99 Works

Participatory Mapping Reveals Sociocultural Drivers of Forest Fires in Protected Areas of the Post-Conflict Colombian Amazon

Charles Tebbutt, Tahia Devisscher, Laura Obando-Cabrera, Gustavo Adolfo Gutiérrez García, María Meza Elizalde, Dolors Armenteras & Imma Oliveras
1. Wildfires have increased in protected areas (PAs) of the Colombian Amazon following the 2016 peace agreement between the Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forced of Colombia (FARC – Spanish acronym). Recent study efforts to understand this issue suffer from data scarcity and limited consultation of local stakeholder perspectives on factors affecting wildfires. 2. This study uses a social-ecological systems framework to investigate local perceptions of factors driving and / or preventing wildfires in the...

Data from: New information on the Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis

Elizabeth Griffiths, David Ford, Roger Benson & Susan E. Evans
The earliest known crown-group lepidosaurs are known from the Middle Triassic, however their stem group is poorly sampled, with only a few representative fossils found. This is partly due to the small size and delicate bones of early stem-lepidosaurs (=lepidosauromorphs) which make both preservation in the fossil record and subsequent discovery less likely. The mid Jurassic lepidosauromorph Marmoretta oxoniensis Evans 1991 is re-examined using high-resolution µCT scanning to reveal parts of the skull anatomy that...

Tree phenology - observer intercalibration and individual tree phenological scoring

Nicolas Delpierre, Isabelle Chuine & Eleanor Cole
We report data documenting (1) the dynamics of budburst and leaf senescence in three European natural forest tree populations over the period od 2012-2015 and (2) the variability among phenological observers as documented from seven observer inter-calibration experiments conducted in France over 2007-2017 for both the budburst and leaf senescence period.

Intraspecific variation in symbiont density in an insect-microbe symbiosis

Benjamin Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa McLean, Charles Godfray & Jennifer Brisson
Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation in symbiont density using the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the bacterium Regiella insecticola, a symbiont that can protect its host against fungal pathogens. We...

Data from: A Silurian ophiuroid with soft tissue preservation

Reece Carter, Mark Sutton, Derek Briggs, David Siveter & Derek Siveter
Palaeozoic brittle stars are not equipped with the fused arm ossicles (vertebrae) that facilitate the remarkable mode of walking that characterizes living forms. Here we describe a stem ophiuroid from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte (Silurian, Wenlock Series) which is remarkable in preserving the body cavity uncompacted and long tube feet which lack suckers. We tentatively assign the specimen to Protaster. The morphology of the arms and attitude of the specimen suggest that locomotion was achieved by...

Evolutionary versatility of the avian neck

Ryan Marek, Peter Falkingham, Roger Benson, James Gardiner, Thomas Maddox & Karl Bates
Bird necks display unparalleled levels of morphological diversity compared to other vertebrates, yet it is unclear what factors have structured this variation. Using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics we show that the avian cervical column is a hierarchical morpho-functional appendage, with varying magnitudes of ecologically-driven morphological variation at different scales of organisation. Contrary to expectations given the widely-varying ecological functions of necks in different species, we find that regional modularity of the avian neck...

Gene-drive suppression of mosquito populations in large cages as a bridge between lab and field

Andrew Hammond, Paola Pollegioni, Tania Persampieri, Ace North, Roxana Minuz, Alessandro Trusso, Alessandro Bucci, Kyros Kyrou, Ioanna Morianou, Alekos Simoni, Tony Nolan, Ruth Müller & Andrea Crisanti
CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology. Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours. The gene-drive element spreads rapidly through the...

The elephant in the family: Costs and benefits of elder siblings on younger offspring life-history trajectory in a matrilineal mammal

Vérane Berger, Sophie Reichert, Mirkka Lahdenperä, John Jackson, Win Htut & Virpi Lummaa
1. Many mammals grow up with siblings, and interactions between them can influence offspring phenotype and fitness. Among these interactions, sibling competition between different-age offspring should lead to reproductive and survival costs on the younger sibling, while sibling cooperation should improve younger sibling’s reproductive potential and survival. However, little is known about the consequences of sibling effects on younger offspring life history trajectory, especially in long-lived mammals. 2. We take advantage of a large, multigenerational...

Relatedness modulates density-dependent cannibalism rates in Drosophila

Adam Fisher, Sally Le Page, Andri Manser, Daniel Lewis, Gregory Holwell, Stuart Wigby & Tom Price
1. Cannibalism is taxonomically widespread, and can have large impacts on individual fitness and population-level processes. As such, identifying how cannibalism rates vary in response to ecological cues is important for predicting species evolution and population dynamics. 2. In this study, we aimed to identify several eco-evolutionary factors that affect cannibalism rate and measure how they interacted with one another. 3. To do this, we conducted two experiments using complimentary methods to measure how cannibalism...

