88 Works

Data from: Predicting the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal adaptation to novel climates in Arabidopsis thaliana

Alexandre Fournier-Level, Emily O. Perry, Jonathan A. Wang, Peter T. Braun, Andrew Migneault, Martha D. Cooper, C. Jessica E. Metcalf & Johanna Schmitt
Anticipating the effect of climate change on plants requires understanding its evolutionary consequence on traits and genes in complex realistic environments. How seasonal variation has an impact on the dynamics of adaptation in natural populations remains unclear. We simulated adaptation to different climate change scenarios, grounding our analysis in experimental data and explicitly exploring seasonal variation. Seasonal variation dramatically affected the dynamics of adaptation: Marked seasonality led to genetic differentiation within the population to different...

Data from: Validating two-dimensional leadership models on three-dimensionally structured fish schools

Isobel Watts, Mate Nagy, Robert I. Holbrook, Dora Biro & Theresa Burt De Perera
Identifying leader-follower interactions is crucial for understanding how a group decides where or when to move, and how this information is transferred between members. Although many animal groups have a three-dimensional structure, previous studies investigating leader-follower interactions have often ignored vertical information. This raises the question whether commonly used two-dimensional leader-follower analyses can be used justifiably on groups that interact in three dimensions. To address this we quantified the individual movements of banded tetra fish...

Data from: Quantifying species contributions to ecosystem processes: a global assessment of functional trait and phylogenetic metrics across avian seed-dispersal networks

Alexander L. Pigot, Tom Bregman, Catherine Sheard, Benjamin Daly, Rampal S. Etienne & Joseph A. Tobias
Quantifying the role of biodiversity in ecosystems not only requires understanding the links between species and the ecological functions and services they provide, but also how these factors relate to measurable indices, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity. However, these relationships remain poorly understood, especially for heterotrophic organisms within complex ecological networks. Here, we assemble data on avian traits across a global sample of mutualistic plant–frugivore networks to critically assess how the functional roles...

Data from: Examining disease prevalence for species of conservation concern using non-invasive spatial capture-recapture techniques

Arthur B. Muneza, Daniel W. Linden, Robert A. Montgomery, Amy J. Dickman, Gary J. Roloff, David W. Macdonald & Julian T. Fennessy
1. Non-invasive techniques have long been used to estimate wildlife population abundance and density. However, recent technological breakthroughs have facilitated non-invasive estimation of the proportion of animal populations with certain diseases. Giraffes Giraffa camelopardalisare increasingly becoming recognized as a species of conservation concern with decreasing population trajectories across their range in Africa. 2. Diseases may be an important component impacting giraffe population declines, and the emerging ‘Giraffe Skin Disease’ (GSD), characterized by the appearance of...

Data from: Interacting networks of resistance, virulence and core machinery genes identified by genome-wide epistasis analysis

Marcin J. Skwark, Nicholas J. Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R. Harris, Stephen B. Beres, James M. Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, Erik Aurell & Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and...

Data from: Bias in phylogenetic measurements of extinction and a case study of end-Permian tetrapods

Laura C. Soul & Matt Friedman
Extinction risk in the modern world and extinction in the geological past are often linked to aspects of life history or other facets of biology that are phylogenetically conserved within clades. These links can result in phylogenetic clustering of extinction, a measurement comparable across different clades and time periods that can be made in the absence of detailed trait data. This phylogenetic approach is particularly suitable for vertebrate taxa, which often have fragmentary fossil records,...

Data from: The value of biodiversity for the functioning of tropical forests: insurance effects during the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment

Sean L. Tuck, Michael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Philippe Saner, Matteo Tanadini, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, H. Charles J. Godfray, Elia Godoong, Reuben Nilus, Robert C. Ong, Bernhard Schmid, Waidi Sinun, Jake L. Snaddon, Martijn Snoep, Hamzah Tangki, John Tay, Philip Ulok, Yap Sau Wai, Maja Weilenmann, Glen Reynolds & Andy Hector
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the ‘insurance hypothesis’ predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in...

Data from: Loss of genetic diversity and increased embryonic mortality in non-native lizard populations

Sozos N. Michaelides, Geoffrey M. While, Natalia Zajac, Fabien Aubret, Brittny Calsbeek, Roberto Sacchi, Marco A. L. Zuffi & Tobias Uller
Many populations are small and isolated with limited genetic variation and high risk of mating with close relatives. Inbreeding depression is suspected to contribute to extinction of wild populations, but the historical and demographic factors that contribute to reduced population viability are often difficult to tease apart. Replicated introduction events in non-native species can offer insights into this problem because they allow us to study how genetic variation and inbreeding depression are affected by demographic...

Data from: Tooth occlusal morphology in the durophagous marine reptiles, Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)

Stephanie B. Crofts, James M. Neenan, Torsten M. Scheyer & Adam P. Summers
Placodontia were a group of marine reptiles that lived in shallow nearshore environments during the Triassic. Based on tooth morphology it has been inferred that they were durophagous, but tooth morphology differs among species: placodontoid placodonts have teeth described as hemispherical, and the teeth of more highly nested taxa within the cyamodontoid placodonts have been described as flat. In contrast, the sister taxon to the placodonts, Palatodonta bleekeri, like many other marine reptiles, has tall...

