100 Works

Assessing the performance of index calibration survey methods to monitor populations of wide-ranging low-density carnivores

Egil Droge, Scott Creel, Matthew Becker, Andrew Loveridge, Lara Sousa & David Macdonald
Apex carnivores are wide-ranging, low-density, hard to detect, and declining throughout most of their range, making population monitoring both critical and challenging. Rapid and inexpensive index calibration survey (ICS) methods have been developed to monitor large African carnivores. ICS methods assume constant detection probability and a predictable relationship between the index and the actual population of interest. The precision and utility of the resulting estimates from ICS methods have been questioned. We assessed the performance...

The apparent exponential radiation of Phanerozoic land vertebrates is an artefact of spatial sampling biases

Roger Close, Roger Benson, John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Terri Cleary, Emma Dunne, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen & Richard Butler
There is no consensus about how terrestrial biodiversity was assembled through deep time, and in particular whether it has risen exponentially over the Phanerozoic. Using a database of 38,711 fossil occurrences, we show that the spatial extent of the ‘global’ terrestrial tetrapod fossil record itself expands exponentially through the Phanerozoic, and that this spatial variation explains around 75% of the variation in known fossil species counts. Controlling for this bias, we find that regional-scale terrestrial...

Proactive conservation to prevent habitat losses to agricultural expansion

David Williams, Michael Clark, Graeme M. Buchanan, G. Francesco Ficetola, Carlo Rondinini & David Tilman
The projected loss of millions of square kilometres of natural ecosystems to meet future demand for food, animal feed, fibre, and bioenergy crops is likely to massively escalate threats to biodiversity. Reducing these threats requires a detailed knowledge of how and where they are likely to be most severe. We developed a geographically explicit model of future agricultural land clearance based on observed historic changes and combine the outputs with species-specific habitat preferences for 19,859...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Multiple factors affect discrimination learning performance, but not between-individual variation, in wild mixed-species flocks of birds

Michael Reichert, Sam Crofts, Gabrielle Davidson, Josh Firth, Ipek Kulahci & John Quinn
Cognition arguably drives most behaviours in animals, but whether and why individuals in the wild vary consistently in their cognitive performance is scarcely known, especially under mixed-species scenarios. One reason for this is that quantifying the relative importance of individual, contextual, ecological and social factors remains a major challenge. We examined how many of these factors, and sources of bias, affected participation, and performance, in an initial discrimination learning experiment and two reversal learning experiments...

Data from: Tracing the patterns of non-marine turtle richness from Triassic–Palaeogene: from origin through global spread

Terri Cleary, Roger Benson, Patricia Holroyd & Paul Barrett
Turtles are key components of modern vertebrate faunas and it is predicted that their diversity and distributions will be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Despite this, few studies have attempted to provide baseline data on turtle taxonomic richness through time or assess their past responses to global environmental change. We used the extensive Triassic–Palaeogene (252–23 Ma) fossil record of terrestrial and freshwater turtles to investigate diversity patterns, finding substantial variation in richness through time and...

Data from: The costs and benefits of paternal care in fish: a meta-analysis

Rebecca Goldberg, Philip Downing, Ashleigh Griffin & Jonathan Green
Male-only parental care, while rare in most animals, is a widespread strategy within teleost fish. The costs and benefits to males of acting as sole carer are highly variable between fish species making it challenging to determine the selective pressures driving the evolution of male-only care to such a high prevalence. We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis to examine the costs and benefits of paternal care across fish species. We found no evidence that providing care...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of competitive fertilization in social groups of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) shed new light on avian sperm competition

Rômulo Carleial, Grant C. McDonald, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Yunke Wang, David S. Richardson & Tommaso Pizzari
Studies of birds have made a fundamental contribution to elucidating sperm competition processes, experimentally demonstrating the role of individual mechanisms in competitive fertilisation. However, the relative importance of these mechanisms and the way in which they interact under natural conditions remain largely unexplored. Here, we conduct a detailed behavioural study of freely-mating replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, to predict the probability that competing males fertilise individual eggs over the course of 10-day trials....

