252 Works

Data from: Commonness and rarity of alien and native plant species – the relative roles of intraspecific competition and plant–soil feedback

Gregor Müller, Mark Van Kleunen & Wayne Dawson
The success of invasive alien and common native species may be explained by the same underlying mechanisms. Differences in intraspecific competition as well as differences in plant–soil feedback have been put forward as potential determinants of plant success. We teased apart the relative roles of competition and plant–soil feedback in a greenhouse experiment with 30 common and rare alien and native species from nine plant families. We tested whether plant biomass decreased less for common...

Data from: Exact Bayesian inference for animal movement in continuous time

Paul G. Blackwell, Mu Niu, Mark S. Lambert & Scott D. LaPoint
It is natural to regard most animal movement as a continuous-time process, generally observed at discrete times. Most existing statistical methods for movement data ignore this; the remainder mostly use discrete-time approximations, the statistical properties of which have not been widely studied, or are limited to special cases. We aim to facilitate wider use of continuous-time modelling for realistic problems. We develop novel methodology which allows exact Bayesian statistical analysis for a rich class of...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

Data from: Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment

Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens, Laurent Demongin, Petra Quillfeldt & Maud Poisbleau
In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass...

Data from: Genetic mapping of horizontal stripes in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: benefits and pitfalls of using of dense linkage mapping in non-model organisms

Frederico Henning, Hyuk Je Lee, Paolo Franchini & Axel Meyer
The genetic dissection of naturally occurring phenotypes sheds light on many fundamental and longstanding questions in speciation and adaptation and is a central research topic in evolutionary biology. Until recently, forward-genetic approaches were virtually impossible to apply to non-model organisms, but the development of next-generation sequencing techniques eases this difficulty. Here, we use the ddRAD-seq method to map a color trait with a known adaptive function in cichlid fishes, well-known textbook examples for rapid rates...

Data from: Shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry

Christian Peter Klingenberg, Marta Barluenga & Axel Meyer
Morphometric studies often consider parts with internal left-right symmetry, for instance, the vertebrate skull. This type of symmetry is called object symmetry and is distinguished from matching symmetry, in which two separate structures exist as mirror images of each other, one on each body side. We explain a method for partitioning the total shape variation of landmark configurations with object symmetry into components of symmetric variation among individuals and asymmetry. This method is based on...

Data from: Individual-based measurements of light intensity provide new insights into the effects of artificial light at night on daily rhythms of urban-dwelling songbirds

Davide M. Dominoni, Esther O. Carmona-Wagner, Michaela Hofmann, Bart Kranstauber & Jesko Partecke
1. The growing interest in the effects of light pollution on daily and seasonal cycles of animals has led to a boost of research in recent years. In birds, it has been hypothesized that artificial light at night can affect daily aspects of behaviour, but one caveat is the lack of knowledge about the light intensity that wild animals, such as birds, are exposed to during the night. 2. Organisms have naturally evolved daily rhythms...

Data from: Genomic architecture of ecologically divergent body shape in a pair of sympatric crater lake cichlid fishes

Paolo Franchini, Carmelo Fruciano, Maria Spreitzer, Julia C. Jones, Frederico Henning, Kathryn R. Elmer, Axel Meyer & Maria L. Spreitzer
Determining the genetic bases of adaptations and their roles in speciation are prominent issues in evolutionary biology. Cichlid fish species flocks are a prime example of recent rapid radiations often associated with adaptive phenotypic divergence from a common ancestor within a short period of time. In several radiations of freshwater fishes divergence in eco-morphological traits including body shape, color, lips and jaws, are thought to underlie their ecological differentiation, specialization and – ultimately – speciation....

Data from: Habitat and social factors shape individual decisions and emergent group structure during baboon collective movement

Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Damien R. Farine, Margaret C. Crofoot & Iain D. Couzin
For group-living animals traveling through heterogeneous landscapes, collective movement can be influenced by both habitat structure and social interactions. Yet research in collective behavior has largely neglected habitat influences on movement. Here we integrate simultaneous, high-resolution, tracking of wild baboons within a troop with a 3-dimensional reconstruction of their habitat to identify key drivers of baboon movement. A previously unexplored social influence – baboons’ preference for locations that other troop members have recently traversed –...

Data from: Nest association between two predators as a behavioral response to the low density of rodents

Ivan Pokrovsky, Dorothée Ehrich, Rolf Anker Ims, Ivan Fufachev, Olga Kulikova, Aleksandr Sokolov, Natalia Sokolova, Vasily Sokolov & Nigel Gilles Yoccoz
Many birds nest in association with aggressive birds of other species to benefit from their protection against predators. We hypothesized that the protective effect also could extend to foraging resources, whereby the resultant resource enriched habitats near a nest of aggressive raptors could be an alternative cause of associations between nesting bird species with non-overlapping foraging niches. In the Arctic, the Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus) and the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) are 2 raptor species...

