95 Works

The elephant in the family: Costs and benefits of elder siblings on younger offspring life-history trajectory in a matrilineal mammal

Vérane Berger, Sophie Reichert, Mirkka Lahdenperä, John Jackson, Win Htut & Virpi Lummaa
1. Many mammals grow up with siblings, and interactions between them can influence offspring phenotype and fitness. Among these interactions, sibling competition between different-age offspring should lead to reproductive and survival costs on the younger sibling, while sibling cooperation should improve younger sibling’s reproductive potential and survival. However, little is known about the consequences of sibling effects on younger offspring life history trajectory, especially in long-lived mammals. 2. We take advantage of a large, multigenerational...

Relatedness modulates density-dependent cannibalism rates in Drosophila

Adam Fisher, Sally Le Page, Andri Manser, Daniel Lewis, Gregory Holwell, Stuart Wigby & Tom Price
1. Cannibalism is taxonomically widespread, and can have large impacts on individual fitness and population-level processes. As such, identifying how cannibalism rates vary in response to ecological cues is important for predicting species evolution and population dynamics. 2. In this study, we aimed to identify several eco-evolutionary factors that affect cannibalism rate and measure how they interacted with one another. 3. To do this, we conducted two experiments using complimentary methods to measure how cannibalism...

Potential afforestation scenarios based on catchment structure and land cover for twelve catchments in Great Britain for use with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES)

M. Buechel
Data comprise a set of broadleaf afforestation scenarios (provided as netCDF files) that may be run with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), a community land surface model. The scenarios are based on the CEH Land Cover 2000 classification. Afforestation takes place according to catchment structure and existing land cover. Scenarios cover twelve river catchments in Great Britain: Dee, Tay, Ouse, Ure, Derwent, Thames, Avon, Tamar, Severn at Bewdley , Severn at Haw Bridge,...

Credit Conditions and Consumption, House Prices and Debt: What Makes Canada Different?

John Muellbauer, Pierre St-Amant & David Williams
There is widespread agreement that, in the United States, higher house prices raise consumption via collateral or possibly wealth effects. The presence of similar channels in Canada would have important implications for monetary policy transmission. We trace the impact of shifts in non-price household credit conditions through joint estimation of a system of error-correction equations for Canadian aggregate consumption, house prices and mortgage debt. We find strong evidence that, after controlling for income and household...

Memory, Imagination, Identity: Pilgrimage and Portraiture in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

Helena Guzik

More or less? The effect of symbiont density in protective mutualisms

Georgia Drew
Symbionts can provide hosts with effective protection from natural enemies, but it can sometimes come at a cost. It is unclear to what extent the density of symbionts modulates the cost and benefits of conferred protection. Here we use a meta-analysis of 103 effect sizes from a broad taxonomic range of protective symbioses, to show that the degree of both protection and cost afforded to hosts is a positive function of symbiont density. We found...

Attack behaviour in naive Gyrfalcons is modelled by the same guidance law as in Peregrines, but at a lower guidance gain

Caroline Brighton
The aerial hunting behaviours of birds are strongly influenced by flight morphology and ecology, but little is known of how this relates to the behavioural algorithms guiding flight. Here we use GPS loggers to record the attack trajectories of captive-bred Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) during their maiden flights against robotic aerial targets, which we compare to existing flight data from Peregrines (Falco peregrinus). The attack trajectories of both species are well modelled by a proportional navigation...

Host genotype and genetic diversity shape the evolution of a novel bacterial infection

Alice Ekroth & Kayla King
Pathogens continue to emerge from increased contact with novel host species. Whilst these hosts can represent distinct environments for pathogens, the impacts of host genetic background on how a pathogen evolves post-emergence are unclear. In a novel interaction, we experimentally evolved a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) in populations of wild nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) to test whether host genotype and genetic diversity affect pathogen evolution. After 10 rounds of selection, we found that pathogen virulence evolved to...

Data from: Olfactory testing in Parkinson’s disease & REM behavior disorder: a machine learning approach

Christine Lo, Siddharth Arora, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Barber, Michael Lawton, Johannes Klein, Sofia Kanavou, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig, Wolfgang Oertel, Donald Grosset & Michele Hu
Objective: We sought to identify an abbreviated test of impaired olfaction, amenable for use in busy clinical environments in prodromal (isolated REM sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD)) and manifest Parkinson’s. Methods: 890 PD and 313 control participants in the Discovery cohort study underwent Sniffin’ stick odour identification assessment. Random forests were initially trained to distinguish individuals with poor (functional anosmia/hyposmia) and good (normosmia/super-smeller) smell ability using all 16 Sniffin’ sticks. Models were retrained using the top...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Data and experiment files from: Payoff-based learning best explains the rate of decline in cooperation across 237 public-goods games

Maxwell Burton-Chellew & Stuart West
What motivates human behaviour in social dilemmas? The results of public goods games are commonly interpreted as showing that humans are altruistically motivated to benefit others. However, there is a competing ‘confused learners’ hypothesis: that individuals start the game either uncertain or mistaken (confused), and then learn from experience how to improve their payoff (payoff-based learning). We: (1) show that these competing hypotheses can be differentiated by how they predict contributions should decline over time;...