Data from: Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

Ambroise G. Baker, Perry Cornelissen, Shonil Bhagwat, Fransciscus W. M. Vera, Katherine J. Willis & Shonil A. Bhagwat
The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter relationship has been used as an argument to support reintroductions of large herbivores onto many landscapes in order to increase vegetation heterogeneity and biodiversity through local-scale disturbance regimes. Most of the research examining...

Data from: Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs

Laurent A. F. Frantz
The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to ~4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (~14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in...

Data from: Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

Thomas Botterill-James, Ben Halliwell, Emily Cooper-Scott, Tobias Uller, Erik Wapstra & Geoffrey M. While
Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the...

Data from: Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster

Pau Carazo, Jared Green, Irem Sepil, Tommaso Pizzari & Stuart Wigby
Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in ‘unguarded’ heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex...

Data from: Pathways of information transmission amongst wild songbirds follow experimentally imposed changes in social foraging structure

Josh A. Firth, Ben C. Sheldon & Damien R. Farine
Animals regularly use information from others to shape their decisions. Yet, determining how changes in social structure affect information flow and social learning strategies has remained challenging. We manipulated the social structure of a large community of wild songbirds by controlling which individuals could feed together at automated feeding stations (selective feeders). We then provided novel ephemeral food patches freely accessible to all birds and recorded the spread of this new information. We demonstrate that...

Data from: Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

Tobin J. Hammer, Noah Fierer, Bess Hardwick, Asko Simojoki, Eleanor Slade, Juhani Taponen, Heidi Viljanen & Tomas Roslin
Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we...

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in local adaptation of a specialist insect herbivore to its long-lived host plant

Aino Kalske, Roosa Leimu, J.F. Scheepens, Pia Mutikainen & J. F. Scheepens
Local adaptation of interacting species to one another indicates geographically variable reciprocal selection. This process of adaptation is central in the organization and maintenance of genetic variation across populations. Given that the strength of selection and responses to it often vary in time and space, the strength of local adaptation should in theory vary between generations and among populations. However, such spatiotemporal variation has rarely been explicitly demonstrated in nature and local adaptation is commonly...

Data from: The relationship between poverty and healthcare seeking among patients hospitalized with acute febrile illnesses in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Michael Trent Herdman, Richard James Maude, , Hugh W. F. Kingston, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Rasheda Samad, Rezaul Karim, Arjen M. Dondorp &
Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0°C and symptoms of up to 14 days’ duration,...

Data from: Mosaicism in a new Eocene pufferfish highlights rapid morphological innovation near the origin of crown tetraodontiforms

Roger A. Close, Zerina Johanson, James C. Tyler, Richard C. Harrington & Matt Friedman
Tetraodontiformes (pufferfishes and kin) is a taxonomically and structurally diverse, widely-distributed clade of acanthomorphs, whose members often serve as models for genomics and, increasingly, macroevolutionary studies. Morphologically disparate Palaeogene fossils suggest considerable early experimentation, but these flattened specimens often preserve limited information. We present a three-dimensionally preserved beaked tetraodontiform from the early Eocene (c. 53 Ma) London Clay Formation, UK. Approximately coeval with the oldest crown tetraodontiforms, †Ctenoplectus williamsi gen. et sp. nov. presents an...

Data from: Dung beetle species interactions and multifunctionality are affected by an experimentally warmed climate

Eleanor M. Slade & Tomas Roslin
While substantial effort has been invested in modelling changes in species distribution with climate change, less attention has been given to how climate warming will affect interactions among co-occurring species, and the cascading functional consequences. In this study, realistic dung beetle communities were subjected to an experimental warming treatment and the net effect on the functions of dung decomposition (in terms of dung mass) and plant productivity (in terms of biomass production of ryegrass grown...

Data from: Energetic constraints on species coexistence in birds

Alexander L. Pigot, Joseph A. Tobias & Walter Jetz
The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence...

Data from: Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study

Annette L. Fayet, Robin Freeman, Akiko Shoji, Holly L. Kirk, Oliver Padget, Chris M. Perrins & Tim Guilford
Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a...

Data from: Pleiotropy and the low cost of individual traits promote cooperation

Sara Mitri & Kevin R. Foster
The evolution of cooperation is thought to be promoted by pleiotropy, whereby cooperative traits are co-regulated with traits that are important for personal fitness. However, this hypothesis faces a key challenge: what happens if mutation targets a cooperative trait specifically rather than the pleiotropic regulator? Here we explore this question with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperatively digests complex proteins using elastase. We empirically measure and theoretically model the fate of two mutants – one...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific RGRs

Christopher D. Philipson, Daisy H. Dent, Michael J. O’Brien, Juliette Chamagne, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Reuben Nilus, Sam Philips, Glen Reynolds, Philippe Saner, Andy Hector & Michael J. O'Brien
A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of...

Data from: The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S. Richardson, Stuart L. Wigby, Tom Pizzari, Cedric Kai Wei Tan, Stuart Wigby & Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    88

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    88

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    88
  • University of Zurich
    6
  • Imperial College London
    5
  • University of Washington
    4
  • University of Groningen
    4
  • University of Tasmania
    4
  • University of Southampton
    4
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • Lund University
    3