90 Works

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Who escapes detection? Quantifying the causes and consequences of sampling biases in a long-term field study

Lindall R. Kidd, Ben C. Sheldon, Emily G. Simmonds & Ella F. Cole
Inferences drawn from long-term field studies are vulnerable to biases in observability of different classes of individuals, which may lead to biases in the estimates of selection, or fitness. Population surveys that monitor breeding individuals can introduce such biases by not identifying individuals that fail early in their reproductive attempts. Here, we quantify how the standard protocol for detecting breeding females introduces bias in a long-term population study of the great tit, Parus major. We...

Data from: Partner choice creates fairness in humans

Stéphane Debove, Jean-Baptiste André, Nicolas Baumard & J.-B. Andre
Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that...

Data from: Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage

Zia Mehrabi, Owen T. Lewis & Thomas Bell
Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and...

Data from: Concurrent co-evolution of intra-organismal cheaters and resisters

Samuel Levin, Debra Brock, David Queller, Joan Strassmann, S. R. Levin, D. A. Brock, D. C. Queller & J. E. Strassmann
The evolution of multicellularity is a major transition that is not yet fully understood. Specifically, we do not know if there are any mechanisms by which multicellularity can be maintained without a single cell bottleneck or other relatedness enhancing mechanisms. Under low relatedness, cheaters can evolve that benefit from the altruistic behaviour of others without themselves sacrificing. If these are obligate cheaters, incapable of co-operating, their spread can lead to the demise of multicellularity. One...

Data from: Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

Antica Culina, Hinde A. Camilla, Ben C. Sheldon & Camilla A. Hinde
Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unexplored. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred,. Using detailed...

Data from: Multicellular group formation in response to predators in the alga Chlorella vulgaris

Roberta M. Fisher, Tom Bell & Stuart A. West
A key step in the evolution of multicellular organisms is the formation of cooperative multicellular groups. It has been suggested that predation pressure may promote multicellular group formation in some algae and bacteria, with cells forming groups to lower their chance of being eaten. We use the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the protist Tetrahymena thermophila to test whether predation pressure can initiate the formation of colonies. We found that: (1) either predators or just...

Data from: Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning

Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C. Froemke, Per Jesper Sjöström & Mark C. W. Van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace...

Data from: Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov & Roger B. J. Benson
During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid...

Data from: No evidence for MHC class I based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Reinder Radersma, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes,...

Data from: Temporal transcriptomics suggest that twin-peaking genes reset the clock

William G. Pembroke, Arran Babbs, Kay E. Davies, Chris P. Ponting & Peter L. Oliver
The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives daily rhythmic behavior and physiology, yet a detailed understanding of its coordinated transcriptional programmes is lacking. To reveal the finer details of circadian variation in the mammalian SCN transcriptome we combined laser-capture microdissection and RNA-seq over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. We show that 7-times more genes exhibited a classic sinusoidal expression signature than previously observed in the SCN. Another group of 766 genes unexpectedly peaked twice, near both the...

Data from: Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies

Isobel Watts, Benjamin Pettit, Máté Nagy, Theresa Burt De Perera & Dora Biro
In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed...

Data from: Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds

Alex L. Pigot, Christopher H. Trisos & Joseph A. Tobias
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardised information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture...

Data from: Spermatozoa scattering by a microchannel feature: an elastohydrodynamic model

Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson, Hermes Gadêlha, David J. Smith & H. Gadelha
Sperm traverse their microenvironment through viscous fluid by propagating flagellar waves; the waveform emerges as a consequence of elastic structure, internal active moments and low Reynolds number fluid dynamics. Engineered microchannels have recently been proposed as a method of sorting and manipulating motile cells; the interaction of cells with these artificial environments therefore warrants investigation. A numerical method is presented for large-amplitude elastohydrodynamic interaction of active swimmers with domain features. This method is employed to...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Data from: Connectivity in the cold: the comparative population genetics of vent-endemic fauna in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean.

Christopher N. Roterman, Jon T. Copley, Katrin T. Linse, Paul A. Tyler & Alex D. Rogers
We report the first comparative population genetics study for vent fauna in the Southern Ocean using cytochrome C oxidase I and microsatellite markers. Three species are examined: the kiwaid squat lobster, Kiwa tyleri, the peltospirid gastropod Gigantopelta chessoia and a lepetodrilid limpet, Lepetodrilus sp. collected from vent fields 440 km apart on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) and from the Kemp Caldera on the South Sandwich Island Arc, ~95 km eastwards. We report no differentiation...

Data from: The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behavior in gains and losses contexts

Jim A. C. Everett, Nadira S. Faber & Molly J. Crockett
To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members’ outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus...

