88 Works

Data from: Developmental environment effects on sexual selection in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

Juliano Morimoto, Tommaso Pizzari & Stuart Wigby
The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes - high (low) densities for small (large) adults - and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities....

Data from: Type of fitness cost influences the rate of evolution of resistance to transgenic Bt crops

Sean C. Hackett & Michael B. Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported...

Data from: Presence of a loner strain maintains cooperation and diversity in well-mixed bacterial communities

R. Fredrik Inglis, Jay M. Biernaskie, Andy Gardner & Rolf Kümmerli
Cooperation and diversity abound in nature despite cooperators risking exploitation from defectors and superior competitors displacing weaker ones. Understanding the persistence of cooperation and diversity is therefore a major problem for evolutionary ecology, especially in the context of well-mixed populations, where the potential for exploitation and displacement is greatest. Here, we demonstrate that a ‘loner effect’, described by economic game theorists, can maintain cooperation and diversity in real-world biological settings. We use mathematical models of...

Data from: The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae)

Mark A Chapman, Simon J Hiscock & Dmitry A Filatov
Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily)....

Data from: Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nathan R. Hill, Samuel T. Fatoba, Jason L. Oke, Jennifer A. Hirst, Christopher A. O’Callaghan, Daniel S. Lasserson & F. D. Richard Hobbs
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and...

Data from: Evidence of reduced individual heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species

Guillaume Peron, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Christophe Barbraud, Christophe Bonenfant, Anne Charmantier, Rémi Choquet, Tim Coulson, Vladimir Grosbois, Anne Loison, GIlbert Marzolin, Norman Owen-Smtih, Déborah Pardo, Floriane Plard, Roger Pradel, Carole Toïgo, Olivier Gimenez & Norman Owen-Smith
The canalization hypothesis postulates that the rate at which trait variation generates variation in the average individual fitness in a population determines how buffered traits are against environmental and genetic factors. The ranking of a species on the slow-fast continuum – the covariation among life-history traits describing species-specific life cycles along a gradient going from a long life, slow maturity, and low annual reproductive output, to a short life, fast maturity, and high annual reproductive...

Data from: Revealing kleptoparasitic and predatory tendencies in an African mammal community using camera traps: a comparison of spatiotemporal approaches

Jeremy J. Cusack, Amy J. Dickman, Monty Kalyahe, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Chris Carbone, David W. Macdonald & Tim Coulson
Camera trap data are increasingly being used to characterise relationships between the spatiotemporal activity patterns of sympatric mammal species, often with a view to inferring inter-specific interactions. In this context, we attempted to characterise the kleptoparasitic and predatory tendencies of spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta and lions Panthera leo from photographic data collected across 54 camera trap stations and two dry seasons in Tanzania's Ruaha National Park. We applied four different methods of quantifying spatiotemporal associations,...

Data from: Parsing the life-shortening effects of dietary protein: effects of individual amino acids

Sara Arganda, Sofia Bouchebti, Sepideh Bazazi, Sophie Le Hesran, Camille Puga, Gérard Latil, Stephen J. Simpson & Audrey Dussutour
High-protein diets shorten lifespan in many organisms. Is it because protein digestion is energetically costly or because the final products (the amino acids) are harmful? To answer this question while circumventing the life-history trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we fed sterile ant workers on diets based on whole proteins or free amino acids. We found that (i) free amino acids shortened lifespan even more than proteins; (ii) the higher the amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, the shorter...

Data from: Evolution of nickel hyperaccumulation and serpentine adaptation in the Alyssum serpyllifolium species complex

Maria K. Sobczyk, J. Andrew C. Smith, A. Joseph Pollard & Dmitry A. Filatov
Metal hyperaccumulation is an uncommon but highly distinctive adaptation found in certain plants that can grow on metalliferous soils. Here we review what is known about evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in plants and describe a population-genetic analysis of the Alyssum serpyllifolium (Brassicaceae) species complex that includes populations of nickel-hyperaccumulating as well as non-accumulating plants growing on serpentine (S) and non-serpentine (NS) soils, respectively. To test whether the S and NS populations belong to the same...

