109 Works

Diversity, equity, and inclusion in engineering education: an exploration of European higher education institutions’ strategic frameworks, resources, and initiatives

I. Direito, Shannon Chance, L. Clemmensen, S. Craps, S.B. Economides, S.R. Isaac, A.M. Jolly, F.R. Truscott & N. Wint

Data from: Rapid host switching in generalist Campylobacter strains erodes the signal for tracing human infections

Bethany L. Dearlove, Alison J. Cody, Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Daniel J. Wilson & Samuel K. Sheppard
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the biggest causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, with human infections typically arising from zoonotic transmission associated with infected meat. Because Campylobacter is not thought to survive well outside the gut, host-associated populations are genetically isolated to varying degrees. Therefore, the likely origin of most strains can be determined by host-associated variation in the genome. This is instructive for characterizing the source of human infection. However, some...

Data from: The landscape of realized homologous recombination in pathogenic bacteria

Koji Yahara, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Ichizo Kobayashi, Martin C. J. Maiden, Samuel K. Sheppard & Daniel Falush
Recombination enhances the adaptive potential of organisms by allowing genetic variants to be tested on multiple genomic backgrounds. Its distribution in the genome can provide insight into the evolutionary forces that underlie traits such as the emergence of pathogenicity. Here we examined landscapes of realized homologous recombination of 500 genomes from ten bacterial species, and found all species have ‘hot’ regions with elevated rates relative to the genome average. We examined the size, gene content...

Data from: Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas

Gabriele Cozzi, Luca Börger, Pascale Hutter, Daniela Abegg, Celine Beran, John Weldon McNutt & Arpat Ozgul
Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)...

Data from: Maze learning and memory in a decapod crustacean

Ross Davies, Mary Gagen & Edward Pope
Spatial learning is an ecologically important trait well studied in vertebrates and a few invertebrates yet poorly understood in crustaceans. We investigated the ability of European shore crabs, Carcinus maenas, to learn a complex maze over four consecutive weeks using food as a motivator. Crabs showed steady improvement during this conditioning period in both the time taken to find the food and in the number of wrong turns taken whilst doing so. Crabs also clearly...

Limitations of using surrogates for behaviour classification of accelerometer data: refining methods using random forest models in Caprids

Eleanor Dickinson, Joshua Twining, Rory Wilson, Philip Stephens, Jennie Westander, Nikki Marks & Michael Scantlebury
Animal-attached devices can be used on cryptic species to measure their movement and behaviour, enabling unprecedented insights into fundamental aspects of animal ecology and behaviour. However, direct observations of subjects are often still necessary to translate biologging data accurately into meaningful behaviours. As many elusive species cannot easily be observed in the wild, captive or domestic surrogates are typically used to calibrate data from devices. However, the utility of this approach remains equivocal. Here, we...

Niche differentiation and evolution of the wood decay machinery in the invasive fungus Serpula lacrymans

Jaqueline Hess, Sudhagar V. Balasundaram, Renee I Bakkemo, Elodie Drula, Bernard Henrissat, Nils Högberg, Daniel Eastwood & Inger Skrede
Ecological niche breadth and the mechanisms facilitating its evolution are fundamental to understanding adaptation to changing environments, persistence of generalist and specialist lineages and the formation of new species. Woody substrates are structurally complex resources utilized by organisms with specialized decay machinery. Wood-decaying fungi represent ideal model systems to study evolution of niche breadth, as they vary greatly in their host range and preferred decay stage of the substrate. In order to dissect the genetic...

Data from: Turning defence into offence? intrusion of cladoceran brood chambers by a green alga leads to reproductive failure

Dania Albini, Mike Fowler, Carole Llewellyn & Kam Tang
Microalgae are the foundation of aquatic food webs. Their ability to defend against grazers is paramount to their survival, and modulates their ecological functions. Here we report a novel anti-grazer strategy in the common green alga Chlorella vulgaris against two grazers, Daphnia magna and Simocephalus sp. The algal cells entered the brood chamber of both grazers, presumably using the brood current generated by the grazer’s abdominal appendages. Once inside, the alga densely colonised the eggs,...

