88 Works

Data from: Developmental environment effects on sexual selection in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

Juliano Morimoto, Tommaso Pizzari & Stuart Wigby
The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes - high (low) densities for small (large) adults - and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities....

Data from: The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S. Richardson, Stuart L. Wigby, Tom Pizzari, Cedric Kai Wei Tan, Stuart Wigby & Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated...

Data from: The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae)

Mark A Chapman, Simon J Hiscock & Dmitry A Filatov
Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily)....

Data from: A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda

François Blanquart, Mary Kate Grabowski, Joshua Herbeck, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Michael A. Eller, Merlin L. Robb, Ronald Gray, Godfrey Kigozi, Oliver Laeyendecker, Katrina A. Lythgoe, Gertrude Nakigozi, Thomas C. Quinn, Steven J. Reynolds, Maria J. Wawer & Christophe Fraser
Evolutionary theory hypothesizes that intermediate virulence maximizes pathogen fitness as a result of a trade-off between virulence and transmission, but empirical evidence remains scarce. We bridge this gap using data from a large and long-standing HIV-1 prospective cohort, in Uganda. We use an epidemiological-evolutionary model parameterised with this data to derive evolutionary predictions based on analysis and detailed individual-based simulations. We robustly predict stabilising selection towards a low level of virulence, and rapid attenuation of...

Data from: A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific RGRs

Christopher D. Philipson, Daisy H. Dent, Michael J. O’Brien, Juliette Chamagne, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Reuben Nilus, Sam Philips, Glen Reynolds, Philippe Saner, Andy Hector & Michael J. O'Brien
A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of...

Data from: Pleiotropy and the low cost of individual traits promote cooperation

Sara Mitri & Kevin R. Foster
The evolution of cooperation is thought to be promoted by pleiotropy, whereby cooperative traits are co-regulated with traits that are important for personal fitness. However, this hypothesis faces a key challenge: what happens if mutation targets a cooperative trait specifically rather than the pleiotropic regulator? Here we explore this question with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperatively digests complex proteins using elastase. We empirically measure and theoretically model the fate of two mutants – one...

Data from: Presence of a loner strain maintains cooperation and diversity in well-mixed bacterial communities

R. Fredrik Inglis, Jay M. Biernaskie, Andy Gardner & Rolf Kümmerli
Cooperation and diversity abound in nature despite cooperators risking exploitation from defectors and superior competitors displacing weaker ones. Understanding the persistence of cooperation and diversity is therefore a major problem for evolutionary ecology, especially in the context of well-mixed populations, where the potential for exploitation and displacement is greatest. Here, we demonstrate that a ‘loner effect’, described by economic game theorists, can maintain cooperation and diversity in real-world biological settings. We use mathematical models of...

Data from: Epistasis between antibiotic resistance mutations and genetic background shape the fitness effect of resistance across species of Pseudomonas

Tom Vogwill, Mila Kojadinovic & R. Craig MacLean
Antibiotic resistance often evolves by mutations at conserved sites in essential genes, resulting in parallel molecular evolution between divergent bacterial strains and species. Whether these resistance mutations are having parallel effects on fitness across bacterial taxa, however, is unclear. This is an important point to address, because the fitness effects of resistance mutations play a key role in the spread and maintenance of resistance in pathogen populations. We address this idea by measuring the fitness...

Data from: Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments

Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Claire El Mouden & Stuart A. West
Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We...

Data from: Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nathan R. Hill, Samuel T. Fatoba, Jason L. Oke, Jennifer A. Hirst, Christopher A. O’Callaghan, Daniel S. Lasserson & F. D. Richard Hobbs
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and...

Data from: Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study

Annette L. Fayet, Robin Freeman, Akiko Shoji, Holly L. Kirk, Oliver Padget, Chris M. Perrins & Tim Guilford
Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a...