Data from: Rescued wildlife in China remains at risk

Zhao-Min Zhou, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, David W. Macdonald & Youbing Zhou
Improper treatment of ‘rescued’ animals substantially undermines welfare ethos of CITES guidance. We briefly report on the fate of confiscated live wild animals in China between 2010 and 2015, where illegal trade in both exotic and native wildlife continues to flourish. In particular, we draw attention to China’s lack of legislation or protocols ‘appropriate and consistent’ with the CITES code of practice pertaining to the protection of illegally traded wildlife after rescue.

Data from: Symbionts modify interactions between insects and natural enemies in the field

Jan Hrček, Ailsa H. C. McLean & H. Charles J. Godfray
Eukaryotes commonly host communities of heritable symbiotic bacteria, many of which are not essential for their hosts' survival and reproduction. There is laboratory evidence that these facultative symbionts can provide useful adaptations, such as increased resistance to natural enemies. However, we do not know how symbionts affect host fitness when the latter are subject to attack by a natural suite of parasites and pathogens. Here, we test whether two protective symbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella...

Data from: Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc

Hila Levy, Gemma V. Clucas, Alex D. Rogers, Adam D. Leaché, Kate L. Ciborowski, Michael J. Polito, Heather J. Lynch, Michael J. Dunn & Tom Hart
Climate change, fisheries pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonisation and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes...

Data from: Testing sensory evidence against mnemonic templates

Nicholas Edward Myers, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Valentin Wyart, Mark W. Woolrich, Anna Christina Nobre & Mark G. Stokes
Most perceptual decisions require comparisons between current input and an internal template. Classic studies propose that templates are encoded in sustained activity of sensory neurons. However, stimulus encoding is itself dynamic, tracing a complex trajectory through activity space. Which part of this trajectory is pre-activated to reflect the template? Here we recorded magneto- and electroencephalography during a visual target-detection task, and used pattern analyses to decode template, stimulus, and decision-variable representation. Our findings ran counter...

Data from: Comparison of social structures within cities of very different sizes

Peter Grindrod & Tamsin E. Lee
People make a city, making each city as unique as the combination of its inhabitants. However, some cities are similar and some cities are inimitable. We examine the social structure of 10 different cities using Twitter data. Each city is decomposed to its communities. We show that in many cases one city can be thought of as an amalgamation of communities from another city. For example, we find the social network of Manchester is very...

Data from: Local adaptation of fish consumers alters primary production through changes in algal community composition and diversity

Ron D. Bassar, Brynne L. Bryan, Michael C. Marshall, Catherine M. Pringle, David N. Reznick, Joseph Travis & Ronald D. Bassar
Ecological research has focused on understanding how changes in consumer abundance affect community structure and ecosystem processes. However, there is increasing evidence that evolutionary changes in consumers can also alter community structure and ecosystem processes. Typically, the effects of consumer phenotype on communities and ecosystem processes are measured as net effects that integrate numerous ecological pathways. Here, we analyze new data from experimental manipulations of Trinidadian guppy Poecilia reticulata presence, density and phenotype to examine...

Data from: Microbe-mediated host defence drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence

Suzanne A. Ford, Damian Kao, David Williams & Kayla C. King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogens are widespread in nature and are attractive disease control agents. Given that pathogen adaptation to barriers against infection can drive changes in pathogen virulence, ‘defensive microbes’ may shape disease severity. Here we show that co-evolving a microbe with host-protective properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans hosts drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence as a by-product of adaptation to the defensive microbe. Using...

