90 Works

Data from: MHC class II assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more...

Data from: A framework for detecting natural selection on traits above the species level

Kenneth B. Hoehn, Paul G. Harnik & V. Louise Roth
To what extent can natural selection act on groupings above the species level? Despite extensive theoretical discussion and growing practical concerns over increased rates of global ecological turnover, the question has largely evaded empirical resolution. A flexible and robust hypothesis-testing framework for detecting the phenomenon could facilitate significant progress in resolving this issue. We introduce a permutation-based approach, implemented in the R package perspectev, which provides an explicit test of whether empirical patterns of correlation...

Data from: Rapid host switching in generalist Campylobacter strains erodes the signal for tracing human infections

Bethany L. Dearlove, Alison J. Cody, Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Daniel J. Wilson & Samuel K. Sheppard
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the biggest causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, with human infections typically arising from zoonotic transmission associated with infected meat. Because Campylobacter is not thought to survive well outside the gut, host-associated populations are genetically isolated to varying degrees. Therefore, the likely origin of most strains can be determined by host-associated variation in the genome. This is instructive for characterizing the source of human infection. However, some...

Data from: Reactive responses of zebras to lion encounters shape their predator-prey space game at large scale

Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Hervé Fritz, Marion Valeix, Edwin T. Makuwe & Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
The predator–prey space game and the costs associated with risk effects are affected by prey 1) proactive adjustments (when prey modify their behaviour in response to an a priori assessment of the risk level) and 2) reactive adjustments (when prey have detected an immediate threat). Proactive adjustments are generally well-studied, whereas the frequency, strength and duration of reactive adjustments remain largely unknown. We studied the space use and habitat selection of GPS-collared zebras Equus quagga...

Data from: A life-cycle model of human social groups produces a u-shaped distribution in group size

Gul Deniz Salali, Harvey Whitehouse & Michael E. Hochberg
One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic...

Data from: The SOS response increases bacterial fitness, but not evolvability, under a sublethal dose of antibiotic

Clara Torres-Barceló, Mila Kojadinovic, Richard Moxon & Roderick Craig MacLean
Exposure to antibiotics induces the expression of mutagenic bacterial stress–response pathways, but the evolutionary benefits of these responses remain unclear. One possibility is that stress–response pathways provide a short-term advantage by protecting bacteria against the toxic effects of antibiotics. Second, it is possible that stress-induced mutagenesis provides a long-term advantage by accelerating the evolution of resistance. Here, we directly measure the contribution of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa SOS pathway to bacterial fitness and evolvability in the...

Data from: Asymmetric visual input and route recapitulation in homing pigeons

, Dora Biro, Tim Guilford, Anna Gagliardo, Alex Kacelnik & Antone Martinho
Pigeons (Columba livia) display reliable homing behaviour, but their homing routes from familiar release points are individually idiosyncratic and tightly recapitulated, suggesting that learning plays a role in route establishment. In light of the fact that routes are learned, and that both ascending and descending visual pathways share visual inputs from each eye asymmetrically to the brain hemispheres, we investigated how information from each eye contributes to route establishment, and how information input is shared...

Data from: Persistence of distinctive morphotypes in the native range of the CITES-listed Aldabra giant tortoise

Lindsay A. Turnbull, Arpat Ozgul, Wilna Accouche, Richard Baxter, Lindsay ChongSeng, Jock C. Currie, Naomi Doak, Dennis Hansen, Pierre M. Pistorius, Heather Richards, Janske Van De Crommenacker, Rainer Von Brandis, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley, Nancy Bunbury, Rich Baxter & Dennis M. Hansen
Understanding the extent of morphological variation in the wild population of Aldabra giant tortoises is important for conservation, as morphological variation in captive populations has been interpreted as evidence for lingering genes from extinct tortoise lineages. If true, this could impact reintroduction programmes in the region. The population of giant tortoises on Aldabra Atoll is subdivided and distributed around several islands. Although pronounced morphological variation was recorded in the late 1960s, it was thought to...

Data from: Selection for territory acquisition is modulated by social network structure in a wild songbird

Damien R. Farine & Ben C. Sheldon
The social environment may be a key mediator of selection that operates on animals. In many cases, individuals may experience selection not only as a function of their phenotype, but also as a function of the interaction between their phenotype and the phenotypes of the conspecifics they associate with. For example, when animals settle after dispersal, individuals may benefit from arriving early, but, in many cases, these benefits will be affected by the arrival times...

Data from: Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo

Adeshina I. Adekunle, Mykola Pinkevych, Rose McGready, Christine Luxemburger, Lisa J. White, Francois Nosten, Deborah Cromer & Miles P. Davenport
The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for...

Data from: Is there still a French eating model? A taxonomy of eating behaviors in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area in 2010

Julien Riou, Thomas Lefevre, Isabelle Parizot, Anne Lhuissier & Pierre Chauvin
Background: Meal times in France still represent an important moment in everyday life. The model of three rigorously synchronized meals is still followed by a majority of people, while meal frequencies have flattened in other European or North-American countries. We aimed to examine the “French model” of eating behavior by identifying and characterizing distinct meal patterns. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the SIRS cohort, a representative survey of the adult population in the...

Data from: Taxonomy and phylogeny can yield comparable results in comparative palaeontological analyses

Laura C. Soul & Matt Friedman
Many extinct taxa with extensive fossil records and mature taxonomic classifications have not yet been the subject of formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we test whether the taxonomies available for such groups represent useful (i.e., non-misleading) substitutes for trees derived from matrix-based phylogenetic analyses. We collected data for 52 animal clades that included fossil representatives, and for which a recent cladogram and pre-cladistic taxonomy were available. We quantified the difference between the time-scaled phylogenies implied by...

