60 Works

Data from: Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail

Deanna M. Soper, Kayla C. King, Daniela Vergara & Curt M. Lively
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilising, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of...

Data from: Improving the efficacy of web-based educational outreach in ecology

Gregory R. Goldsmith, Andrew D. Fulton, Colin D. Witherill & Javier F. Espeleta
Scientists are increasingly engaging the web to provide formal and informal science education opportunities. Despite the prolific growth of web-based resources, systematic evaluation and assessment of their efficacy remains limited. We used clickstream analytics, a widely available method for tracking website visitors and their behavior, to evaluate >60,000 visits over three years to an educational website focused on ecology. Visits originating from search engine queries were a small proportion of the traffic, suggesting the need...

Data from: Intermittent breeding and constraints on litter size: consequences for effective population size per generation (Ne) and per reproductive cycle (Nb)

Robin S. Waples & Tiago Antao
In iteroparous species, it is easier to estimate Nb = effective number of breeders in one reproductive cycle than Ne = effective population size per generation. Nb can be used as a proxy for Ne and also can provide crucial insights into eco-evolutionary processes that occur during reproduction. We used analytical and numerical methods to evaluate effects of intermittent breeding and litter/clutch size on inbreeding Nb and Ne. Fixed or random litter sizes ≥ 3...

Data from: Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles

Roger B. J. Benson, Rachel A. Frigot, Anjali Goswami, Brian Andres & Richard J. Butler
The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope’s rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope’s rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain....

Data from: Cryptic ecology among host generalist Campylobacter jejuni in domestic animals

Samuel K. Sheppard, Lu Cheng, Guillaume Méric, Caroline P. A. De Haan, Ann-Katrin Llarena, Pekka Marttinen, Ana Vidal, Anne Ridley, Felicity Clifton-Hadley, Thomas R. Connor, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken Forbes, Frances M. Colles, Keith A. Jolley, Stephen D. Bentley, Martin C. J. Maiden, Marja-Liisa Hänninen, Julian Parkhill, William P. Hanage & Jukka Corander
Homologous recombination between bacterial strains is theoretically capable of preventing the separation of daughter clusters, and producing cohesive clouds of genotypes in sequence space. However, numerous barriers to recombination are known. Barriers may be essential such as adaptive incompatibility, or ecological, which is associated with the opportunities for recombination in the natural habitat. Campylobacter jejuni is a gut colonizer of numerous animal species and a major human enteric pathogen. We demonstrate that the two major...

Data from: Are ant supercolonies crucibles of a new major transition in evolution?

Patrick Kennedy, Tobias Uller & Heikki Helanterä
The biological hierarchy of genes, cells, organisms and societies is a fundamental reality in the living world. This hierarchy of entities did not arise ex nihilo at the origin of life, but rather has been serially generated by a succession of critical events known as ‘evolutionary transitions in individuality’ (ETIs). Given the sequential nature of ETIs, it is natural to look for candidates to form the next hierarchical tier. We analyse claims that these candidates...

Data from: Changes in host-parasitoid food web structure with elevation

Sarah C. Maunsell, Roger L. Kitching, Chris J. Burwell & Rebecca J. Morris
Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. While many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation may lead to changes in food web structure. We investigated how the quantitative structure of a herbivore-parasitoid food web changes with elevation in Australian subtropical...

Data from: Laparoscopic assistance for primary transanal pull-through in Hirschsprung’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

David Thomson, Benjamin Allin, Anna-May Long, Timothy Bradnock, Gregor Walker & Marian Knight
Objective: To compare outcomes following totally transanal endorectal pull-through (TTERPT) versus pull-through with any form of laparoscopic assistance (LAPT) for infants with uncomplicated Hirschsprung's disease. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting: Five hospitals with a paediatric surgical service. Participants: 405 infants with uncomplicated Hirschsprung's disease. Interventions: TTERPT versus LAPT. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Primary outcomes: mortality, postoperative enterocolitis, faecal incontinence, constipation, unplanned laparotomy or stoma formation, and injury to abdominal viscera. Secondary outcomes: Haemorrhage...

Data from: Ants show a leftward turning bias when exploring unknown nest sites

Edmund R. Hunt, Thomas O'Shea-Wheller, Gregory F. Albery, Tamsyn H. Bridger, Mike Gumn & Nigel R. Franks
Behavioural lateralization in invertebrates is an important field of study because it may provide insights into the early origins of lateralization seen in a diversity of organisms. Here, we present evidence for a leftward turning bias in Temnothorax albipennis ants exploring nest cavities and in branching mazes, where the bias is initially obscured by thigmotaxis (wall-following) behaviour. Forward travel with a consistent turning bias in either direction is an effective nest exploration method, and a...