Data from: Evidence of reduced individual heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species

Guillaume Peron, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Christophe Barbraud, Christophe Bonenfant, Anne Charmantier, Rémi Choquet, Tim Coulson, Vladimir Grosbois, Anne Loison, GIlbert Marzolin, Norman Owen-Smtih, Déborah Pardo, Floriane Plard, Roger Pradel, Carole Toïgo, Olivier Gimenez & Norman Owen-Smith
The canalization hypothesis postulates that the rate at which trait variation generates variation in the average individual fitness in a population determines how buffered traits are against environmental and genetic factors. The ranking of a species on the slow-fast continuum – the covariation among life-history traits describing species-specific life cycles along a gradient going from a long life, slow maturity, and low annual reproductive output, to a short life, fast maturity, and high annual reproductive...

Data from: Type of fitness cost influences the rate of evolution of resistance to transgenic Bt crops

Sean C. Hackett & Michael B. Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in induced sputum and gastric lavage samples from young children with suspected tuberculosis from the MVA85A TB vaccine trial

Erick Wekesa Bunyasi, Michele Tameris, Hennie Geldenhuys, Bey-Marrie Schmidt, Angelique Kany Kany Luabeya, Humphrey Mulenga, Thomas J. Scriba, Willem A. Hanekom, Hassan Mahomed, Helen McShane & Mark Hatherill
Objective: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is limited by the paucibacillary respiratory samples obtained from young children with pulmonary disease. We aimed to compare accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, an automated nucleic acid amplification test, between induced sputum and gastric lavage samples from young children in a tuberculosis endemic setting. Methods: We analyzed standardized diagnostic data from HIV negative children younger than four years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis disease near Cape Town,...

Data from: Habitat saturation promotes delayed dispersal in a social reptile

Ben Halliwell, Tobias Uller, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Erik Wapstra & Geoffrey M. While
When and where offspring disperse has important implications for the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of group living. In non-cooperative breeders, direct benefits of delayed dispersal are relatively limited, suggesting that decisions regarding whether or not to remain in the parental territory are largely driven by the availability of suitable habitat in which to settle. While there is ample evidence of correlations between habitat saturation and delayed dispersal, experimental tests are rare, particularly for species with...

Data from: Divergent evolution peaks under intermediate population bottlenecks during bacterial experimental evolution

Tom Vogwill, Robyn L. Phillips, Danna R. Gifford & R. Craig MacLean
There is growing evidence that parallel molecular evolution is common, but its causes remain poorly understood. Demographic parameters such as population bottlenecks are predicted to be major determinants of parallelism. Here, we test the hypothesis that bottleneck intensity shapes parallel evolution by elucidating the genomic basis of adaptation to antibiotic-supplemented media in hundreds of populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. As expected, bottlenecking decreased the rate of phenotypic and molecular adaptation. Surprisingly, bottlenecking had...

Data from: Experimental contact zones reveal causes and targets of sexual selection in hybridizing lizards

Hannah E. A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Jade Barrett, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Pau Carazo, Sozos Michaelides & Tobias Uller
Divergence in sexually selected traits in allopatry should affect the degree and direction of hybridization. However, few studies have established the causes and targets of sexual selection during secondary contact. Common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from north-central Italy have highly exaggerated male sexual traits compared to populations in Western Europe. Using experimental populations, we show that this creates asymmetries in male dominance, spatial habitat use and reproductive success upon secondary contact. Hybridization occurred almost exclusively...

Data from: Discrimination behavior mediates foraging quality versus quantity trade-offs: nut choice in wild rodents

Wenwen Chen, Ze Zhang, Christina D. Buesching, Chris Newman, David W. Macdonald, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
Discrimination, the ability to distinguish sensory stimuli and respond accordingly, is a critical factor underscoring optimal foraging decisions. Nevertheless, little is known about how mammals discriminate between apparently similar foods of different quality. Here, we compared the foraging behavior of Chinese white-bellied rats, Niviventer confucianus, and Edwards’s long-tailed giant rats, Leopoldamys edwardsi, under natural conditions in the field and in a captive enclosure without predation/competition. We examined the behavioral processes involved in discriminating between sound...