Data from: Natural selection on immune defense: a field experiment

Laura Langeloh, Jasminca Maria Behrmann-Godel, Otto Seppälä & Jasminca Behrmann-Godel
Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that...

Implementing large genomic SNP datasets in phylogenetic network reconstructions: a case study of particularly rapid radiations of cichlid fish

Melisa Olave
The Midas cichlids of the Amphilophus citrinellus spp. species complex from Nicaragua, are an extraordinary adaptive rapid radiation (<24,000 years old; 13 described species). These cichlids are a very challenging group to infer its evolutionary history in phylogenetic analyses, due to the apparent prevalence of ILS, as well as past and current gene flow. Assuming solely a vertical transfer of genetic material from an ancestral lineage to new lineages is not appropriate in many cases...

Data from: Admixture increases performance of an invasive plant beyond first generation heterosis

Yan Li, Marc Stift & Mark Van Kleunen
1. Through its potential to enhance progeny performance, admixture (between-population crossing) may promote invasiveness of alien plants. The few studies that tested this idea found evidence for heterosis (positive effects of admixture) in the first generation (F1), but have not considered further generations. In this paper, we test whether admixture-benefits can be maintained in subsequent generations of an invasive plant. 2. We follow up on a previous study, in which we made crosses between plants...

Data from: Cyclic bouts of extreme bradycardia counteract the highmetabolism of frugivorous bats

M. Teague O'Mara, Martin Wikelski, Christian C. Voigt, Andries Ter Maat, Henry S. Pollock, Gary Burness, Lanna M. Desantis, Dina K. N. Dechmann & Dina KN Dechmann
Active flight requires the ability to efficiently fuel bursts of costly locomotion while maximizing energy conservation during non-flying times. We took a multi-faceted approach to estimate how fruit-eating bats (Uroderma bilobatum) manage a high-energy lifestyle fueled primarily by fig juice. Miniaturized heart rate telemetry shows that they use a novel, cyclic, bradycardic state that reduces daily energetic expenditure by 10% and counteracts heart rates as high as 900 bpm during flight. Uroderma bilobatum support flight...

Patterns of pollen dispersal and mating in a population of the clonal plant Sagittaria latifolia

Marcel Dorken, Samantha Stephens & Mark Van Kleunen
1) Increased plant size is generally expected to have negative consequences for mating by increasing pollen transfer between flowers of the same plant. Such geitonogamous self-pollination would then reduce sexual fitness through both female and male function. However, recent theoretical work has indicated that when plants grow clonally, the outward expansion of plants caused by clonal growth might have positive effects on siring without substantially increasing rates of self-pollination. 2) We investigated patterns of pollen...

Inter- and intraspecific differences in rotifer fatty acid composition during acclimation to low quality food

Svenja Schälicke, Silvia Heim, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg & Alexander Wacker
Biochemical food quality constraints affect the performance of consumers and mediate trait variation among and within consumer species. To assess inter- and intraspecific differences in fatty acid retention and conversion in freshwater rotifers, we provided four strains of two closely related rotifer species, Brachionus calyciflorus sensu stricto and Brachionus fernandoi, with food algae differing in their fatty acid composition. The rotifers grazed for five days on either Nannochloropsis limnetica or Monoraphidium minutum, two food algae...

Data from: Contrasting signatures of genomic divergence during sympatric speciation

Andreas Kautt, Claudius Kratochwil, Alexander Nater, Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino, Melisa Olave, Frederico Henning, Julián Torres-Dowdall, Andreas Härer, Darrin Hulsey, Paolo Franchini, Martin Pippel, Eugene Myers & Axel Meyer
The transition from “well-marked varieties” into “well-defined species” has puzzled evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin — especially when extensive gene flow between incipient species is possible due to the lack of physical barriers (sympatric speciation). Gene flow counteracts the build-up of genome-wide differentiation, which is both a hallmark of speciation and forms the underlying basis of irreversible reproductive barriers (incompatibilities) that ultimately complete the speciation process. Theory predicts that the genetic architecture of divergently selected...

Data from: Autofertility and self-compatibility moderately benefit island colonization of plants

Mialy Razanajatovo, Mark Van Kleunen, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Marten Winter & Patrick Weigelt
Aim: The current geographical distribution of species largely reflects colonization success after natural long‐distance dispersal or introduction by humans. Plants with selfing ability should have an advantage when establishing on islands where mates and pollinators are limited (Baker's law). However, high percentages of dioecious and self‐incompatible species have been reported for some islands, possibly resulting from post‐colonization evolution. Given that such evolution is less likely to apply to alien species recently introduced to islands by...

