95 Works

Functional assembly of tropical montane tree islands in the Atlantic Forest is shaped by stress-tolerance, bamboo-presence and facilitation

Tina Christmann, Bruno H.P. Rosado, Guillaume Delhaye, ILAINE MATOS, Helena Roland, Yan Moraes, Julia Drummond & Imma Oliveras
Aims: Amidst the Campos de Altitude (Highland Grasslands) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, woody communities grow either clustered in tree islands or interspersed within the herbaceous matrix. The functional ecology, diversity and biotic processes shaping these plant communities are largely unstudied. We characterised the functional assembly and diversity of these tropical montane woody communities and investigated how they fit within Grime’s CSR (C – competitor, S – stress-tolerant, R – ruderal) scheme, what functional trade-offs...

Testing the effectiveness of the Forest Integrity Assessment: A field-based tool for estimating the condition of tropical forest

Andrew Suggitt, Kok Yeong, Anders Lindhe, Agnes Agama, Keith Hamer, Glen Reynolds, Jane Hill & Jennifer Lucey
1. Global targets to halt biodiversity losses and mitigate climate change will require protecting rainforest beyond current protected area networks, necessitating responsible forest stewardship from a diverse range of companies, communities and private individuals. Robust assessments of forest condition are critical for successful forest management, but many existing techniques are highly technical, time-consuming, expensive, or require specialist knowledge. 2. To make assessment of tropical forests accessible to a wide range of actors, many of whom...

Mammaliaform extinctions as a driver of the morphological radiation of Cenozoic mammals

Neil Brocklehurst, Elsa Panciroli, Gemma Benevento & Roger B.J. Benson
Adaptive radiations are hypothesised as a generating mechanism for much of the morphological diversity of extant species1,2,3,4,5,6,7. The Cenozoic radiation of placental mammals, the foundational example of this concept8,9, gave rise to much of the morphological disparity of extant mammals, and is generally attributed to relaxed evolutionary constraints following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs10,11,12,13. However, study of this and other radiations has focussed on variation in evolutionary rates4,5,7,14, leaving the extent to which relaxation of...

Ocean and ice spin-up data for role of surface gravity waves in aquaplanet ocean climates

Joshua Studholme, Margarita Markina & Sergey Gulev
This data corresponds to the runs analysed in the manscript: Role of Surface Gravity Waves in Aquaplanet Ocean Climates (JAMES, 2021). In this work, we present a set of idealised numerical experiments that demonstrate the thermodynamic and dynamic implications of surface gravity waves for the oceanic climate of an aquaplanet. We study the impact of accounting for modulations by such waves upon air-sea momentum fluxes, Langmuir circulation and the Stokes-Coriolis force. This dataset is made...

Data from: Local prey shortages drive foraging costs and breeding success in a declining seabird, the Atlantic puffin

Annette L Fayet, Gemma V Clucas, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Martyna Syposz & Erpur S Hansen
As more and more species face anthropogenic threats, understanding causes of population declines in vulnerable taxa is essential. However, long-term datasets, ideal to identify lasting or indirect effects on fitness measures such as those caused by environmental factors, are not always available. Here we use a single year but multi-population approach on populations with contrasting demographic trends to identify possible drivers and mechanisms of seabird population changes in the north-east Atlantic, using the Atlantic puffin,...

Data from: Postcrania of Borealestes (Mammaliformes: Docodonta) and the emergence of ecomorphological diversity in early mammals

Elsa Panciroli, Roger Benson, Vincent Fernandez, Matthew Humpage, Alberto Martin-Serra, Stig Walsh, Zhe-Xi Luo & Nick Fraser
The Middle Jurassic witnessed the early diversification of mammal groups, including the stem-mammalian clade, Docodonta. Recent discoveries in China indicate docodontans exhibited ecomorphological diversity akin to small-bodied mammals living >100 million years later, in the Cenozoic. Our understanding of the emergence of this ecological diversity is hindered by a lack of Middle Jurassic fossil material from other parts of the world. The two partial postcranial skeletons of Borealestes described here come from the Kilmaluag Formation,...

Microsatellite data of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria offspring and their inferred mother plants from 13 populations in the South-Western Finnish Archipelago

Anne Muola, J. F. Scheepens, Liisa Laukkanen, Aino Kalske, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Fragmented landscapes may have implications for the genetic structure of populations and for the microevolution of plant species. In particular, landscape fragmentation and/or population isolation might affect the evolution of plant mating systems. Here, we study the consequences of landscape fragmentation on the genetic structure of populations of a perennial herb, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria with a mixed mating system. Our study area, the south-western Finnish archipelago, was formed after the glacial ice sheet started to retreat...