Data from: The landscape of realized homologous recombination in pathogenic bacteria

Koji Yahara, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Ichizo Kobayashi, Martin C. J. Maiden, Samuel K. Sheppard & Daniel Falush
Recombination enhances the adaptive potential of organisms by allowing genetic variants to be tested on multiple genomic backgrounds. Its distribution in the genome can provide insight into the evolutionary forces that underlie traits such as the emergence of pathogenicity. Here we examined landscapes of realized homologous recombination of 500 genomes from ten bacterial species, and found all species have ‘hot’ regions with elevated rates relative to the genome average. We examined the size, gene content...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: A lower jaw of Palaeoxonodon from the Middle Jurassic of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, sheds new light on the diversity of British stem therians

Roger A. Close, Brian M. Davis, Stig Walsh, Andrzej S. Wolniewicz, Matt Friedman & Roger B. J. Benson
The Middle Jurassic was a key interval of mammalian evolutionary history that witnessed the diversification of the therian stem-group. Great Britain has yielded a significant record of mammalian fossils from this interval, represented by numerous isolated jaws and teeth from the Bathonian of Oxfordshire and the Isle of Skye. This record captures a key period in early cladotherian evolution, with amphitheriids, peramurans and “stem zatherians” displaying intermediate talonid morphologies that document the evolutionary assembly of...

Data from: Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter

Frances Colles, Russell Cain, Thomas Nickson, Adrian Smith, Steve Roberts, Martin Maiden, Daniel Lunn, M Dawkins, Russell J. Cain, Frances M. Colles, Marian Stamp Dawkins, Martin C. J. Maiden, Stephen J. Roberts & Adrian L. Smith
Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyze faecal samples with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live...

Data from: Rapid evolution of microbe-mediated protection against pathogens in a worm host

Kayla C. King, Michael A. Brockhurst, Olga Vasieva, Steve Paterson, Alexander Betts, Suzanne A. Ford, Crystal L. Frost, Malcolm J. Horsburgh, Sam Haldenby & Gregory D. D. Hurst
Microbes can defend their host against virulent infections, but direct evidence for the adaptive origin of microbe-mediated protection is lacking. Using experimental evolution of a novel, tripartite interaction, we demonstrate that mildly pathogenic bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis) living in worms (Caenorhabditis elegans) rapidly evolved to defend their animal hosts against infection by a more virulent pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus), crossing the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Host protection evolved in all six, independently selected populations in response to within-host bacterial...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Near-stasis in the long-term diversification of Mesozoic tetrapods

Roger B. J. Benson, Richard J. Butler, John Alroy, Philip D. Mannion, Matthew T. Carrano & Graeme T. Lloyd
How did evolution generate the extraordinary diversity of vertebrates on land? Zero species are known prior to ~380 million years ago, and more than 30,000 are present today. An expansionist model suggests this was achieved by large and unbounded increases, leading to substantially greater diversity in the present than at any time in the geological past. This model contrasts starkly with empirical support for constrained diversification in marine animals, suggesting different macroevolutionary processes on land...

Data from: Intrauterine insemination: a UK survey on the adherence to NICE clinical guidelines by fertility clinics

Dongah Kim, Tim Child & Cynthia Farquhar
Objective: To evaluate the awareness and response of fertility clinics in the UK to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendation that intrauterine insemination (IUI) should not be offered routinely, in order to report on current practice in the UK. Design: Online questionnaire survey of fertility clinics in the UK regarding their current clinical practice of IUI, formal discussion of the guideline recommendations, and any alterations made since the recommendations. Setting:...

High-resolution global topographic index values

T.R. Marthews, S.J. Dadson, B. Lehner, S. Abele & N. Gedney
The topographic index is a hydrological quantity describing the propensity of the soil at landscape points to become saturated with water as a result of topographic position (i.e. not accounting for other factors such as climate that also affect soil moisture but are accounted for separately). Modern land surface models require a characterisation of the land surface hydrological regime and this parameter allows the use of the TOPMODEL hydrological model to achieve this .This Geographic...

Data from: The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Marianne E. Sinka, Kirsten A. Duda, Adrian Mylne, Freya M. Shearer, Oliver J. Brady, Janey P. Messina, Christopher M. Barker, Chester G. Moore, Roberta G. Carvalho, Giovanini E. Coelho, Wim Van Bortel, Guy Hendrickx, Francis Schaffner, G. R. William Wint, Iqbal R. F. Elyazar, Hwa-Jen Teng & Simon I. Hay
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN ANOTHER PUBLICATION. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked...

Data from: Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller & Lori Marino
The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced...

Data from: Endoskeletal structure in Cheirolepis (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii), an early ray-finned fish

Sam Giles, Michael I. Coates, Russell J. Garwood, Martin D. Brazeau, Robert Atwood, Zerina Johanson & Matt Friedman
As the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Middle to Late Devonian (Eifelian–Frasnian) Cheirolepis occupies a pivotal position in vertebrate phylogeny. Although the dermal skeleton of this taxon has been exhaustively described, very little of its endoskeleton is known, leaving questions of neurocranial and fin evolution in early ray-finned fishes unresolved. The model for early actinopterygian anatomy has instead been based largely on the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Mimipiscis, preserved in stunning detail from the...

Data from: Plant defenses against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

Dario Patricelli, Francesca Barbero, Andrea Occhipinti, Cinzia M. Bertea, Simona Bonelli, Luca P. Casacci, Simon A. Zebelo, Christoph Crocoll, Jonathan Gershenzon, Massimo E. Maffei, Jeremy A. Thomas & Emilio Balletto
Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore–host-plant and parasite–host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous–predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Edinburgh
  • McGill University
  • University of Zurich
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology