62 Works

Intraspecific variation in symbiont density in an insect-microbe symbiosis

Benjamin Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa McLean, Charles Godfray & Jennifer Brisson
Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation in symbiont density using the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the bacterium Regiella insecticola, a symbiont that can protect its host against fungal pathogens. We...

The implications of interrelated assumptions on estimates of divergence times and rates of diversification

Tom Carruthers & Robert Scotland
Phylogenies are increasingly being used as a basis to provide insight into macroevolutionary history. Here, we use simulation experiments and empirical analyses to evaluate methods that use phylogenies as a basis to make estimates of divergence times and rates of diversification. This is the first study to present a comprehensive assessment of the key variables that underpin analyses in this field – including substitution rates, speciation rates, and extinction, plus character sampling and taxon sampling....

Tree phenology - observer intercalibration and individual tree phenological scoring

Nicolas Delpierre, Isabelle Chuine & Eleanor Cole
We report data documenting (1) the dynamics of budburst and leaf senescence in three European natural forest tree populations over the period od 2012-2015 and (2) the variability among phenological observers as documented from seven observer inter-calibration experiments conducted in France over 2007-2017 for both the budburst and leaf senescence period.

Comparative analysis of angiogenesis models: MATLAB data files

William Martinson
This data set contains the MATLAB files that were used to generate figures located in the article "Comparative analysis of angiogenesis models" (J. Math. Biol, in press). The article's abstract may be found below. Although discrete approaches are increasingly employed to model biological phenomena, it remains unclear how complex, population-level behaviours in such frameworks arise from the rules used to represent interactions between individuals. Discrete-to-continuum approaches, which are used to derive systems of coarse-grained equations...

Causes of delayed outbreak responses and their impacts on epidemic spread

Yun Tao, Matthew Ferrari, Katriona Shea, William Probeert, Michael Runge, Kevin Lafferty & Michael Tildesley
Livestock diseases have devastating consequences economically, socially, and politically across the globe. In certain systems, pathogens remain viable after host death, which enables residual transmissions from infected carcasses. Rapid culling and carcass disposal are well-established strategies for stamping out an outbreak and limiting its impact, however, wait-times for these procedures, i.e., response delays, are typically farm-specific and time-varying due to logistical constraints. Failing to incorporate variable response delays in epidemiological models may understate outbreak projections...

Auditory cortical representation of music favours the perceived beat

Vani G. Rajendran, Nicol S. Harper & Jan W. H. Schnupp
Previous research has shown that musical beat perception is a surprisingly complex phenomenon involving widespread neural coordination across higher-order sensory, motor, and cognitive areas. However, the question of how low-level auditory processing must necessarily shape these dynamics, and therefore perception, is not well understood. Here, we present evidence that the auditory cortical representation of music, even in the absence of motor or top-down activations, already favors the beat that will be perceived. Extracellular firing rates...

Evolutionary versatility of the avian neck

Ryan Marek, Peter Falkingham, Roger Benson, James Gardiner, Thomas Maddox & Karl Bates
Bird necks display unparalleled levels of morphological diversity compared to other vertebrates, yet it is unclear what factors have structured this variation. Using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics we show that the avian cervical column is a hierarchical morpho-functional appendage, with varying magnitudes of ecologically-driven morphological variation at different scales of organisation. Contrary to expectations given the widely-varying ecological functions of necks in different species, we find that regional modularity of the avian neck...

Participatory Mapping Reveals Sociocultural Drivers of Forest Fires in Protected Areas of the Post-Conflict Colombian Amazon

Charles Tebbutt, Tahia Devisscher, Laura Obando-Cabrera, Gustavo Adolfo Gutiérrez García, María Meza Elizalde, Dolors Armenteras & Imma Oliveras
1. Wildfires have increased in protected areas (PAs) of the Colombian Amazon following the 2016 peace agreement between the Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forced of Colombia (FARC – Spanish acronym). Recent study efforts to understand this issue suffer from data scarcity and limited consultation of local stakeholder perspectives on factors affecting wildfires. 2. This study uses a social-ecological systems framework to investigate local perceptions of factors driving and / or preventing wildfires in the...

Data from: Magnesium efflux from Drosophila Kenyon Cells is critical for normal and diet-enhanced long-term memory

Yanying Wu
Dietary magnesium (Mg2+) supplementation can enhance memory in young and aged rats. Memory-enhancing capacity was largely ascribed to increases in hippocampal synaptic density and elevated expression of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. Here we show that Mg2+ feeding also enhances long-term memory in Drosophila. Normal and Mg2+ enhanced fly memory appears independent of NMDA receptors in the mushroom body and instead requires expression of a conserved CNNM-type Mg2+-efflux transporter encoded by the...