Structure analysis of a p53 fusion protein

Michael Landreh
The tumor suppressor p53 is a key target for cancer therapy, but its low expression levels, poor conformational stability, and high degree of disorder remain major challenges to its structural investigation. Here, we address these issues by fusing the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53 to an engineered spider silk domain termed NT*. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the disordered transactivation domain of p53 wraps around the NT* domain via a series of folding events, resulting...

Resource pulses influence the spatio-temporal dynamics of a large carnivore population

Femke Broekhuis, Nicholas Elliot, Kosiom Keiwua, Kelvin Koinet, David Macdonald, Niels Mogensen, David Thuo & Arjun Gopalaswamy
Resource availability is a key component in animal ecology, yet the manner in which carnivore populations respond to spatial and temporal fluctuations of resources remains unclear. We take a population-level approach to determine how resource pulses, in this case a temporary hyper-abundance of prey, influence the densities and space-use of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. The Maasai Mara in Kenya experiences an annual migration of > 1.4 million wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and large numbers of zebras Equus...

Data from: Social effects on age-related and sex-specific immune cell profiles in a wild mammal

Sil Van Lieshout, Elisa Perez Badás, Michael Mason, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, David Macdonald & Hannah Dugdale
Evidence for age-related changes in innate and adaptive immune responses is increasing in wild populations. Such changes have been linked to fitness, and knowledge of the factors driving immune response variation is important for understanding the evolution of immunity. Age-related changes in immune profiles may be due to factors such as immune system development, sex-specific behaviour and responses to environmental conditions. Social environments may also contribute to variation in immunological responses, for example, through transmission...

Data from: Evaluation of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode purity produced by 3D-printed microwave spiral phase plates

Dmitry Isakov, Yingwei Wu, Ben Allen, Chris Stevens, Patrick Grant & Greg Gibbons
Computer-aided design software and additive manufacturing provide flexibility in the direct fabrication of multi-material devices. This design and fabrication versatility has been investigated for the manufacture of dielectric spiral phase plates (SPP) to generate electromagnetic waves with helical wave-fronts. Three types of SPPs designed to produce an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode number l=|1| were additively manufactured using multi-material extrusion and multijet fabrication methods. The phase mode and mode characteristics of transformed helical microwaves as...

Data from: Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

Darlan S. Candido, Ingra M. Claro, Jaqueline G. De Jesus, William M. Souza, Filipe R. R. Moreira, Simon Dellicour, Thomas A. Mellan, Louis Du Plessis, Rafael H. M. Pereira, Flavia C. S. Sales, Erika R. Manuli, Julien Thézé, Luiz Almeida, Mariane T. Menezes, Carolina M. Voloch, Marcilio J. Fumagalli, Thaís M. Coletti, Camila A. M. Da Silva, Mariana S. Ramundo, Mariene R. Amorim, Henrique H. Hoeltgebaum, Swapnil Mishra, Mandev S. Gill, Luiz M. Carvalho, Lewis F. Buss … & Nuno R. Faria
Brazil currently has one of the fastest growing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the world. Owing to limited available data, assessments of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1–1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil....

An interpolated biogeographic framework for tropical Africa using plant species distributions and the physical environment

Cicely Marshall, Jan Wieringa & William Hawthorne
Aim: Existing phytogeographic frameworks for tropical Africa lack either spatial completeness, unit definitions smaller than the regional scale, or a quantitative approach. We investigate whether physical environmental variables can be used to interpolate floristically defined vegetation units, presenting an interpolated, hierarchical, quantitative phytogeographic framework for tropical Africa, which is compared to previously defined regions. Location: Tropical mainland Africa 24°N to 24°S. Taxon: 31,046 vascular plant species and infraspecific taxa. Methods: We calculate a betasim dissimilarity...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

A novel method for using RNA-seq data to identify imprinted genes in social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens

Jack Howe, Morten Schiøtt, Qiye Li, Zongji Wang, Guojie Zhang & Jacobus Boomsma
Genomic imprinting results in parent-of-origin dependent gene expression biased towards either the maternally- or paternally-derived allele at the imprinted locus. The kinship theory of genomic imprinting argues that this unusual expression pattern is a manifestation of intra-genomic conflict between the maternally- and paternally-derived halves of the genome that arises because they are not equally related to the genomes of social partners. The theory thus predicts that imprinting may evolve wherever there are close interactions among...