Potential afforestation scenarios based on catchment structure and land cover for twelve catchments in Great Britain for use with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES)

M. Buechel
Data comprise a set of broadleaf afforestation scenarios (provided as netCDF files) that may be run with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), a community land surface model. The scenarios are based on the CEH Land Cover 2000 classification. Afforestation takes place according to catchment structure and existing land cover. Scenarios cover twelve river catchments in Great Britain: Dee, Tay, Ouse, Ure, Derwent, Thames, Avon, Tamar, Severn at Bewdley , Severn at Haw Bridge,...

Time-resolved structured illumination microscopy reveals key principles of Xist RNA spreading

Lisa Rodermund
Xist RNA directs the process of X-chromosome inactivation in mammals by spreading in cis along the chromosome from which it is transcribed and recruiting chromatin modifiers to silence gene transcription. To elucidate mechanisms of Xist RNA cis-confinement, we established a sequential dual-color labeling, super-resolution imaging approach to trace individual Xist RNA molecules over time, enabling us to define fundamental parameters of spreading. We demonstrate a feedback mechanism linking Xist RNA synthesis and degradation, and an...

Geochemical Data for the Olla and Nebo-Hemphill Oil Fields, Louisiana

Rebecca L Tyne, Peter H Barry, Michael Lawson, Hao Xie, Darren J Hillegonds, John M Eiler & Chris J Ballentine
Formation water geochemistry and gas geochemistry from 6 wells in the Olla Oil Field and 7 wells in the Nebo-Hemphill Oil Field Louisiana (Longitude range: -92.2297 to -92.1487, Latitude range: 31.83128 to 31.56586.), sampled in 2015. Formation water geochemistry for cation and anions and in mmol/l and ppm, these were measured at an internal ExxonMobil facility. Casing gases were used to make the remaining measurements. Stable noble gas isotopes (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) were...

Boosting early years learning during COVID-19

Catherine N. Davies, Alexandra Hendry & Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez
High-quality, centre-based Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) benefits toddlers’ development. New research investigated the effects of the COVID-19 disruptions on attendance and learning. It showed that ECEC boosted language and thinking skills throughout the pandemic, particularly in children from less advantaged backgrounds. This shows the importance of fully-funded ECEC for developing key skills and for levelling inequalities.

Singing Utopia: Body and Voice in Boys Don’t Cry, Orlando, and Una Mujer Fantástica

Eleonora Colli
In this article, I analyse how gender identity is represented and constructed in Kimberly Peirce’s Boys Don’t Cry (1999), Sally Potter’s Orlando (1992), and Sebastian Leilo’s Una Mujer Fantástica (2017). Taking from Muñoz’s theories of queer futurity and performance, I argue that the focus on the singing voice displayed in Orlando and Una MujerFantástica, particularly when it comes to transgender and/or gender-bending characters, indeed constitute a powerful representation of queer futurity, in its never tangible...

No country(side) for young queers: Three contemporary Italian urban-rural narratives

Alice Parrinello
The paper presents an overview of three Italian takes on the queer rural-to-urban flight, by analysing Generations of Love (1999) by Matteo B. Bianchi, La Generazione (‘Generations,’ 2015) by Flavia Biondi, and Febbre (‘Fever,’ 2019) by Jonathan Bazzi. In most LGBTQ+ narratives moving to a big city is central, as it is associated with finding an accepting ‘chosen’ family. However, the move has recently acquired homonormative connotations: it is embedded into narratives of economic success...

Features of lexical richness in children’s books: Comparisons with child-directed speech

Nicola Dawson, Yaling Hsiao, Alvin Tan, Nilanjana Banerji & Kate Nation

RepeatModeler and RepeatMasker output files

Reuben Nowell, Christopher Wilson, Pedro Almeida, Philipp Schiffer, Diego Fontaneto, Lutz Becks, Fernando Rodriguez, Irina Arkhipova & Timothy Barraclough
Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish genomic parasites whose ability to spread autonomously is facilitated by sexual reproduction in their hosts. If hosts become obligately asexual, TE frequencies and dynamics are predicted to change dramatically, but the long-term outcome is unclear. Here, we test current theory using whole-genome sequence data from eight species of bdelloid rotifers, a class of invertebrates in which males are thus far unknown. Contrary to expectations, we find a variety of active...

Data from: The molecular phylogeny of Chionaster nivalis reveals a novel order of psychrophilic and globally distributed Tremellomycetes (Fungi, Basidiomycota)

Nicholas Irwin, Chantelle Twynstra, Varsha Mathur & Patrick Keeling
Snow and ice present challenging substrates for cellular growth, yet microbial snow communities not only exist, but are diverse and ecologically impactful. These communities are dominated by green algae, but additional organisms, such as fungi, are also abundant and may be important for nutrient cycling, syntrophic interactions, and community structure in general. However, little is known about these non-algal community members, including their taxonomic affiliations. An example of this is Chionaster nivalis, a unicellular fungus...

International media coverage of the Bolivian jaguar trade

Yuhan Li, Melissa Arias, Amy Hinsley & E.J. Milner-Gulland
The trade in jaguar body parts is viewed as an alarming threat to the jaguar, and there is the assumption that Chinese demand is driving the trade. However, there has been little analysis of the discourses around the trade both with respect to the Chinese public, internationally and in source countries. We analysed 298 media articles in Chinese, English and Spanish languages from 2010 to 2019, to understand the disparities in reporting of this jaguar...

Data for: Plasmids do not consistently stabilize cooperation across bacteria, but may promote broad pathogen host-range

Anna Dewar
Horizontal gene transfer via plasmids could favour cooperation in bacteria, because transfer of a cooperative gene turns non-cooperative cheats into cooperators. This hypothesis has received support from theoretical, genomic and experimental analyses. In contrast, we show here, with a comparative analysis across 51 diverse species, that genes for extracellular proteins, which are likely to act as cooperative ‘public goods’, were not more likely to be carried on either: (i) plasmids compared to chromosomes; or (ii)...

The evolution of size-dependent competitive interactions promotes species coexistence

Jaime Mauricio Anaya-Rojas, Ronald D Bassar, Tomos Potter, Allison Blanchette, Shay Callahan, Nick Framstead, David Reznick & Joseph Travis
1. Theory indicates that competing species coexist in a community when intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition. When body size determines the outcome of competitive interactions between individuals, coexistence depends also on how resource use and the ability to compete for these resources change with body size. Testing coexistence theory in size-structured communities, therefore, requires disentangling the effects of size-dependent competitive abilities and niche shifts. 2. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the evolution...

Data from: Ancestral ecological regime shapes reaction to food limitation in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa

Anja Felmy, Jeff Leips & Joseph Travis
Populations with different densities often show genetically-based differences in life histories. The divergent life histories could be driven by several agents of selection, one of which is variation in per-capita food levels. Its relationship with population density is complex, as it depends on overall food availability, individual metabolic demand, and food-independent factors potentially affecting density, such as predation intensity. Here we present a case study of two populations of a small live-bearing freshwater fish, one...

The relationship between sternum variation and mode of locomotion in birds

Talia M. Lowi-Merri, Roger B. J. Benson, Santiago Claramunt & David C. Evans
Background: The origin of powered avian flight was a locomotor innovation that expanded the ecological potential of maniraptoran dinosaurs, leading to remarkable variation in modern birds (Neornithes). The avian sternum is the anchor for the major flight muscles and, despite varying widely in morphology, has not been extensively studied from evolutionary or functional perspectives. We quantify sternal variation across a broad phylogenetic scope of birds using 3D geometric morphometrics methods. Using this comprehensive dataset, we...

The limits of demographic buffering in coping with environmental variation

Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Pol Capdevila, Eva Graciá, Jomar Barbosa, Andrés Giménez & Rob Salguero-Gomez
Animal populations have developed multiple strategies to deal with environmental change. Among them, the demographic buffering strategy consists in constraining the temporal variation of the vital rate(s) that most affect(s) the overall performance of the population. Tortoises are known to buffer their temporal variation in adult survival, which typically has the highest contribution to the population growth rate λ, at the expense of a high variability on reproductive rates, which contribute far less to λ....

Evolutionary winners are ecological losers among oceanic island plants

José María Fernández-Palacios, Rüdiger Otto, Michael K. Borregaard, Holger Kreft, Jonathan P. Price, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Patrick Weigelt & Robert J. Whittaker
Aim: Adaptive radiation, in which successful lineages proliferate by exploiting untapped niche space, provides a popular but potentially misleading characterization of evolution on oceanic islands. Here we analyse the respective roles of members of in situ diversified vs. non-diversified lineages in shaping the main ecosystems of an archipelago to explore the relationship between evolutionary and ecological ‘success’. Location: Canary Islands. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We quantified the abundance/rarity of the native flora according to the...

Registration Year

  • 2021

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  • University of Oxford
  • University of Leeds
  • Yale University
  • University College London
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Florida
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Groningen