Association with a novel protective microbe facilitates host adaptation to a stressful environment

Kim Hoang, Nicole Gerardo & Levi Morran
Protective symbionts can allow hosts to occupy otherwise uninhabitable niches. Despite the importance of symbionts in host evolution, we know little about how these associations arise. Encountering a microbe that can improve host fitness in a stressful environment may favor persistent interactions with that microbe, potentially facilitating a long-term association. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis protects Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes from heat shock by increasing host fecundity compared to the non-protective Escherichia coli. In this study, we...

Data from: Ecological and biogeographic drivers of biodiversity cannot be resolved using clade age-richness data

Daniel Rabosky & Roger Benson
Estimates of evolutionary diversification rates – speciation and extinction – have been used extensively to explain global biodiversity patterns. Many studies have analysed diversification rates derived from just two pieces of information: a clade's age and its extant species richness. This "age-richness rate" (ARR) estimator provides a convenient shortcut for comparative studies, but makes strong assumptions about the dynamics of species richness through time. We demonstrate that use of the ARR estimator in comparative studies...

Analysis of independent cohorts of outbred CFW mice reveals novel loci for behavioral and physiological traits and identifies factors determining reproducibility

Jennifer Zou, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Clarissa Parker, Jerome Nicod, Richard Mott, Na Cai, Arimantas Lionikas, Robert Davies, Abraham Palmer & Jonathan Flint
Combining samples for genetic association is standard practice in human genetic analysis of complex traits, but is rarely undertaken in rodent genetics. Here, using 23 phenotypes and genotypes from two independent laboratories, we obtained a sample size of 3,076 commercially available outbred mice and identified 70 loci, more than double the number of loci identified in the component studies. Fine-mapping in the combined sample reduced the number of likely causal variants, with a median reduction...

The R package enerscape: A general energy landscape framework for terrestrial movement ecology

Emilio Berti, Marco Davoli, Robert Buitenwerf, Alexander Dyer, Oskar Hansen, Myriam Hirt, Jens-Christian Svenning, Jördis Terlau, Ulrich Brose & Fritz Vollrath
Ecological processes and biodiversity patterns are strongly affected by how animals move through the landscape. However, it remains challenging to predict animal movement and space use. Here we present our new R package enerscape to quantify and predict animal movement in real landscapes based on energy expenditure. Enerscape integrates a general locomotory model for terrestrial animals with GIS tools in order to map energy costs of movement in a given environment, resulting in energy landscapes...

Data for: Direct evidence for increased disease resistance in polyandrous broods exists only in eusocial

Deanna Soper, Alice Ekroth & M Joao Martins
Background The ‘genetic diversity’ hypothesis posits that polyandry evolved as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity within broods. One extension of this hypothesis is the ‘genetic diversity for disease resistance’ hypothesis (GDDRH). Originally designed for eusocial Hymenoptera, GDDRH states that polyandry will evolve as an effect of lower parasite prevalence in genetically variable broods. However, this hypothesis has been broadly applied to several other taxa. It is unclear how much empirical evidence supports GDDRH specifically,...

Identifying relationships between multi-scale social-ecological factors to explore ungulate health in a Western Kazakhstan rangeland

Munib Khanyari, Sarah Robinson, Eric Morgan, Albert Salemgareyev & E.J. Milner-Gulland
1. Rangelands are multi-use landscapes which are socially and ecologically important in different ways. Among other interactions, shared use of rangelands by wildlife and livestock can lead to disease transmission. Understanding wildlife and livestock health and managing disease transmission in rangelands requires an integration of social and ecological knowledge. 2. Using the example of Western Kazakhstan, home to two types of ungulate hosts, the critically-endangered saiga antelopes, Saiga tatarica, and livestock, we conducted a cross-scale...

Tetracyanoresorcin[4]arene selectively recognises trimethyllysine and inhibits its enzyme-catalysed demethylation

Hayden Peacock, Cyrille C. Thinnes, Akane Kawamura & Andrew D. Hamilton
(2016). Tetracyanoresorcin[4]arene selectively recognises trimethyllysine and inhibits its enzyme-catalysed demethylation. Supramolecular Chemistry: Vol. 28, Thirteenth International Conference on Calixarenes (Calix 2015), pp. 575-581.

The Spinout Journey: Barriers and Enablers to Gender Inclusive Innovation. Summary Report

Heather Griffiths, Louise Grisoni, Simonetta Manfredi, Alexis Still & Charikleia Tzanakou

AI3SD Video: Skills4Scientists - Poster & Careers Symposium - Poster Compilation

András Vekassy, Aspen Fenzl, Erhan Gulsen, Hewan Zewdu, Jamie Longio, Maximilian Hoffman, Rhyan Barrett, Rubaiyat Khondaker, Anna Catton, Hongyang Dong, Kevin Calvache, Kaylee Patel, King Wong, Louis Greenhalgh, Rebecca Jane Clements, Thomas Allam, Sarah Scripps, Gavin Man, Samuel Munday, Michael Blakey, Graeme M. Day, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Simon J. Coles, Stephen Gow & William Brocklesby
This video forms part of the Skills4Scientists Series which has been organised as a joint venture between the Artificial Intelligence for Scientific Discovery Network+ (AI3SD) and the Physical Sciences Data-Science Service (PSDS). This series ran over summer 2021 and aims to educate and improve scientists skills in a range of areas including research data management, python, version control, ethics, and career development. This series is primarily aimed at final year undergraduates / early stage PhD...

