101 Works

Geochemical and petrological data pertaining to the eruptive deposits of 1883 caldera-forming eruption of Krakatau

Amber Madden-Nadeau
Geochemical data has been collected on samples from new exposures of the 1883 deposits, revealed by the 2018 tsunamigenic flank collapse of Anak Krakatau, which provides improved stratigraphic context. Whole-rock data taken by X-ray Florescence shows no systematic stratigraphic correlation. Chemical data for transects across, and spot points on, plagioclase phenocrysts, including some trace element data, all obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), with Backscatter electron (BSE) images of crystals, obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope,...

Plant census and microenvironment dataset from Mt. Baldy, Colorado, USA, 2014-2017

B. Blonder, R.E. Kapas, R.M. Dalton, B.J. Graae, J.M. Heiling & Ø.H. Opedal
The data comprise a long-term study of alpine plant community dynamics in the Gunnison National Forest of Colorado. The data comprise annual census data for all plants (including seedlings) in each of 50 2x2m plots, including information on size, reproduction, life stage, and mortality, with all plants identified and geo-located. These data are also made available transformed to provide individual-level estimates of growth, survival, fecundity, and recruitment. The dataset covers several thousand individuals of approximately...

Data from: Large-bodied sabre-toothed anchovies reveal unanticipated ecological diversity in early Palaeogene teleosts

Alessio Capobianco, Hermione Beckett, Etienne Steurbaut, Philip Gingerich, Giorgio Carnevale & Matthew Friedman
Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66–40 million years ago), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group...

Data from: Prey colonization in freshwater landscapes can be stimulated or inhibited by the proximity of remote predators

Beth Turner, Hendrik Trekels, Mathil Vandromme & Bram Vanschoenwinkel
1. Recent findings suggest that the colonization of habitat patches may be affected by the quality of surrounding patches. For instance, patches that lack predators may be avoided when located near others with predators, a pattern known as risk contagion. Alternatively, predator avoidance might also redirect dispersal towards nearby predator-free patches resulting in so-called habitat compression. However, it is largely unknown how predators continue to influence these habitat selection behaviors at increasing distances from outside...

Data from: It takes two: heritable male effects on reproductive timing but not clutch size in a wild bird population

Simon R. Evans, Erik Postma & Ben C. Sheldon
Within-population variation in the traits underpinning reproductive output has long been of central interest to biologists. Since they are strongly linked to lifetime reproductive success, these traits are expected to be subject to strong selection and, if heritable, to evolve. Despite the formation of durable pair bonds in many animal taxa, reproductive traits are often regarded as female-specific, and estimates of quantitative genetic variation seldom consider a potential role for heritable male effects. Yet reliable...

Human decisions about when to act originate within a basal forebrain-nigral circuit

Nima Khalighinejad, Luke Priestley, Saad Jbabdi & Matthew Rushworth
Decisions about when to act are critical for survival in humans as in animals but how a desire is translated into the decision that an action is worth taking at any particular point in time is incompletely understood. Here we show that a simple model developed to explain when animals decide it is worth taking an action also explains a significant portion of the variance in timing observed when humans take voluntary actions. The model...

Oldest fossil ciliates from the Cryogenian glacial interlude reinterpreted as possible red algal spores

Phoebe Cohen, Maoli Vizcaino & Ross Anderson
The Cryogenian Period experienced two long lived global glaciations known as Snowball Earths. While these events were dramatic, eukaryotic life persisted through them, and fossil evidence shows that eukaryotes thrived during the ca. 30-million-year interlude between the glaciations. Carbonate successions have become an important taphonomic window for this interval. One of the most notable examples is the ca. 662–635 Ma Taishir Formation (Tsagaan Olom Group, Zavkhan Terrane, Mongolia) which has yielded a number of eukaryotic...

Integron array MICs and cassettes transcription data

Celia Souque, Jose Antonio Escudero & Craig MacLean
Mobile integrons are widespread genetic platforms that allow bacteria to modulate the expression of antibiotic resistance cassettes by shuffling their position from a common promoter. Antibiotic stress induces the expression of an integrase that excises and integrates cassettes, and this unique recombination and expression system is thought to allow bacteria to ‘evolve on demand’ in response to antibiotic pressure. To test this hypothesis, we inserted a custom three cassette integron into P. aeruginosa, and used...