A reassessment of the enigmatic diapsid Paliguana whitei and the early history of Lepidosauromorpha

David Paul Ford, Susan Evans, Jonah Choiniere, Vincent Fernandez & Roger Benson
Lepidosaurs include lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and the tuatara, comprising a highly speciose evolutionary radiation with widely varying anatomical traits. Their stem-lineage originated by the late middle Permian 259 million years ago, but its early fossil record is poorly documented, obscuring the origins of key anatomical and functional traits of the group. Paliguana whitei, from the Early Triassic of South Africa, is an enigmatic fossil species with potential to provide information on this. However, its anatomy...

Functional traits of avian species of an Afrotropical forest

Marie Laure Rurangwa
Aim: Although land-use change is a leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide, there is scant information on the extent to which it has affected the structure and composition of bird communities in the Afrotropical region. This study aimed to quantify the effects of habitat transformation on taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in Afrotropical bird communities. Location: Nyungwe landscape, a montane rainforest with adjoining farmland in south-west Rwanda. Methods: Data on bird occurrence, abundance, and functional...

Ocean and ice without waves data for role of surface gravity waves in aquaplanet ocean climates

Joshua Studholme, Margarita Markina & Sergey Gulev
This data corresponds to the runs analysed in the manscript: Role of Surface Gravity Waves in Aquaplanet Ocean Climates (JAMES, 2021). In this work, we present a set of idealised numerical experiments that demonstrate the thermodynamic and dynamic implications of surface gravity waves for the oceanic climate of an aquaplanet. We study the impact of accounting for modulations by such waves upon air-sea momentum fluxes, Langmuir circulation and the Stokes-Coriolis force. This dataset is made...

Social network centrality predicts dietary decisions in wild great tits

Keith Mc Mahon
Foraging in groups provides many benefits but also carries costs, such as competition. Social individuals can potentially alleviate competition by broadening their dietary niches through incorporating new foods. However, individuals have less information about the nutritional quality, and safety, of novel foods compared to familiar-foods. Individuals experiencing the most competitive social environments might be expected to be most likely to respond by incorporating novel foods, but it has previously been challenging to test directly how...

Videos related to: Noise matters: Elephants show risk-avoidance behaviour in response to human-generated seismic cues

Beth Mortimer, James Walker, David Leaderboard, Michael Reinwald & David Deballen
African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use many sensory modes to gather information about their environment, including the detection of seismic, or ground-based, vibrations. Seismic information is known to include elephant-generated signals, but also potentially encompasses biotic cues that are commonly referred to as ‘noise’. To investigate seismic information transfer in elephants beyond communication, here we tested the hypothesis that wild elephants detect and discriminate between seismic vibrations that differ in their noise types, whether elephant- or...

Cognition and covariance in the producer-scrounger game

Michael Reichert, Julie Morand-Ferron, Ipek Kulahci, Josh Firth, Gabrielle Davidson, Sam Crofts & John Quinn
1. The producer-scrounger game is a key element of foraging ecology in many systems. Producing and scrounging typically covary negatively, but partitioning this covariance into contributions of individual plasticity and consistent between individual differences is key to understanding population level consequences of foraging strategies. Furthermore, little is known about the role cognition plays in the producer-scrounger game. 2. We investigated the role of cognition in these alternative foraging tactics in wild mixed-species flocks of great...

Why don't all animals avoid inbreeding?

Victoria Pike, Charlie Cornwallis & Ashleigh Griffin
Individuals are expected to avoid mating with relatives as inbreeding can reduce offspring fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. This has led to the widespread assumption that selection will favour individuals that avoid mating with relatives. However, the strength of inbreeding avoidance is variable across species and there are numerous cases where related mates are not avoided. Here we test if the frequency that related males and females encounter each other explains variation in...

Exploring the mechanisms of coordinated chick provisioning in the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)

Natasha Gillies, Chris Tyson, Joe Wynn, Martyna Syposz, Cécile Vansteenberghe & Tim Guilford
Many species that provide care for their offspring in tandem with a partner coordinate their activities to maximise the efficiency of their investment. However, it is not well known exactly how this coordination is achieved. Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus are Procellariiform seabirds that exhibit a dual foraging strategy during chick provisioning in which long foraging trips to maintain condition are alternated with short, frequent trips to feed the offspring. This strategy is employed in a...

Data from 'Caroline Signori-Müller et al. 2021. Variation of non-structural carbohydrates across the fast-slow continuum in Amazon forest canopy trees. Functional Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13971'

Caroline Signori-Müller, Rafael S. Oliveira, Julia Valentim Tavares, Francisco Carvalho Diniz, Martin Gilpin, Fernanda de V. Barros, Manuel J. Marca Zevallos, Carlos A. Salas Yupayccana, Alex Nina, Mauro Brum, Timothy R. Baker, Eric G. Cosio, Yadvinder Malhi, Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, Oliver L. Phillips, Lucy Rowland1, Norma Salinas, Rodolfo Vasquez, Maurizio Mencuccini & David Galbraith

Registration Year

  • 2021
    95

Resource Types

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    81
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    5
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    3
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    3
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    2
  • Audiovisual
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    95
  • University of Leeds
    6
  • Yale University
    6
  • Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov Russian Academy of Sciences
    4
  • University of Cambridge
    4
  • University College London
    4
  • University of Manchester
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • University of Leicester
    3
  • University of Groningen
    2