Data from: Global distribution maps of the Leishmaniases

David M. Pigott, Samir Bhatt, Nick Golding, Kirsten A. Duda, Katherine E. Battle, Oliver J. Brady, Jane P. Messina, Yves Balard, Patrick Bastien, Francine Pratlong, John S. Brownstein, Clark C Freifeld, Sumiko R. Mekaru, Peter W. Gething, Dylan B. George, Monica F. Myers, Richard Reithinger & Simon I. Hay
The leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that have a broad global distribution throughout much of the Americas, Africa and Asia. Despite representing a significant public health burden, our understanding of the global distribution of the leishmaniases remains vague, reliant upon expert opinion and limited to poor spatial resolution. A global assessment of the consensus of evidence for leishmaniasis was performed at a sub-national level by aggregating information from a variety of sources. A database of records...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

High-resolution hydraulic parameter maps for surface soils in tropical South America

T. Marthews, C.A. Quesada, D.R. Galbraith, Y. Malhi, C.E. Mullins, M.G. Hodnett & I. Dharssi
Spatial data files holding gridded parameter maps of surface soil hydraulic parameters derived from a selection of pedotransfer functions. Modern land surface model simulations capture soil profile water movement through the use of soil hydraulics sub-models, but good hydraulic parameterisations are often lacking - especially in the tropics - and it is this lack that we fill here in the context of South America. Optimal hydraulic parameter values are given for the Brooks and Corey,...

High-resolution global topographic index values

T.R. Marthews, S.J. Dadson, B. Lehner, S. Abele & N. Gedney
The topographic index is a hydrological quantity describing the propensity of the soil at landscape points to become saturated with water as a result of topographic position (i.e. not accounting for other factors such as climate that also affect soil moisture but are accounted for separately). Modern land surface models require a characterisation of the land surface hydrological regime and this parameter allows the use of the TOPMODEL hydrological model to achieve this .This Geographic...

Data from: Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange, and distinct demographic histories

Mark J. Statham, Zhenghuan Wang, Carl D. Soulsbury, Jan Janecka, Benjamin N. Sacks, Keith B. Aubry, Oliver Berry, Ceiridwen J. Edwards & James Murdoch
Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin...

Data from: Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Hannah L. Dugdale, Chris Newman, Terry Burke & David W. Macdonald
Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e., recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test if MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual...

Data from: The genetic basis of the fitness costs of antimicrobial resistance: a meta-analysis approach

Tom Vogwill & R. Craig MacLean
The evolution of antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost, expressed in terms of reduced competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics. This cost plays a key role in the dynamics of resistance by generating selection against resistance when bacteria encounter an antibiotic-free environment. Previous work has shown that the cost of resistance is highly variable, but the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Here, we use a meta-analysis of the published resistance literature to determine how...

Data from: Virtual reconstruction of endocast anatomy in early ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

Sam Giles & Matt Friedman
Cranial endocasts, infillings of the skeletal void that once contained the brain and associated soft tissues, represent detailed anatomical structures that have long been the focus of paleontological investigation. We applied computed tomographics (CTs) in order to generate endocast models for the Paleozoic actinopterygian fishes Mimipiscis and Kentuckia, which serve as key representatives of anatomically primitive, early ray fins in analyses of early vertebrate relationships. The resultant endocranial models generally corroborate existing accounts of endocranial...

Data from: A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E. G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David J. Legg, Sarah Joomun & D. Legg
A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted...

Data from: An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria

R. Fredrik Inglis, Stuart West & Angus Buckling
Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that...

Data from: The importance of microhabitat for biodiversity sampling

Zia Mehrabi, Eleanor M. Slade, Angel Solis & Darren J. Mann
Responses to microhabitat are often neglected when ecologists sample animal indicator groups. Microhabitats may be particularly influential in non-passive biodiversity sampling methods, such as baited traps or light traps, and for certain taxonomic groups which respond to fine scale environmental variation, such as insects. Here we test the effects of microhabitat on measures of species diversity, guild structure and biomass of dung beetles, a widely used ecological indicator taxon. We demonstrate that choice of trap...

Data from: Linking system-wide impacts of RNA polymerase mutations to the fitness cost of rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Qin Qi, Gail M. Preston & R. Craig MacLean
Fitness costs play a key role in the evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance in bacteria by generating selection against resistance in the absence of antibiotics. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance is well understood, the precise molecular mechanisms linking the genetic basis of resistance to its fitness cost remain poorly characterized. Here, we examine how the system-wide impacts of mutations in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene rpoB shape the fitness cost of rifampin resistance...

Data from: Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics

Christina C. Vinson, Milton Kanashiro, Stephen A. Harris & Dave H. Boshier
Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species’ life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by...

Data from: Dispersal and the transition to sympatry in vertebrates

Alex L. Pigot & Joseph A. Tobias
Under allopatric speciation models, a key step in the build-up of species richness is population dispersal leading to the co-occurrence of previously geographically isolated forms. Despite its central importance for community assembly, the extent to which the transition from spatial segregation (allopatry or parapatry) to coexistence (sympatry) is a predictable process, or alternatively one governed by chance and the vagaries of biogeographic history, remains poorly understood. Here, we use estimated divergence times and current patterns...

Data from: strap: an R package for plotting phylogenies against stratigraphy and assessing their stratigraphic congruence

Mark A. Bell & Graeme T. Lloyd
strap (Stratigraphic Tree Analysis for Palaeontology) is a new package for the freely available statistical programming language R designed to perform three main tasks: (1) to time-scale phylogenies of fossil taxa; (2) to plot those time-scaled trees against stratigraphy; and (3) to assess congruence between phylogenies and stratigraphy. Time-scaling is performed with the DatePhylo function, with three approaches offered. Plotting trees against a choice of five different geological time scaless is possible using the geoscalePhylo...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • University of Groningen
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of St Andrews
  • Yale University
  • Harvard University
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Helsinki
  • Imperial College London
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich