100 Works

The role of boundary length and adjacent patch contrast in guppy mate choice: Dataset, Matlab and R codes

Adelaide Sibeaux, Thomas Camduras & John A. Endler
The presence of various combinations of adjacent colours within polymorphic species’ colour pattern could have a major impact on mate choice. We studied the role of pattern geometry in predicting mate choice in guppies using boundary strength analysis (BSA). BSA estimates the visual contrast intensity between two adjacent colour patches (ΔS) weighted by the lengths of the boundaries between these adjacent colour patches. We measured both the chromatic (hue and saturation) and achromatic (luminance) ΔS...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

Digital image correlation (DIC) measurement of contact stiffness

Kurien Parel, Robert Paynter & David Nowell
Measurements with digital image correlation of normal and tangential contact stiffness for ground Ti-6Al-4V interfaces suggest a linear relationship between normal contact stiffness and normal load and a linear relationship between tangential contact stiffness and tangential load. The normal contact stiffness for these surfaces is observed approximately to be inversely proportional to an equivalent surface roughness parameter, defined for two surfaces in contact. The ratio of the tangential contact stiffness to the normal contact stiffness...

Behavior data from T-maze assay

Yanying Wu
Dietary magnesium (Mg2+) supplementation can enhance memory in young and aged rats. Memory-enhancing capacity was largely ascribed to increases in hippocampal synaptic density and elevated expression of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. Here we show that Mg2+ feeding also enhances long-term memory in Drosophila. Normal and Mg2+ enhanced fly memory appears independent of NMDA receptors in the mushroom body and instead requires expression of a conserved CNNM-type Mg2+-efflux transporter encoded by the...

Weak founder effects but significant spatial genetic imprint of recent contraction and expansion of European beech populations.

Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Tonya Lander, Etienne Klein & Anne Roig
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes occurring during species range shifts is important in the current context of global change. Here, we investigate the interplay between recent expansion, gene flow and genetic drift, and their consequences for genetic diversity and structure at landscape and local scales in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) On Mont Ventoux, South-Eastern France, we located beech forest refugia at the time of the most recent population minimum, approximately 150 years ago,...

Geochemical and petrological data pertaining to the eruptive deposits of 1883 caldera-forming eruption of Krakatau

Amber Madden-Nadeau
Geochemical data has been collected on samples from new exposures of the 1883 deposits, revealed by the 2018 tsunamigenic flank collapse of Anak Krakatau, which provides improved stratigraphic context. Whole-rock data taken by X-ray Florescence shows no systematic stratigraphic correlation. Chemical data for transects across, and spot points on, plagioclase phenocrysts, including some trace element data, all obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), with Backscatter electron (BSE) images of crystals, obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope,...

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Distal and proximal hypoxia response elements cooperate to regulate organ-specific erythropoietin gene expression

Roland Wenger, Ilaria M.C. Orlando, Véronique N. Lafleur, Federica Storti, Patrick Spielmann, Lisa Crowther, Sara Santambrogio, Johannes Schödel, David Hoogewijs & David R. Mole
While it is well-established that distal hypoxia response elements (HREs) regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes such as erythropoietin (Epo), an interplay between multiple distal and proximal (promoter) HREs has not been described so far. Hepatic Epo expression is regulated by a HRE located downstream of the EPO gene, but this 3' HRE is dispensable for renal EPO gene expression. We previously identified a 5' HRE and could show that both HREs direct exogenous reporter...

Data from: Longevity, body dimension and reproductive mode drive differences in aquatic versus terrestrial life history strategies

Pol Capdevila, Maria Beger, Simone Blomberg, Bernat Hereu, Cristina Linares & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
1. Aquatic and terrestrial environments display stark differences in key environmental factors and phylogenetic composition but their consequences for the evolution of species’ life history strategies remain poorly understood. 2. Here, we examine whether and how life history strategies vary between terrestrial and aquatic species. We use demographic information for 685 terrestrial and 122 aquatic animal and plant species to estimate key life history traits. We then use phylogenetically corrected least squares regression to explore...

Oldest fossil ciliates from the Cryogenian glacial interlude reinterpreted as possible red algal spores

Phoebe Cohen, Maoli Vizcaino & Ross Anderson
The Cryogenian Period experienced two long lived global glaciations known as Snowball Earths. While these events were dramatic, eukaryotic life persisted through them, and fossil evidence shows that eukaryotes thrived during the ca. 30-million-year interlude between the glaciations. Carbonate successions have become an important taphonomic window for this interval. One of the most notable examples is the ca. 662–635 Ma Taishir Formation (Tsagaan Olom Group, Zavkhan Terrane, Mongolia) which has yielded a number of eukaryotic...

Data from: Prey colonization in freshwater landscapes can be stimulated or inhibited by the proximity of remote predators

Beth Turner, Hendrik Trekels, Mathil Vandromme & Bram Vanschoenwinkel
1. Recent findings suggest that the colonization of habitat patches may be affected by the quality of surrounding patches. For instance, patches that lack predators may be avoided when located near others with predators, a pattern known as risk contagion. Alternatively, predator avoidance might also redirect dispersal towards nearby predator-free patches resulting in so-called habitat compression. However, it is largely unknown how predators continue to influence these habitat selection behaviors at increasing distances from outside...

Data from: Large-bodied sabre-toothed anchovies reveal unanticipated ecological diversity in early Palaeogene teleosts

Alessio Capobianco, Hermione Beckett, Etienne Steurbaut, Philip Gingerich, Giorgio Carnevale & Matthew Friedman
Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66–40 million years ago), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group...

Data from: It takes two: heritable male effects on reproductive timing but not clutch size in a wild bird population

Simon R. Evans, Erik Postma & Ben C. Sheldon
Within-population variation in the traits underpinning reproductive output has long been of central interest to biologists. Since they are strongly linked to lifetime reproductive success, these traits are expected to be subject to strong selection and, if heritable, to evolve. Despite the formation of durable pair bonds in many animal taxa, reproductive traits are often regarded as female-specific, and estimates of quantitative genetic variation seldom consider a potential role for heritable male effects. Yet reliable...

Human decisions about when to act originate within a basal forebrain-nigral circuit

Nima Khalighinejad, Luke Priestley, Saad Jbabdi & Matthew Rushworth
Decisions about when to act are critical for survival in humans as in animals but how a desire is translated into the decision that an action is worth taking at any particular point in time is incompletely understood. Here we show that a simple model developed to explain when animals decide it is worth taking an action also explains a significant portion of the variance in timing observed when humans take voluntary actions. The model...

The Cryptic impacts of invasion: functional homogenization of tropical ant communities by invasive fire ants

Mark Wong, Benoit Guénard & Owen Lewis
The diversity and distribution of traits in an ecological community shapes its responses to change and the ecosystem processes it modulates. This ‘functional diversity’, however, is not necessarily a direct outcome of taxonomic diversity. Invasions by exotic insects occur in ecosystems worldwide, but there is limited understanding of how they impact functional diversity. We present the first comprehensive trait-based investigation of the impacts of an ant invasion, and the first incorporating intraspecific polymorphisms in species-level...

Data from: Experimental evaluation of spectral efficiency from a circular array antenna producing a Laguerre-Gauss mode

Ben Allen
We present the 4D volumetric electromagnetic field measurements (x, y, z and frequency) of the complex radiated field produced by an 8-element circular antenna array. The array is designed to produce a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) mode l = -1 over the frequency range of 9 - 10 GHz. We evaluate our findings in terms of far-field LG mode purity and spectral efficiency in terms of the QAM modulation scheme that can be supported. The application of...

Estimation of environmental, genetic and parental age at conception effects on telomere length in a wild mammal

Sil H.J. Van Lieshout, Alexandra M. Sparks, Amanda Bretman, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
Understanding individual variation in fitness-related traits requires separating the environmental and genetic determinants. Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are thought to be a biomarker of senescence as their length predicts mortality risk and reflect the physiological consequences of environmental conditions. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual variation in telomere length is however unclear, yet important for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. In particular, the evidence for transgenerational...

Individual variability and versatility in an eco-evolutionary model of avian migration

Benjamin M. Van Doren, Kira E. Delmore, Greg J. Conway, Teja Curk, Tania Garrido-Garduño, Ryan R. Germain, Timo Hasselmann, Dieter Hiemer, Henk Van Der Jeugd, Hannah Justen, Juan Sebastian Lugo Ramos, Ivan Maggini, Britta S. Meyer, Robbie J. Phillips, Magdalena Remisiewicz, Graham C. M. Roberts, Ben C. Sheldon, Wolfgang Vogl & Miriam Liedvogel
Seasonal migration is a complex and variable behavior with the potential to promote reproductive isolation. In Eurasian blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), a migratory divide in central Europe separating populations with southwest and southeast autumn routes may facilitate isolation, and individuals using new wintering areas in Britain show divergence from Mediterranean winterers. We tracked 100 blackcaps in the wild to characterize these strategies. Blackcaps to the west and east of the divide used predominantly SW and SE...

Thinner bark increases sensitivity of wetter Amazonian tropical forests to fire

Ann Carla Staver, Paulo M. Brando, Jos Barlow, Douglas C. Morton, C.E. Timothy Paine, Yadvinder Malhi, Alejandro Araujo Murakami & Jhon Pasquel
Understory fires represent an accelerating threat to Amazonian tropical forests and can, during drought, affect larger areas than deforestation itself. These fires kill trees at rates varying from < 10 to c. 90% depending on fire intensity, forest disturbance history and tree functional traits. Here, we examine variation in bark thickness across the Amazon. Bark can protect trees from fires, but it is often assumed to be consistently thin across tropical forests. Here, we show...

Insights from empirical analyses and simulations on using multiple fossil calibrations with relaxed clocks to estimate divergence times

Tom Carruthers & Robert Scotland
Relaxed clock methods account for among-branch-rate-variation when estimating divergence times by inferring different rates for individual branches. In order to infer different rates for individual branches, important assumptions are required. This is because molecular sequence data does not provide direct information about rates, but instead provides direct information about the total number of substitutions along any branch, which is a product of the rate and time for that branch. Often, the assumptions required for estimating...

Young frigatebirds learn how to compensate for wind-drift

Joe Wynn, Oliver Padget, Julien Collet, Aurélien Prudor, Alexandre Corbeau & Henri Weimerskirch
Compensating for wind drift can improve goalward flight efficiency in animal taxa, especially amongst those that rely on thermal soaring to travel large distances. Little is known, however, about how animals acquire this ability. The great frigatebird (Fregata minor) exemplifies the challenges of wind drift compensation because it lives a highly pelagic lifestyle, traveling very long distances over the open ocean but without the ability to land on water. Using GPS tracks from fledgling frigatebirds,...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Copenhagen
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Southampton