Data from: Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in Amazonian forests

Camille Piponiot, Plinio Sist, Lucas Mazzei, Marielos Peña-Claros, Francis E. Putz, Ervan Rutishauser, Alexander Shenkin, Nataly Ascarrunz, Celso P. De Azevedo, Christopher Baraloto, Mabiane França, Marcelino Guedes, Eurídice N. Honorio Coronado, Marcus V. N. D'Oliveira, Ademir R. Ruschel, Katia E. Da Silva, Eleneide Doff Sotta, Cintia R. De Souza, Edson Vidal, Thales A. P. West, Bruno Hérault & Thales AP West
When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors' and recruits' C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery....

Data from: Independent and parallel evolution of new genes by gene duplication in two origins of C4 photosynthesis provides new insight into the mechanism of phloem loading in C4 species

David M. Emms, Sarah Covshoff, Julian M. Hibberd & Steven Kelly
C4 photosynthesis is considered one of the most remarkable examples of evolutionary convergence in eukaryotes. However, it is unknown whether the evolution of C4 photosynthesis required the evolution of new genes. Genome-wide gene-tree species-tree reconciliation of seven monocot species that span two origins of C4 photosynthesis revealed that there was significant parallelism in the duplication and retention of genes coincident with the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in these lineages. Specifically, 21 orthologous genes were duplicated...

Data from: Pyoverdin cheats fail to invade bacterial populations in stationary phase

Melanie Ghoul, Stuart A. West, Fergus A. McCorkell, Zhuo-Bin Lee, John B. Bruce, Ashleigh S. Griffin & Z.-B. Lee
Microbes engage in cooperative behaviours by producing and secreting public goods, the benefits of which are shared among cells, and are therefore susceptible to exploitation by nonproducing cheats. In nature, bacteria are not typically colonizing sterile, rich environments in contrast to laboratory experiments, which involve inoculating sterile culture with few bacterial cells that then race to fill the available niche. Here, we study the potential implications of this difference, using the production of pyoverdin, an...

Data from: Experimentally reducing species abundance indirectly affects food web structure and robustness

Milton Barbosa, G. Wilson Fernandes, Owen T. Lewis & Rebecca J. Morris
Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant...

Data from: Trait-demography relationships underlying small mammal population fluctuations

Koen J. Van Benthem, Hannah Froy, Tim Coulson, Lowell L. Getz, Madan K. Oli & Arpat Ozgul
Large-scale fluctuations in abundance are a common feature of small mammal populations and have been the subject of extensive research. These demographic fluctuations are often associated with concurrent changes in the average body mass of individuals, sometimes referred to as the ‘Chitty effect’. Despite the long-standing recognition of this phenomenon, an empirical investigation of the underlying coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth has been lacking. Using long-term life-history data combined with a trait-based...

Data from: Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds

Nicholas A. Mason, Kevin J. Burns, Joseph A. Tobias, Santiago Claramunt, Nathalie Seddon & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traitsࣧincluding vocal signalsࣧare rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral...

Data from: Adding biotic complexity alters the metabolic benefits of mutualism

William R. Harcombe, Alex Betts, Jason W. Shapiro & Christopher J. Marx
Mutualism is ubiquitous in nature and plays an integral role in most communities. To predict the eco-evolutionary dynamics of mutualism it is critical to extend classic pair-wise analysis to include additional species. We investigated the effect of adding a third species to a pair-wise mutualism in a spatially structured environment. We tested the hypotheses that selection for costly excretions in a focal population (i) decreases when an exploiter is added (ii) increases when a third...

Data from: Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds

Christopher R. Cooney, Nathalie Seddon & Joseph A. Tobias
The adaptability of species’ climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonisation and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation, or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial...

Data from: Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

Helen N. Fones, Hannah McCurrach, Aziz Mithani, J. Andrew C. Smith & Gail M. Preston
Metal hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesised to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen co-evolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    88

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    88

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    88
  • University of Zurich
    6
  • Imperial College London
    5
  • University of Washington
    4
  • University of Groningen
    4
  • University of Tasmania
    4
  • University of Southampton
    4
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • Lund University
    3