Aerial attack strategies of hawks hunting bats, and the adaptive benefits of swarming

Caroline Brighton
Aggregation can reduce an individual’s predation risk, by decreasing predator hunting efficiency or displacing predation onto others. Here we explore how the behaviors of predator and prey influence catch success and predation risk in Swainson’s hawks Buteo swainsoni attacking swarming Brazilian free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis on emergence. Lone bats including stragglers have a high relative risk of predation, representing ~5% of the catch but ~0.2% of the population. Attacks on the column were no less...

Trait-similarity and trait-hierarchy jointly determine fine-scale spatial associations of resident and invasive ant species

Mark K. L. Wong, Toby P. N. Tsang, Owen T. Lewis & Benoit Guénard
Interspecific competition, a dominant process structuring ecological communities, is influenced by species' phenotypic differences. Limiting similarity theory holds that species with similar traits should compete intensely ("trait-similarity"). In contrast, competing theories including modern coexistence theory emphasize that species with traits conferring competitive advantages should outcompete others ("trait-hierarchy"). Either or both of these mechanisms may drive competitive exclusion, but their relative importance and interacting effects are rarely studied. Here, we explore empirically whether trait-similarity and trait-hierarchy...

South African Census 2001, CASASP imputed data

Cyber Due Diligence in Public Health Crises

Antonio Coco & Talita de Souza Dias

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Gro for GooD Rainfall Data from 23 Manual Rain Gauges, Kwale County, Kenya

Calvince Wara, Patrick Thomson, Jacob Katuva & Mike Thomas
The dataset consists of daily rainfall data for 23 manual rain gauge stations installed by Gro for GooD project within and about the study area. The installed stations covering four river catchments name Ramisi River, Mukurumudzi River, Mtawa River and Mwachema River in Kwale County. The dataset period is from January 2016 to November 2018. Gro for GooD - Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development.

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Reconstructing Ecological Niche Evolution via Ancestral State Reconstruction with Uncertainty Incorporated

Hannah Owens, Vivian Ribiero, Erin Saupe, Marlon E. Cobos, Peter Hosner, Jacob Cooper, Abdallah Samy, Vijay Barve, Narayani Barve, Carlos Muñoz & A. Townsend Peterson
Reconstructing ecological niche evolution can provide insight into the biogeography and diversification of evolving lineages. However, comparative phylogenetic methods can infer the history of ecological niche evolution inaccurately because (1) species’ niches are often poorly characterized; and (2) phylogenetic comparative methods rely on niche summary statistics rather than full estimates of species’ environmental tolerances. Here we propose a new framework for coding ecological niches and reconstructing their evolution that explicitly acknowledges and incorporates the uncertainty...

Data for: Three-dimensional characterization of osteocyte volumes at multiple scales, and its relationship with bone biology and genome evolution in ray-finned fishes

Donald Davesne, Armin Schmitt, Vincent Fernandez, Roger Benson & Sophie Sanchez
Osteocytes, cells embedded within the bone mineral matrix, inform on key aspects of vertebrate biology. In particular, a relationship between volumes of the osteocytes and bone growth and/or genome size has been proposed for several tetrapod lineages. However, the variation in osteocyte volume across different scales is poorly characterised, and mostly relies on incomplete, two-dimensional information. In this study, we characterise the variation of osteocyte volumes in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), a clade including more than...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Copenhagen
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Southampton