Thinner bark increases sensitivity of wetter Amazonian tropical forests to fire

Ann Carla Staver, Paulo M. Brando, Jos Barlow, Douglas C. Morton, C.E. Timothy Paine, Yadvinder Malhi, Alejandro Araujo Murakami & Jhon Pasquel
Understory fires represent an accelerating threat to Amazonian tropical forests and can, during drought, affect larger areas than deforestation itself. These fires kill trees at rates varying from < 10 to c. 90% depending on fire intensity, forest disturbance history and tree functional traits. Here, we examine variation in bark thickness across the Amazon. Bark can protect trees from fires, but it is often assumed to be consistently thin across tropical forests. Here, we show...

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Data from: Longevity, body dimension and reproductive mode drive differences in aquatic versus terrestrial life history strategies

Pol Capdevila, Maria Beger, Simone Blomberg, Bernat Hereu, Cristina Linares & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
1. Aquatic and terrestrial environments display stark differences in key environmental factors and phylogenetic composition but their consequences for the evolution of species’ life history strategies remain poorly understood. 2. Here, we examine whether and how life history strategies vary between terrestrial and aquatic species. We use demographic information for 685 terrestrial and 122 aquatic animal and plant species to estimate key life history traits. We then use phylogenetically corrected least squares regression to explore...

Distal and proximal hypoxia response elements cooperate to regulate organ-specific erythropoietin gene expression

Roland Wenger, Ilaria M.C. Orlando, Véronique N. Lafleur, Federica Storti, Patrick Spielmann, Lisa Crowther, Sara Santambrogio, Johannes Schödel, David Hoogewijs & David R. Mole
While it is well-established that distal hypoxia response elements (HREs) regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes such as erythropoietin (Epo), an interplay between multiple distal and proximal (promoter) HREs has not been described so far. Hepatic Epo expression is regulated by a HRE located downstream of the EPO gene, but this 3' HRE is dispensable for renal EPO gene expression. We previously identified a 5' HRE and could show that both HREs direct exogenous reporter...

Young frigatebirds learn how to compensate for wind-drift

Joe Wynn, Oliver Padget, Julien Collet, Aurélien Prudor, Alexandre Corbeau & Henri Weimerskirch
Compensating for wind drift can improve goalward flight efficiency in animal taxa, especially amongst those that rely on thermal soaring to travel large distances. Little is known, however, about how animals acquire this ability. The great frigatebird (Fregata minor) exemplifies the challenges of wind drift compensation because it lives a highly pelagic lifestyle, traveling very long distances over the open ocean but without the ability to land on water. Using GPS tracks from fledgling frigatebirds,...

Estimation of environmental, genetic and parental age at conception effects on telomere length in a wild mammal

Sil H.J. Van Lieshout, Alexandra M. Sparks, Amanda Bretman, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
Understanding individual variation in fitness-related traits requires separating the environmental and genetic determinants. Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are thought to be a biomarker of senescence as their length predicts mortality risk and reflect the physiological consequences of environmental conditions. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual variation in telomere length is however unclear, yet important for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. In particular, the evidence for transgenerational...

Individual variability and versatility in an eco-evolutionary model of avian migration

Benjamin M. Van Doren, Kira E. Delmore, Greg J. Conway, Teja Curk, Tania Garrido-Garduño, Ryan R. Germain, Timo Hasselmann, Dieter Hiemer, Henk Van Der Jeugd, Hannah Justen, Juan Sebastian Lugo Ramos, Ivan Maggini, Britta S. Meyer, Robbie J. Phillips, Magdalena Remisiewicz, Graham C. M. Roberts, Ben C. Sheldon, Wolfgang Vogl & Miriam Liedvogel
Seasonal migration is a complex and variable behavior with the potential to promote reproductive isolation. In Eurasian blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), a migratory divide in central Europe separating populations with southwest and southeast autumn routes may facilitate isolation, and individuals using new wintering areas in Britain show divergence from Mediterranean winterers. We tracked 100 blackcaps in the wild to characterize these strategies. Blackcaps to the west and east of the divide used predominantly SW and SE...

Data from: Experimental evaluation of spectral efficiency from a circular array antenna producing a Laguerre-Gauss mode

Ben Allen
We present the 4D volumetric electromagnetic field measurements (x, y, z and frequency) of the complex radiated field produced by an 8-element circular antenna array. The array is designed to produce a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) mode l = -1 over the frequency range of 9 - 10 GHz. We evaluate our findings in terms of far-field LG mode purity and spectral efficiency in terms of the QAM modulation scheme that can be supported. The application of...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

The Cryptic impacts of invasion: functional homogenization of tropical ant communities by invasive fire ants

Mark Wong, Benoit Guénard & Owen Lewis
The diversity and distribution of traits in an ecological community shapes its responses to change and the ecosystem processes it modulates. This ‘functional diversity’, however, is not necessarily a direct outcome of taxonomic diversity. Invasions by exotic insects occur in ecosystems worldwide, but there is limited understanding of how they impact functional diversity. We present the first comprehensive trait-based investigation of the impacts of an ant invasion, and the first incorporating intraspecific polymorphisms in species-level...

Insights from empirical analyses and simulations on using multiple fossil calibrations with relaxed clocks to estimate divergence times

Tom Carruthers & Robert Scotland
Relaxed clock methods account for among-branch-rate-variation when estimating divergence times by inferring different rates for individual branches. In order to infer different rates for individual branches, important assumptions are required. This is because molecular sequence data does not provide direct information about rates, but instead provides direct information about the total number of substitutions along any branch, which is a product of the rate and time for that branch. Often, the assumptions required for estimating...

Review of Energy Policy 2020

Robert Gross, Keith Bell, Mike Bradshaw, Christian Brand, Jason Chilvers, Paul Dodds, Antony Froggatt, Richard Hanna, Tom Hargreaves, Phil Heptonstall, Caroline Kuzemko, Richard Lowes, Faye Wade & Jan Webb

Data and R-code from 'Mode of death and mortality risk factors in Amazon trees'. Nature communications. 2020

Adriane Esquivel Muelbert, Oliver L. Phillips, Roel J. W. Brienen, Sophie Fauset, Martin J. P. Sullivan, Timothy R. Baker, Kuo-Jung Chao, Ted R. Feldpausch, Emanuel Gloor, Niro Higuchi, Jeanne Houwing-Duistermaat, Jon Lloyd, Haiyan Liu, Yadvinder Malhi, Beatriz Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Lourens Poorter, Marcos Silveira, Emilio Vilanova Torre, Esteban Alvarez Dávila, Jhon del Aguila Pasquel, Everton Almeida, Patricia Alvarez Loayza & Ana Andrade

Genetic evidence further elucidates the history and extent of badger introductions from Great Britain into Ireland

Adrian Allen, Jimena Guerrero, Andrew Byrne, John Lavery, Eleanor Presho, Emily Courcier, James O'Keeffe, Ursula Fogarty, Richard Delahay, Gavin Wilson, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Matthew Silk, Denise O'Meara, Robin Skuce, Roman Biek & Robbie A. McDonald
The colonization of Ireland by mammals, has been the subject of extensive study using genetic methods, and forms a central problem in understanding the phylo-geography of European mammals after the Last Glacial Maximum. Ireland exhibits a de-pauperate mammal fauna relative to Great Britain and continental Europe, and a range of natural and anthropogenic processes have given rise to its modern fauna. Previous Europe-wide surveys of the European badger (Meles meles) have found conflicting microsatellite and...

Potential evolutionary trade-off between feeding and stability in Cambrian cinctan echinoderms

Imran Rahman, James O'Shea, Stephan Lautenschlager & Samuel Zamora
Reconstructing the function and behaviour of extinct groups of echinoderms is problematic because there are no modern analogues for their aberrant body plans. Cinctans, an enigmatic group of Cambrian echinoderms, exemplify this problem: their asymmetrical body plan differentiates them from all living species. Here, we used computational fluid dynamics to analyse the functional performance of cinctans without assuming an extant comparative model. Three-dimensional models of six species from across cinctan phylogeny were used in computer...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Assessing the performance of index calibration survey methods to monitor populations of wide-ranging low-density carnivores

Egil Droge, Scott Creel, Matthew Becker, Andrew Loveridge, Lara Sousa & David Macdonald
Apex carnivores are wide-ranging, low-density, hard to detect, and declining throughout most of their range, making population monitoring both critical and challenging. Rapid and inexpensive index calibration survey (ICS) methods have been developed to monitor large African carnivores. ICS methods assume constant detection probability and a predictable relationship between the index and the actual population of interest. The precision and utility of the resulting estimates from ICS methods have been questioned. We assessed the performance...

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  • University of Oxford
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