Stabian Baths in Pompeii. New Research on the Archaic Defenses of the City

Mark Robinson, Monika Trümper, Clemens Brünenberg, Jens-Arne Dickmann, Domenico Esposito, Antonio F. Ferrandes, Giacomo Pardini, Alessandra Pegurri & Christoph Rummel
The plan of the Archaic city of Pompeii and the existence of a distinct walled Altstadt have been much debated in scholarship. The area of the Stabian Baths plays a key role in this debate. Based on a series of excavations in the palaestra of the baths, Heinrich Sulze (1940) and particularly Hans Eschebach (1970s) reconstructed a defensive wall and parallel ditch in this area. Eschebach also identified an Archaic street and city gate in...

Middle Ages in Renaissance

Maria Clotilde Camboni & Chiara Lastraioli

Data associated with 'Multi-scale simulations of the T cell receptor reveal its lipid interactions, dynamics and the arrangement of its cytoplasmic region'

Dheeraj Prakaash, Graham Cook, oreste acuto & Antreas Kalli
The T cell receptor (TCR-CD3) initiates T cell activation by binding to peptides of Major Histocompatibility Complexes (pMHC). The TCR-CD3 topology is well understood but the arrangement and dynamics of its cytoplasmic tails remains unknown, limiting our grasp of the signalling mechanism. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations and modelling to investigate the entire TCR-CD3 embedded in a model membrane. Our study demonstrates conformational changes in the extracellular and transmembrane domains, and the arrangement of...

UK Web Archive Annual Report April 2020 - March 2021

The UK Web Archive is a shared resource and collaborative activity of the six UK legal deposit libraries. Since April 2013 it has been a cornerstone of our collecting under legal deposit. This report covers an exceptional year, which has highlighted the strengths, resilience and adaptability of staff across the legal deposit libraries in responding to collection challenges and maintaining services to users. In this year, we have curated a detailed collection to document the...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Data from: Fossils improve phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Russell Garwood & Luke Parry
Fossils provide our only direct window into evolutionary events in the distant past. Incorporating them into phylogenetic hypotheses of living clades can help time-calibrate divergences, as well as elucidate macroevolutionary dynamics. However, the effect fossils have on phylogenetic reconstruction from morphology remains controversial. The consequences of explicitly incorporating the stratigraphic ages of fossils using tip-dated inference are also unclear. Here we use simulations to evaluate the performance of inference methods across different levels of fossil...

The first Silurian trilobite with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts reveals novel appendage morphology

Mark Sutton, Derek Siveter, Richard Fortey, Derek Briggs & David Siveter
The first Silurian trilobite known with soft parts preserved, a Dalmanites species, is described from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte. Biramous appendages and much of the alimentary system are evident. High-fidelity three-dimensional preservation reveals a novel, double arrangement of the exopod filaments, interconnected by a presumed membranous sheet. This morphology explains a misinterpretation of the exopod as supporting spiral structures, originally reported nearly 150 years ago. The new exopod morphology is considered primarily respiratory in function and...

Early‐life seasonal, weather and social effects on telomere length in a wild mammal

Sil H.J. Van Lieshout, Elisa P. Badás, Julius G. Bright Ross, Amanda Bretman, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
Early-life environmental conditions can provide a source of individual variation in life-history strategies and senescence patterns. Conditions experienced in early life can be quantified by measuring telomere length, which can act as a biomarker of survival probability in some species. Here, we investigate whether seasonal changes, weather conditions, and group size are associated with early-life and/or early-adulthood telomere length in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We found substantial intra-annual changes in telomere...

A shift in ontogenetic timing produced the unique sauropod skull

Matteo Fabbri, Guillermo Navalón, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Michael Hanson, Holger Petermann & Bhart-Anjan Bhullar
Sauropod dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial vertebrates that have ever lived. Virtually every part of the sauropod body is heavily modified in association with gigantic size and associated physiological alterations. Sauropod skulls are no exception: they feature elongated, telescoped facial regions connected to tilted neurocrania and reoriented jaw adductor muscles. Several of these cranial features have been suggested to be adaptations for feeding on the one hand and the result of paedomorphic transformation near the...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Journal Article
  • Report
  • Image
  • Audiovisual


  • University of Oxford
  • University of Leeds
  • Yale University
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • University College London
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Florida
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Groningen