60 Works

Data from: Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution

Ben Ashby, Sunetra Gupta & Angus Buckling
Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range,...

Data from: Phylogenetic informativeness reconciles ray-finned fish molecular divergence times

Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Matt Friedman & Thomas J. Near
Discordance among individual molecular age estimates, or between molecular age estimates and the fossil record, is observed in many clades across the Tree of Life. This discordance is attributed to a variety of variables including calibration age uncertainty, calibration placement, nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneity, or the specified molecular clock model. However, the impact of changes in phylogenetic informativeness of individual genes over time on phylogenetic inferences is rarely analyzed. Using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data...

Data from: Developmental stress predicts social network position

Neeltje J. Boogert, Damien R. Farine & Karen A. Spencer
The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon...

Data from: The relative roles of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation in shaping syllable repertoires of island bird populations change with time since colonization

Dominique A. Potvin & Sonya M. Clegg
In birds, song divergence often precedes and facilitates divergence of other traits. We assessed the relative roles of cultural drift, innovation and acoustic adaptation in divergence of island bird dialects, using silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). In recently colonized populations, syllable diversity was not significantly lower than source populations, shared syllables between populations decreased with increasing number of founder events and dialect variation displayed contributions from both habitat features and drift. The breadth of multivariate space occupied...

Data from: Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons

Andrea Flack, Tim Guilford & Dora Biro
The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons...

Data from: Cooperative personalities and social niche specialisation in female meerkats

Alecia J. Carter, Sinead English & Tim H. Clutton-Brock
The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that group-living animals should specialize in particular social roles to avoid social conflict, resulting in alternative life-history strategies for different roles. Social niche specialization, coupled with role-specific life-history trade-offs, should thus generate between-individual differences in behaviour that persist through time, or distinct personalities, as individuals specialize in particular nonoverlapping social roles. We tested for support for the social niche specialization hypothesis in cooperative personality traits in wild female meerkats...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg & Matt Friedman
The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled...

Data from: Parasitic castration promotes coevolutionary cycling but also imposes a cost on sex

Ben Ashby & Sunetra Gupta
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites is thought to drive a range of biological phenomena including the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Of particular interest are conditions that produce persistent fluctuations in the frequencies of genes governing host-parasite specificity (coevolutionary cycling), as sex may be more beneficial than asexual reproduction in a constantly changing environment. While many studies have shown that coevolutionary cycling can lead to the maintenance of sex, the effects of ecological feedbacks on...

Data from: Sex drives intra-cellular conflict in yeast

Ellie Harrison, R. Craig MacLean, Vassiliki Koufopanou & Austin Burt
Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic...

Data from: Social transmission of tool use and tool manufacture in Goffin cockatoos (Cacatua goffini)

Alice M. I. Auersperg, Auguste M. I. Von Bayern, Stefan Weber, Anna Szabadvari, Thomas Bugnyar & Alex Kacelnik
Tool use can be inherited, or acquired as an individual innovation or by social transmission. Having previously reported individual innovative tool use and manufacture by a Goffin cockatoo, we used the innovator (Figaro, a male) as a demonstrator to investigate social transmission. Twelve Goffins saw either demonstrations by Figaro, or ‘ghost’ controls where tools and/or food were manipulated using magnets. Subjects observing demonstrations showed greater tool-related performance than ghost controls, with all three males in...

Registration Year

  • 2014
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    60

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    60
  • University of Groningen
    4
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of St Andrews
    3
  • Yale University
    3
  • Harvard University
    3
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of Helsinki
    3
  • Imperial College London
    3
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    3