Gene-drive suppression of mosquito populations in large cages as a bridge between lab and field

Andrew Hammond, Paola Pollegioni, Tania Persampieri, Ace North, Roxana Minuz, Alessandro Trusso, Alessandro Bucci, Kyros Kyrou, Ioanna Morianou, Alekos Simoni, Tony Nolan, Ruth Müller & Andrea Crisanti
CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology. Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours. The gene-drive element spreads rapidly through the...

Data from: A Silurian ophiuroid with soft tissue preservation

Reece Carter, Mark Sutton, Derek Briggs, David Siveter & Derek Siveter
Palaeozoic brittle stars are not equipped with the fused arm ossicles (vertebrae) that facilitate the remarkable mode of walking that characterizes living forms. Here we describe a stem ophiuroid from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte (Silurian, Wenlock Series) which is remarkable in preserving the body cavity uncompacted and long tube feet which lack suckers. We tentatively assign the specimen to Protaster. The morphology of the arms and attitude of the specimen suggest that locomotion was achieved by...

Data from: Ecological and biogeographic drivers of biodiversity cannot be resolved using clade age-richness data

Daniel Rabosky & Roger Benson
Estimates of evolutionary diversification rates – speciation and extinction – have been used extensively to explain global biodiversity patterns. Many studies have analysed diversification rates derived from just two pieces of information: a clade's age and its extant species richness. This "age-richness rate" (ARR) estimator provides a convenient shortcut for comparative studies, but makes strong assumptions about the dynamics of species richness through time. We demonstrate that use of the ARR estimator in comparative studies...

Testing the effectiveness of the Forest Integrity Assessment: A field-based tool for estimating the condition of tropical forest

Andrew Suggitt, Kok Yeong, Anders Lindhe, Agnes Agama, Keith Hamer, Glen Reynolds, Jane Hill & Jennifer Lucey
1. Global targets to halt biodiversity losses and mitigate climate change will require protecting rainforest beyond current protected area networks, necessitating responsible forest stewardship from a diverse range of companies, communities and private individuals. Robust assessments of forest condition are critical for successful forest management, but many existing techniques are highly technical, time-consuming, expensive, or require specialist knowledge. 2. To make assessment of tropical forests accessible to a wide range of actors, many of whom...

Ocean and ice spin-up data for role of surface gravity waves in aquaplanet ocean climates

Joshua Studholme, Margarita Markina & Sergey Gulev
This data corresponds to the runs analysed in the manscript: Role of Surface Gravity Waves in Aquaplanet Ocean Climates (JAMES, 2021). In this work, we present a set of idealised numerical experiments that demonstrate the thermodynamic and dynamic implications of surface gravity waves for the oceanic climate of an aquaplanet. We study the impact of accounting for modulations by such waves upon air-sea momentum fluxes, Langmuir circulation and the Stokes-Coriolis force. This dataset is made...

Association with a novel protective microbe facilitates host adaptation to a stressful environment

Kim Hoang, Nicole Gerardo & Levi Morran
Protective symbionts can allow hosts to occupy otherwise uninhabitable niches. Despite the importance of symbionts in host evolution, we know little about how these associations arise. Encountering a microbe that can improve host fitness in a stressful environment may favor persistent interactions with that microbe, potentially facilitating a long-term association. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis protects Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes from heat shock by increasing host fecundity compared to the non-protective Escherichia coli. In this study, we...

Microsatellite data of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria offspring and their inferred mother plants from 13 populations in the South-Western Finnish Archipelago

Anne Muola, J. F. Scheepens, Liisa Laukkanen, Aino Kalske, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Fragmented landscapes may have implications for the genetic structure of populations and for the microevolution of plant species. In particular, landscape fragmentation and/or population isolation might affect the evolution of plant mating systems. Here, we study the consequences of landscape fragmentation on the genetic structure of populations of a perennial herb, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria with a mixed mating system. Our study area, the south-western Finnish archipelago, was formed after the glacial ice sheet started to retreat...

HIV-1 fusion is disrupted by addition of deoxygluose and is rescued with addition of cholesterol

Sergi Padilla-Parra
There has been resurgence in determining the role of host metabolism in viral infection yet deciphering how the metabolic state of single cells affects viral entry and fusion remains unknown. Here, we have developed a novel assay multiplexing genetically-encoded biosensors with single virus tracking (SVT) to evaluate the influence of global metabolic processes on the success rate of virus entry in single cells. We found that cells with a lower ATP:ADP ratio prior to virus...

Data from: Local prey shortages drive foraging costs and breeding success in a declining seabird, the Atlantic puffin

Annette L Fayet, Gemma V Clucas, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Martyna Syposz & Erpur S Hansen
As more and more species face anthropogenic threats, understanding causes of population declines in vulnerable taxa is essential. However, long-term datasets, ideal to identify lasting or indirect effects on fitness measures such as those caused by environmental factors, are not always available. Here we use a single year but multi-population approach on populations with contrasting demographic trends to identify possible drivers and mechanisms of seabird population changes in the north-east Atlantic, using the Atlantic puffin,...

Datasets and documentation PRELIM Pilot Survey 2017: Getting sustainable, person-centred musculoskeletal health intelligence from primary care electronic health record linkage and modelling: the PRELIM initiative.

Ross Wilkie, Dahai Yu, Kelvin P. Jordan, George M. Peat, Jo Protheroe, Clare Jinks, Kate Dunn, Mamas Mamas, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Alan Silman & Karen Walker-Bone

Mammaliaform extinctions as a driver of the morphological radiation of Cenozoic mammals

Neil Brocklehurst, Elsa Panciroli, Gemma Benevento & Roger B.J. Benson
Adaptive radiations are hypothesised as a generating mechanism for much of the morphological diversity of extant species1,2,3,4,5,6,7. The Cenozoic radiation of placental mammals, the foundational example of this concept8,9, gave rise to much of the morphological disparity of extant mammals, and is generally attributed to relaxed evolutionary constraints following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs10,11,12,13. However, study of this and other radiations has focussed on variation in evolutionary rates4,5,7,14, leaving the extent to which relaxation of...

Functional assembly of tropical montane tree islands in the Atlantic Forest is shaped by stress-tolerance, bamboo-presence and facilitation

Tina Christmann, Bruno H.P. Rosado, Guillaume Delhaye, ILAINE MATOS, Helena Roland, Yan Moraes, Julia Drummond & Imma Oliveras
Aims: Amidst the Campos de Altitude (Highland Grasslands) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, woody communities grow either clustered in tree islands or interspersed within the herbaceous matrix. The functional ecology, diversity and biotic processes shaping these plant communities are largely unstudied. We characterised the functional assembly and diversity of these tropical montane woody communities and investigated how they fit within Grime’s CSR (C – competitor, S – stress-tolerant, R – ruderal) scheme, what functional trade-offs...

The use of nanobodies in a sensitive ELISA test for SARS-CoV-2 antigens

Georgina C. Girt, Abirami Lakshminarayanan, Jiandong Huo, Joshua Dormon, Chelsea Norman, Babak Afrough, Adam Harding, William James, Raymond J. Owens & James H. Naismith
This dataset contains data from ELISA experiments described in the paper "The use of nanobodies in a sensitive ELISA test for SARS-CoV-2 antigens." The ELISA determine the levels of sensitivity of various combinations of in-house engineered nanobodies specific for SARS-CoV-2, against recombinant spike protein, as well as viral samples.

Features of lexical richness in children’s books: Comparisons with child-directed speech

Nicola Dawson, Yaling Hsiao, Alvin Tan, Nilanjana Banerji & Kate Nation

Data from: Ancestral ecological regime shapes reaction to food limitation in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa

Anja Felmy, Jeff Leips & Joseph Travis
Populations with different densities often show genetically-based differences in life histories. The divergent life histories could be driven by several agents of selection, one of which is variation in per-capita food levels. Its relationship with population density is complex, as it depends on overall food availability, individual metabolic demand, and food-independent factors potentially affecting density, such as predation intensity. Here we present a case study of two populations of a small live-bearing freshwater fish, one...

Boosting early years learning during COVID-19

Catherine N. Davies, Alexandra Hendry & Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez
High-quality, centre-based Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) benefits toddlers’ development. New research investigated the effects of the COVID-19 disruptions on attendance and learning. It showed that ECEC boosted language and thinking skills throughout the pandemic, particularly in children from less advantaged backgrounds. This shows the importance of fully-funded ECEC for developing key skills and for levelling inequalities.

Registration Year

  • 2021
    62

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    55
  • Text
    6
  • Image
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    62
  • Yale University
    8
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
    4
  • University of Leeds
    4
  • University of Leicester
    3
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Manchester
    2
  • University College Cork
    2
  • University of Copenhagen
    2
  • Colorado State University
    2