Magellanic penguin's onland trajectory data

Flavio Quintana, Agustina Gomez-Laich, Richard Gunner, Fabian Gabelli, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Carlos Duarte, Martin Brogger & Rory Wilson
Understanding how animals move in dense environments where vision is compromised is a major challenge. We used GPS and dead-reckoning to examine the movement of Magellanic penguins commuting through vegetation that precluded long-distance vision. Birds leaving the nest followed the shortest, quickest route to the sea (the ‘ideal path’ [I-path]) but return tracks depended where the birds left the water. Penguins arriving at the beach departure spot mirrored the departure. Most of those landing at...

Airflow modelling predicts seabird breeding habitat across islands

Emmanouil Lempidakis, Andrew Ross, Luca Börger & Emily Shepard
Wind is fundamentally related to shelter and flight performance: two factors that are critical for birds at their nest sites. Despite this, airflows have never been fully integrated into models of breeding habitat selection, even for well-studied seabirds. Here we use computational fluid dynamics to provide the first assessment of whether flow characteristics (including wind speed and turbulence) predict the distribution of seabird colonies, taking common guillemots (Uria aalge) breeding on Skomer island as our...

Diversification of Molinia-dominated blanket bogs using Sphagnum propagules

Michael Pilkington, Jonathan Walker, Jonathan Walker, Chris Fry, Phil Eades, Roger Meade, Nicholas Pollett, Tony Rogers, Tom Helliwell, David Chandler, Emma Fawcett & Tom Keatley
This dataset contains vegetation and water table data from a trial described in the paper "Pilkington, M.G., Walker, J., Fry, C., Eades, P., Meade, R., Pollett, N., Rogers, T., Helliwell, T., Chandler, D., Fawcett, E. and Keatley T. (2021). Diversification of Molinia-dominated blanket bogs using Sphagnum propagules. Ecological Solutions and Evidence. Article DOI: 10.1002/2688-8319.12113 The trial investigates the establishment and growth of Sphagnum colonies arsing from planting Sphagnum propagules ("plugs") amongst purple moor grass, Molinia...

Trade and Economic Policy Uncertainty

Syed S. Hassan, Sarosh Shabi & Taufiq Choudhry
This paper studies the role of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on US trade. It contributes to the literature by analyzing the asymmetric impact of policy uncertainty on the US trade with Canada, China, Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom from December 1989 to December 2017. Results suggest that there is a negative relationship between the EPU and the US trade flows. Further, US trade responds more sensitively to a rise in uncertainty compared to an...

Marine Heterobranchia (Gastropoda, Mollusca) in Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia—A Follow-Up Diversity Study

Jan-Hendrick Eisenbarth, Nani Undap, Adelfia Papu, Dorothee Schillo, Fontje Kaligis, Robert Bara, Till Schäberle, Gabriele M. König, Nathalie Yonow & Heike Wägele
Bunaken National Park has been surveyed for a fourth time in 14 years, in an attempt to establish the species composition of heterobranch sea slugs in a baseline study for monitoring programs and protection of this special park. These molluscs are potentially good indicators of the health of an ecosystem, as many are species-specific predators on a huge variety of marine benthic and sessile invertebrates from almost every taxonomic group. Additionally, they are known to...

Parentage assignments from a genetic pedigree of a wild population of banded mongooses in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, 2000-2019

F.J. Thompson, H.J. Nichols & M.A. Cant
The data contains the genetic identity of parents (maternal and paternal identities and assignment probabilities) identified from DNA extracted from tail tips analysed using the MASTERBAYES program, for individual banded mongooses in a wild population on the Mweya Peninsula, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda between 2000-2019. A nine generation deep genetic pedigree was constructed from which maternity and paternity assignments were calculated. This data was used to calculate lifetime reproductive success for individuals in the...

Data from: Long necks enhance and constrain foraging capacity in aquatic vertebrates

Rory P. Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan E. Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D. Holton & Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Density-dependent changes in neophobia and stress-coping styles in the world’s oldest farmed fish

Toby Champneys, Giovanni Castaldo, Sofia Consuegra & Carlos Garcia De Leaniz
Farmed fish are typically reared at densities much higher than those observed in the wild, but to what extent crowding results in abnormal behaviours that can impact welfare and stress coping styles is subject to debate. Neophobia (i.e. fear of the ‘new’) is thought to be adaptive under natural conditions by limiting risks, but it is potentially maladapted in captivity, where there are no predators or novel foods. We reared juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)...

Data from: Trait-matching and mass effect determine the functional response of herbivore communities to land use intensification

Gaëtane Le Provost, Nicolas Gross, Luca Börger, Hélène Deraison, Marilyn Roncoroni & Isabelle Badenhausser
1. Trait-based approaches represent a promising way to understand how trophic interactions shape animal communities. The approach relies on the identification of the traits that mediate the linkages between adjacent trophic levels, i.e. “trait-matching”. Yet, how trait-matching explains the abundance and diversity of animal communities has been barely explored. This question may be particularly critical in the context of land use intensification, currently threatening biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. 2. We collected a large dataset...

Data from: Dynamic NF-κB and E2F interactions control the priority and timing of inflammatory signalling and cell proliferation

John M. Ankers, Raheela Awais, Nicholas A. Jones, James Boyd, Sheila Ryan, Anotony D. Adamson, Claire V. Harper, Lloyd Bridge, David G. Spiller, Dean A. Jackson, Pawel Paszek, Violaine Sée & Micheal R. H. White
Dynamic cellular systems reprogram gene expression to ensure appropriate cellular fate responses to specific extracellular cues. Here we demonstrate that the dynamics of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling and the cell cycle are prioritised differently depending on the timing of an inflammatory signal. Using iterative experimental and computational analyses, we show physical and functional interactions between NF-κB and the E2 Factor 1 (E2F-1) and E2 Factor 4 (E2F-4) cell cycle regulators. These interactions modulate...

Data from: Herbivore effect traits and their impact on plant community biomass: an experimental test using grasshoppers

Hélène Deraison, Isabelle Badenhausser, Luca Börger & Nicolas Gross
1. Using trait-based approaches to study trophic interactions may represent one of the most promising approaches to evaluate the impact of trophic interactions on ecosystem functioning. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to clearly identify which traits determine the impact of one trophic level on another. 2. Using functionally contrasting grasshopper species, we tested the ability of multiple traits (morphological, chemical and biomechanical) to predict herbivore impact on the biomass of a diverse plant...

Data from: Luck in food-finding affects individual performance and population trajectories

Rory P. Wilson, Andrew Neate, Mark D. Holton, Emily L.C. Shepard, D. Michael Scantlebury, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Agustina Di Virgilio, Elaine Crooks, Christina Mulvenna & Nikki Marks
Energy harvesting by animals is important because it provides the power needed for all metabolic processes. Beyond this, efficient food-finding enhances individual fitness [1] and population viability [2], although rates of energy accumulation are affected by the environment and food distribution. Typically, differences between individuals in the rate of food acquisition are attributed to varying competencies [3] even though food encounter rates are known to be probabilistic [4]. We used animal-attached technology to quantify food...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: The symmetry of children’s knees is linked to their adult sprinting speed and their willingness to sprint in a long-term Jamaican study

Robert Trivers, Brian G. Palestis & John T. Manning
Jamaican athletes are prominent in sprint running but the reasons for their success are not clear. Here we consider the possibility that symmetry, particularly symmetry of the legs, in Jamaican children is linked to high sprinting speed in adults. Our study population was a cohort of 288 rural children, mean age 8.2 (±1 SD = 1.7) years in 1996. Symmetry was measured in 1996 and 2006 from the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of three lower-body traits...

Data from: Genetic diversity and parasite facilitated establishment of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in Great Britain

Chloe Victoria Robinson, Carlos Garcia De Leaniz, Joanna James, Joanne Cable, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel & Sofia Consuegra
Successful establishment of non‐native species is strongly influenced, among other factors, by the genetic variation of founding populations, which can be enhanced by multiple introductions through admixture. Coexisting pathogens can also facilitate the establishment of non‐native species by detrimentally impacting on the native fauna acting as novel weapons. The signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) is a highly invasive species, which has caused mass declines of native crayfish in Europe through displacement and transmission of the oomycete...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

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