90 Works

Data from: Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds

Alex L. Pigot, Christopher H. Trisos & Joseph A. Tobias
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardised information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Data from: Partner choice creates fairness in humans

Stéphane Debove, Jean-Baptiste André, Nicolas Baumard & J.-B. Andre
Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that...

Data from: Who escapes detection? Quantifying the causes and consequences of sampling biases in a long-term field study

Lindall R. Kidd, Ben C. Sheldon, Emily G. Simmonds & Ella F. Cole
Inferences drawn from long-term field studies are vulnerable to biases in observability of different classes of individuals, which may lead to biases in the estimates of selection, or fitness. Population surveys that monitor breeding individuals can introduce such biases by not identifying individuals that fail early in their reproductive attempts. Here, we quantify how the standard protocol for detecting breeding females introduces bias in a long-term population study of the great tit, Parus major. We...

Data from: Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning

Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C. Froemke, Per Jesper Sjöström & Mark C. W. Van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace...

Data from: Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

Antica Culina, Hinde A. Camilla, Ben C. Sheldon & Camilla A. Hinde
Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unexplored. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred,. Using detailed...

Data from: Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage

Zia Mehrabi, Owen T. Lewis & Thomas Bell
Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and...

Data from: Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov & Roger B. J. Benson
During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid...

Data from: Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies

Isobel Watts, Benjamin Pettit, Máté Nagy, Theresa Burt De Perera & Dora Biro
In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed...

Data from: Spermatozoa scattering by a microchannel feature: an elastohydrodynamic model

Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson, Hermes Gadêlha, David J. Smith & H. Gadelha
Sperm traverse their microenvironment through viscous fluid by propagating flagellar waves; the waveform emerges as a consequence of elastic structure, internal active moments and low Reynolds number fluid dynamics. Engineered microchannels have recently been proposed as a method of sorting and manipulating motile cells; the interaction of cells with these artificial environments therefore warrants investigation. A numerical method is presented for large-amplitude elastohydrodynamic interaction of active swimmers with domain features. This method is employed to...

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Multicellular group formation in response to predators in the alga Chlorella vulgaris

Roberta M. Fisher, Tom Bell & Stuart A. West
A key step in the evolution of multicellular organisms is the formation of cooperative multicellular groups. It has been suggested that predation pressure may promote multicellular group formation in some algae and bacteria, with cells forming groups to lower their chance of being eaten. We use the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the protist Tetrahymena thermophila to test whether predation pressure can initiate the formation of colonies. We found that: (1) either predators or just...

Data from: Concurrent co-evolution of intra-organismal cheaters and resisters

Samuel Levin, Debra Brock, David Queller, Joan Strassmann, S. R. Levin, D. A. Brock, D. C. Queller & J. E. Strassmann
The evolution of multicellularity is a major transition that is not yet fully understood. Specifically, we do not know if there are any mechanisms by which multicellularity can be maintained without a single cell bottleneck or other relatedness enhancing mechanisms. Under low relatedness, cheaters can evolve that benefit from the altruistic behaviour of others without themselves sacrificing. If these are obligate cheaters, incapable of co-operating, their spread can lead to the demise of multicellularity. One...

Data from: No evidence for MHC class I based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Reinder Radersma, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes,...

Data from: Temporal transcriptomics suggest that twin-peaking genes reset the clock

William G. Pembroke, Arran Babbs, Kay E. Davies, Chris P. Ponting & Peter L. Oliver
The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives daily rhythmic behavior and physiology, yet a detailed understanding of its coordinated transcriptional programmes is lacking. To reveal the finer details of circadian variation in the mammalian SCN transcriptome we combined laser-capture microdissection and RNA-seq over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. We show that 7-times more genes exhibited a classic sinusoidal expression signature than previously observed in the SCN. Another group of 766 genes unexpectedly peaked twice, near both the...

Data from: Plant defenses against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

Dario Patricelli, Francesca Barbero, Andrea Occhipinti, Cinzia M. Bertea, Simona Bonelli, Luca P. Casacci, Simon A. Zebelo, Christoph Crocoll, Jonathan Gershenzon, Massimo E. Maffei, Jeremy A. Thomas & Emilio Balletto
Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore–host-plant and parasite–host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous–predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants...

Data from: Theoretical constraints on the precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating

Vincent J. Hare
Accurate and precise dating methods are of central importance to archaeology, palaeontology and earth science. This paper investigates the expected precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating, a recently proposed technique for fired clays. An expression for combined measurement uncertainty is presented, which takes into account all significant sources of experimental uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison. Combined measurement uncertainties of approximately 5% with respect to the age of the ceramic should be possible...