Data from: Biofilm morphotypes and population structure among Staphylococcus epidermidis from commensal and clinical samples

Llinos Harris, Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, James Bray, Guillaume Meric, Leonardos Magerios, Thomas S. Wilkinson, Rose E. Jeeves, Holger Rohde, Stefan Schwarz, Herminia De Lencastre, Maria Miragaia, Joana Rolo, Rory Bowden, Keith A. Jolley, Martin C. J. Maiden, Dietrich Mack, Samuel Sheppard, Llinos G. Harris, Rose Jeeves & Samuel K. Sheppard
Bacterial species comprise related genotypes that can display divergent phenotypes with important clinical implications. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections and, critical to its pathogenesis, is its ability to adhere and form biofilms on surfaces, thereby moderating the effect of the host’s immune response and antibiotics. Commensal S. epidermidis populations are thought to differ from those associated with disease in factors involved in adhesion and biofilm accumulation. We quantified the differences in...

Data from: Information use and resource competition: an integrative framework

Alexander E. G. Lee, James P. Ounsley, Timothy Coulson, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Guy Cowlishaw & Tim Coulson
Organisms may reduce uncertainty regarding how best to exploit their environment by collecting information about resource distribution. We develop a model to demonstrate how competition can facilitate or constrain an individual’s ability to use information when acquiring resources. Since resource distribution underpins both selection on information use and the strength and nature of competition between individuals, we demonstrate interdependencies between the two that should be common in nature. Individuals in our model can search for...

Data from: Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings

Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Raimunda Do Socorro Da Silva Azevedo, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Renato Souza, Mariana Sequetin Cunha, Sarah C. Hill, Julien Thezé, Michael B. Bonsall, Thomas A. Bowden, Ilona Rissanen, Iray Maria Rocco, Juliana Silva Nogueira, Adriana Yurika Maeda, Fernanda Giseli Da Silva Vasami, Fernando Luiz De Lima Macedo, Akemi Suzuki, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro Cruz, Bruno Tardeli Diniz, Daniele Barbosa De Almeida Medeiros, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Alice Louize Nunes Queiroz, Eliana Vieira Pinto Da Silva, Daniele Freitas Henriques, Elisabeth Salbe Travassos Da Rosa … & Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos
Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show...

Data from: Invasive plant species are locally adapted just as frequently and at least as strongly as native plant species

Ayub M. O. Oduor, Roosa Leimu & Mark Van Kleunen
Concerns over the ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species have generated great research interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the capacity of such plants to occupy a broad range of habitats. It has been repeatedly suggested that rapid evolution of local adaptation to novel environments may enable invasive plants to occupy a broad range of habitats. However, the classical Darwinian view on evolution by natural selection is that the process is slow and...

Data from: Spatially coordinated dynamic gene transcription in living pituitary tissue

Karen Featherstone, Kirsty Hey, Hiroshi Momiji, Anne V. McNamara, Amanda L. Patist, Joanna Woodburn, David G. Spiller, Helen C. Christian, Alan S. McNeilly, John J. Mullins, Barbel F. Finkenstadt, David A. Rand, Michael R. H. White & Julian R. E. Davis
Transcription at individual genes in single cells is often pulsatile and stochastic. A key question emerges regarding how this behaviour contributes to tissue phenotype, but it has been a challenge to quantitatively analyse this in living cells over time, as opposed to studying snap-shots of gene expression state. We have used imaging of reporter gene expression to track transcription in living pituitary tissue. We integrated live-cell imaging data with statistical modelling for quantitative real-time estimation...

Data from: Tropical ancient DNA from bulk archaeological fish bone reveals the subsistence practices of a historic coastal community in southwest Madagascar

Alicia Grealy, Kristina Douglass, James Haile, Chriselle Bruwer, Charlotte Gough & Michael Bunce
Taxonomic identification of archaeological fish bones provides important insights into the subsistence practices of ancient coastal peoples. However, it can be difficult to execute robust morphological identification of fish bones from species-rich fossil assemblages, especially from post-cranial material with few distinguishing features. Fragmentation, weathering and burning further impede taxonomic identification, resulting in large numbers of unidentifiable bones from archaeological sites. This limitation can be somewhat mitigated by taking an ancient DNA (aDNA) bulk-bone metabarcoding (BBM)...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    88

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    88

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    88
  • University of Zurich
    6
  • Imperial College London
    5
  • University of Washington
    4
  • University of Groningen
    4
  • University of Tasmania
    4
  • University of Southampton
    4
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • Lund University
    3