Data from: Targeted re-sequencing of coding DNA sequences for SNP discovery in non-model species

Daniel W. Förster, James K. Bull, Dorina Lenz, Marijke Autenrieth, Johanna L.A. Paijmans, Robert H.S. Kraus, Carsten Nowak, Helmut Bayerl, Ralph Kuehn, Alexander P. Saveljev, Magda Sindičić, Michael Hofreiter, Krzysztof Schmidt, Joerns Fickel, Johanna L. A. Paijmans & Robert H. S. Kraus
Targeted capture coupled with high throughput sequencing can be used to gain information about nuclear sequence variation at hundreds to thousands of loci. Divergent reference capture makes use of molecular data of one species to enrich target loci in other (related) species. This is particularly valuable for non-model organisms, for which often no a priori knowledge exists regarding these loci. Here, we have used targeted capture to obtain data for 809 nuclear coding DNA sequences...

Data from: Manipulation of cytosine methylation does not remove latitudinal clines in two invasive goldenrod species in Central Europe

Silvia Eckert, Jasmin Herden, Marc Stift, Jasmin Joshi & Mark Van Kleunen
Invasive species frequently differentiate phenotypically in novel environments within a few generations, often even with limited genetic variation. For the invasive plants Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea, we tested whether such differentiation might have happened through heritable epigenetic changes in cytosine methylation. In a two-year common-garden experiment, we grew plants from seeds collected along a latitudinal gradient in their non-native Central European range to test for trait differentiation and whether differentiation disappeared when seeds were...

Data from: Across a migratory divide: divergent migration directions and non-breeding grounds of Eurasian reed warblers revealed by geolocators and stable isotopes

Petr Procházka, Vojtěch Brlík, Elizabeth Yohannes, Bert Meister, Jürgen Auerswald, Mihaela Ilieva & Steffen Hahn
Migratory divides represent narrow zones of overlap between parapatric populations with distinct migration directions and, consequently, expected divergent non-breeding distributions. The composition of the mixed population at a migratory divide and the corresponding non-breeding ranges remain, however, unknown for many Palaearctic-African migrants. Here, we used light-level geolocation to track migration direction and non-breeding grounds of Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) from three breeding populations across the species’ migratory divide. Moreover, by using feathers grown at...

Data from: Male but not female zebra finches with high plasma corticosterone have lower survival

Blanca Jimeno, Michael Briga, Michaela Hau & Simon Verhulst
(1) The glucocorticoid axis is essential for coping with predictable and unpredictable environmental variation. Despite this vital function, attempts to link individual variation in the glucocorticoid axis to survival have yielded mixed results, which may be due to endocrine variation caused by uncontrolled variation in environment and life history traits such as reproductive effort. We therefore studied the link between the glucocorticoid axis and long-term survival using captive non-breeding zebra finches. (2) We quantified the...

Integrative ichthyological species delimitation in the Greenthroat Darter complex (Percidae: Etheostomatinae)

Daniel MacGuigan, Christopher Hoagstrom, Sami Domisch, C. Hulsey & Thomas Near
Species delimitation is fundamental to deciphering the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity. Alpha taxonomy historically relied on expert knowledge to describe new species using phenotypic and biogeographic evidence, which has the appearance of investigator subjectivity. In contrast, DNA‐based methods using the multispecies coalescent model (MSC) promise a more objective approach to describing biodiversity. However, recent criticisms suggest that under some conditions the MSC may over‐split lineages, identifying species that do not reflect biological reality....

Architects as Memory Actors: Ruins, Reconstructions, and Memorials in Belgrade

Gruia Bădescu
This article examines the reshaping of Belgrade’s memorial landscape after the Second World War and after the 1999 NATO bombings, with a focus on the role of architects. As such, the paper shifts the scale of memory debates in two ways: first, from the national to the urban; second, from ‘classical’ memory entrepreneurs of the political realm to city makers, usually perceived as ‘technical’ actors, but, as the paper argues, in fact relevant memory actors...

Data for spin quantum beats in pump push spectroscopy

Christoph Lambert, David Mims, Jonathan Herpich, Nikita Lukzen & Ulrich Steiner
Spin quantum beats prove the quantum nature of reactions involving radical pairs, the key species of spin chemistry. However, such quantum beats remain hidden to transient-absorption-based optical observation because the spin hardly affects the radical pairs’ absorption properties. We succeeded in demonstrating such quantum beats in the photo-induced charge separated state (CSS) of an electron-donor-acceptor dyad by using two laser pulses, one for pumping the sample, and another one, with variable delay, for further exciting...

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  • University of Konstanz
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