Data from: Adaptive responses to cool climate promotes persistence of a non-native lizard

Geoffrey M. While, Joseph Williamson, Graham Prescott, Terézia Horváthová, Belén Fresnillo, Nicholas J. Beeton, Ben Halliwell, Sozos Michaelides, Tobias Uller & T. Horvathova
Successful establishment and range expansion of non-native species often require rapid accommodation of novel environments. Here, we use common-garden experiments to demonstrate parallel adaptive evolutionary response to a cool climate in populations of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) introduced from southern Europe into England. Low soil temperatures in the introduced range delay hatching, which generates directional selection for a shorter incubation period. Non-native lizards from two separate lineages have responded to this selection by retaining their...

Data from: The Lyme disease pathogen has no effect on the survival of its rodent reservoir host

Maarten J. Voordouw, Shelly Lachish & Marc C. Dolan
Zoonotic pathogens that cause devastating morbidity and mortality in humans may be relatively harmless in their natural reservoir hosts. The tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease in humans but few studies have investigated whether this pathogen reduces the fitness of its reservoir hosts under natural conditions. We analyzed four years of capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data on a population of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, to test whether B. burgdorferi and its tick vector affect the survival...

Data from: The influence of nonrandom extra-pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

Josh A. Firth, Jarrod D. Hadfield, Anna W. Santure, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness amongst individuals through observation. However, extra-pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with...

Data from: Co-evolutionary dynamics between public good producers and cheats in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Rolf Kümmerli, Lorenzo A. Santorelli, Elisa Granato, Zoé Dumas, Akos Dobay, Ashleigh S. Griffin & Stuart A. West
The production of beneficial public goods is common in the microbial world, and so is cheating – the exploitation of public goods by non-producing mutants. Here, we examine co-evolutionary dynamics between cooperators and cheats and ask whether cooperators can evolve strategies to reduce the burden of exploitation, and whether cheats in turn can improve their exploitation abilities. We evolved cooperators of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, producing the shareable iron-scavenging siderophore pyoverdine, together with cheats, defective...

Data from: Interspecific social networks promote information transmission in wild songbirds

Damien R. Farine, Lucy M. Aplin, Ben C. Sheldon & William Hoppitt
Understanding the functional links between social structure and population processes is a central aim of evolutionary ecology. Multiple types of interactions can be represented by networks drawn for the same population, such as kinship, dominance or affiliative networks, but the relative importance of alternative networks in modulating population processes may not be clear. We illustrate this problem, and a solution, by developing a framework for testing the importance of different types of association in facilitating...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of avian social structure reveals segregation is carried over across contexts

Josh A. Firth & Ben C. Sheldon
Our current understanding of animal social networks is largely based on observations or experiments that do not directly manipulate associations between individuals. Consequently, evidence relating to the causal processes underlying such networks is limited. By imposing specified rules controlling individual access to feeding stations, we directly manipulated the foraging social network of a wild bird community, thus demonstrating how external factors can shape social structure. We show that experimentally imposed constraints were carried over into...

Data from: Cell shape and the microenvironment regulate nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in breast epithelial and tumor cells

Julia E. Sero, Heba Zuhair Sailem, Rico Chandra Ardy, Hannah Almuttaqi, Tongli Zhang & Chris Bakal
Although a great deal is known about the signaling events that promote nuclear translocation of NF‐κB, how cellular biophysics and the microenvironment might regulate the dynamics of this pathway is poorly understood. In this study, we used high‐content image analysis and Bayesian network modeling to ask whether cell shape and context features influence NF‐κB activation using the inherent variability present in unperturbed populations of breast tumor and non‐tumor cell lines. Cell–cell contact, cell and nuclear...

Data from: Endoskeletal structure in Cheirolepis (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii), an early ray-finned fish

Sam Giles, Michael I. Coates, Russell J. Garwood, Martin D. Brazeau, Robert Atwood, Zerina Johanson & Matt Friedman
As the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Middle to Late Devonian (Eifelian–Frasnian) Cheirolepis occupies a pivotal position in vertebrate phylogeny. Although the dermal skeleton of this taxon has been exhaustively described, very little of its endoskeleton is known, leaving questions of neurocranial and fin evolution in early ray-finned fishes unresolved. The model for early actinopterygian anatomy has instead been based largely on the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Mimipiscis, preserved in stunning detail from the...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    90

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    90

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    90
  • Imperial College London
    6
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2