Data from: High-throughput genotyping of Anopheles mosquitoes using intact legs by Agena Biosciences iPLEX

Danica Joy Fabrigar, Christina Hubbart, Alistair Miles & Kirk Rockett
Recent developments in genotyping technologies coupled with the growing desire to characterise genome variation in Anopheles populations opens the opportunity to develop more effective genotyping strategies for high-throughput screening. A major bottleneck of this goal is nucleic acid extraction. Here, we examined the feasibility of using intact portions of a mosquito's leg as sources of template DNA for whole genome amplification (WGA) by Primer-Extension Pre-amplification. We used the Agena Biosciences MassARRAY platform (formerly Sequenom) to...

Data from: Mesoclosures – increasing realism in mesocosm studies of ecosystem functioning

Saija Lähteenmäki, Eleanor M. Slade, Bess Hardwick, Gustavo Schiffler, Júlio Louzada, Jos Barlow & Tomas Roslin
1. Experimental studies linking community composition to functioning are typically confined to small and closed micro- or mesocosms. Such restricted conditions may affect both species’ biology and their environment. Yet, targeting simple features in the behaviour of species may circumvent these constraints. Focusing on ecological functions provided by dung beetles, we test whether large, open-top cages – MESOCLOSURES – will intercept the flight trajectories of beetles, thereby allowing manipulation of local community composition. 2. MESOCLOSURES...

Data from: The potential for fungal biopesticides to reduce malaria transmission under diverse environmental conditions

Rebecca L. Heinig, Krijn P. Paaijmans, Penelope A. Hancock & Matthew B. Thomas
1.The effectiveness of conventional malaria vector control is being threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One promising alternative to chemicals is the use of naturally-occurring insect-killing fungi. Numerous laboratory studies have shown that isolates of fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana can infect and kill adult mosquitoes, including those resistant to chemical insecticides. 2. Unlike chemical insecticides, fungi may take up to a week or more to kill mosquitoes following exposure. This slow kill...

Data from: Horizontal transfer of facultative endosymbionts is limited by host relatedness

Piotr Lukasik, Huifang Guo, Margriet Van Asch, Lee M. Henry, H. Charles J. Godfray & Julia Ferrari
Heritable microbial symbionts can have important effects on many aspects of their hosts’ biology. Acquisition of a novel symbiont strain can provide fitness benefits to the host, with significant ecological and evolutionary consequences. We measured barriers to horizontal transmission by artificially transferring facultative symbionts from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and five other aphid species into two clonal genotypes of S. avenae. We found the symbiont Hamiltonella defensa establishes infections more easily following a transfer...

Data from: Random versus game trail-based camera trap placement strategy for monitoring terrestrial mammal communities

Jeremy J. Cusack, Amy J. Dickman, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Chris Carbone, David W. Macdonald & Tim Coulson
Camera trap surveys exclusively targeting features of the landscape that increase the probability of photographing one or several focal species are commonly used to draw inferences on the richness, composition and structure of entire mammal communities. However, these studies ignore expected biases in species detection arising from sampling only a limited set of potential habitat features. In this study, we test the influence of camera trap placement strategy on community-level inferences by carrying out two...

Data from: An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes

Sam Giles, Laurent Darras, Gaël Clément, Alain Blieck & Matt Friedman
Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) ‘Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France....

Data from: A new Magneto-Inductive tracking technique to uncover subterranean activity: what do animals do underground?

Michael J. Noonan, Andrew Markham, Chris Newman, Niki Trigoni, Christina D. Buesching, Stephen A. Ellwood & David W. Macdonald
1. Despite the importance of the subterranean ecotope, knowledge of underground movement and behaviour has been extremely limited. Previous technologies have relied upon techniques with very low spatial or temporal resolution, such as VHF telemetry. Rather incongruously therefore, relatively simple underground activity regimes have often been assumed, with insufficient attention to the ecological importance of burrow use. 2. We test the capability of Magneto-Inductive (MI) tracking, recording underground movement within a European badger sett over...

Data from: Quantifying network resilience: comparison before and after a major perturbation shows strengths and limitations of network metrics

Christine Moore, Graeme S. Cumming & John Grewar
1. The resilience literature often assumes that social–ecological reorganization will result in either the removal of deficient system elements (components, interactions) or social learning. Major perturbations are expected to lead to either adaptation or, if accompanied by a regime shift, transformation. This has led to a conflation of the concepts of resilience and adaptation, which has in turn made it difficult to quantitatively distinguish between cases in which a system returned to a previous state,...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    90

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    90

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    90
  • Imperial College London
    6
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2