jejuni in domestic animals

Samuel K. Sheppard, Lu Cheng, Guillaume Méric, Caroline P. A. De Haan, Ann-Katrin Llarena, Pekka Marttinen, Ana Vidal, Anne Ridley, Felicity Clifton-Hadley, Thomas R. Connor, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken Forbes, Frances M. Colles, Keith A. Jolley, Stephen D. Bentley, Martin C. J. Maiden, Marja-Liisa Hänninen, Julian Parkhill, William P. Hanage & Jukka Corander
Homologous recombination between bacterial strains is theoretically capable of preventing the separation of daughter clusters, and producing cohesive clouds of genotypes in sequence space. However, numerous barriers to recombination are known. Barriers may be essential such as adaptive incompatibility, or ecological, which is associated with the opportunities for recombination in the natural habitat. Campylobacter jejuni is a gut colonizer of numerous animal species and a major human enteric pathogen. We demonstrate that the two major...

Registration Year

  • 2014
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Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    60
  • University of Groningen
    4
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of St Andrews
    3
  • Yale University
    3
  • Harvard University
    3
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of Helsinki
    3
  • Imperial College London
    3
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    3