21 Works

Data from: Commonness and rarity of alien and native plant species – the relative roles of intraspecific competition and plant–soil feedback

Gregor Müller, Mark Van Kleunen & Wayne Dawson
The success of invasive alien and common native species may be explained by the same underlying mechanisms. Differences in intraspecific competition as well as differences in plant–soil feedback have been put forward as potential determinants of plant success. We teased apart the relative roles of competition and plant–soil feedback in a greenhouse experiment with 30 common and rare alien and native species from nine plant families. We tested whether plant biomass decreased less for common...

Data from: Natural selection on immune defense: a field experiment

Laura Langeloh, Jasminca Maria Behrmann-Godel, Otto Seppälä & Jasminca Behrmann-Godel
Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that...

Data from: Habitat and social factors shape individual decisions and emergent group structure during baboon collective movement

Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Damien R. Farine, Margaret C. Crofoot & Iain D. Couzin
For group-living animals traveling through heterogeneous landscapes, collective movement can be influenced by both habitat structure and social interactions. Yet research in collective behavior has largely neglected habitat influences on movement. Here we integrate simultaneous, high-resolution, tracking of wild baboons within a troop with a 3-dimensional reconstruction of their habitat to identify key drivers of baboon movement. A previously unexplored social influence – baboons’ preference for locations that other troop members have recently traversed –...

Data from: Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations

Simon J. Allen, Kate A. Bryant, Robert H. S. Kraus, Neil R. Loneragan, Anna M. Kopps, Alexander M. Brown, Livia Gerber & Michael Krützen
The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture...

Data from: Towards understanding the genetic basis of mouth asymmetry in the scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis

Francesca Raffini, Carmelo Fruciano, Paolo Franchini & Axel Meyer
How polymorphisms consisting in left–right asymmetries are produced and maintained in natural populations is a tantalizing question, which remains largely unanswered. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is a remarkable example of extreme ecological specialization achieved by morphological and behavioural laterality. Its asymmetric mouth is accompanied by a pronounced lateralized foraging behaviour, where a left-bending morph preferentially feeds on the scales of the right side of its prey, while the opposite is true for the...

Data from: Responses of common and rare aliens and natives to nutrient availability and fluctuations

Yanjie Liu & Mark Van Kleunen
1. Global environmental change not only includes changes in mean environmental conditions but also in temporal environmental fluctuations. Because it is frequently suggested that common species, and particularly invasive alien species, are phenotypically highly plastic, they might benefit more from these fluctuations than rare native and rare alien species. Experimental tests, however, are still lacking. 2. Here, we tested whether alien plant species take more advantage of increases in resource levels and fluctuations therein than...

Data from: The snow and the willows: earlier spring snowmelt reduces performance in the low-lying alpine shrub Salix herbacea

Julia A. Wheeler, Andres J. Cortés, Janosch Sedlacek, Sophie Karrenberg, Mark Van Kleunen, Sonja Wipf, Guenter Hoch, Oliver Bossdorf & Christian Rixen
Current changes in shrub abundance in alpine and arctic tundra ecosystems are primarily driven by climate change. However, while taller shrub communities are expanding, dwarf shrub communities show reductions under climate warming, and the mechanisms driving the latter (such as warming temperatures or accelerated spring snowmelt) may be complex. To determine and disentangle the response of a widespread arctic-alpine prostrate dwarf shrub to both climate warming and changes in snowmelt time, we investigated phenology, clonal...

Data from: Phylogenetic and functional mechanisms of direct and indirect interactions among alien and native plants

Yanhao Feng & Mark Van Kleunen
Disentangling direct and indirect interactions among alien and native plants is essential to understanding the success of alien plants in multi-species communities, but studies have only focused on direct pairwise interactions. Moreover, it is also essential to explore phylogenetic and functional mechanisms driving these interactions. In a greenhouse experiment, we selected nine groups of alien and native plant species from the herbaceous flora of Germany to disentangle their direct and indirect interactions. Each group had...

Data from: Introduction bias affects relationships between the characteristics of ornamental alien plants and their naturalization success

Noëlie Maurel, Jan Hanspach, Ingolf Kühn, Petr Pyšek & Mark Van Kleunen
Aim: Alien plants with certain characteristics may have been introduced earlier and more frequently than others. Such introduction bias may cause spurious associations between plant characteristics and naturalization (the establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild). We aimed to disentangle direct and indirect (i.e. mediated by introduction history) effects of species characteristics on the naturalization success of alien plants introduced for horticulture. Location: Germany (non-native range); rest of the world (native range). Methods: We compiled...

Data from: Information use shapes the dynamics of range expansions into environmental gradients

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Nicolai Nitsche & Florian Altermatt
Globally, the geographical distributions of species are dynamic and strongly influenced by dispersal. At the same time, range dynamics feed back and may select for increased dispersal at expanding range fronts. This interplay between macroecological and evolutionary dynamics happens almost universally across environmental gradients and such gradients can have a direct impact on the fitness of organisms due to the match or mismatch between an individual's environmental optimum and the current conditions along the gradient....

Data from: Scaring waterfowl as a management tool: how much more do geese forage after disturbance?

Bart A. Nolet, Andrea Kölzsch, Michiel Elderenbosch & Arie J. Van Noordwijk
With increasing numbers of many herbivorous waterfowl species, often foraging on farmland, the conflict with agriculture has intensified. One popular management tool is to scare birds off the land, often in association with shooting. However, the energy costs of flying are considerably higher than those of resting. Therefore, when birds fly off after a disturbance, they use extra energy that subsequently needs to be compensated. We used the white-fronted goose Anser albifrons, the most common...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Collective decision-making in homing pigeons: Larger flocks take longer to decide but do not make better decisions

Carlos D. Santos, Sebastian Przybyzin, Martin Wikelski & Dina K. N. Dechmann
Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and...

Data from: Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

Paul E. Hopwood, Geoffrey P. F. Mazué, Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low...

Data from: Replicated divergence in cichlid radiations mirrors a major vertebrate innovation

Matthew D. McGee, Brant C. Faircloth, Samuel R. Borstein, Jimmy Zheng, Christopher Darrin Hulsey, Peter C. Wainwright & Michael E. Alfaro
Decoupling of the upper jaw bones—jaw kinesis—is a distinctive feature of the ray-finned fishes, but it is not clear how the innovation is related to the extraordinary diversity of feeding behaviours and feeding ecology in this group. We address this issue in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that is well known for its ecological and functional diversity—African rift lake cichlids. We sequenced ultraconserved elements to generate a phylogenomic tree of the Lake Tanganyika and Lake...

Data from: Alien and native plant establishment in grassland communities is more strongly affected by disturbance than above- and below-ground enemies

Gregor Müller, Lena Horstmeyer, Tilman Rönneburg, Mark Van Kleunen & Wayne Dawson
Understanding the factors that drive commonness and rarity of plant species and whether these factors differ for alien and native species are key questions in ecology. If a species is to become common in a community, incoming propagules must first be able to establish. The latter could be determined by competition with resident plants, the impacts of herbivores and soil biota, or a combination of these factors. We aimed to tease apart the roles that...

Data from: Genetic evidence for prevalence of alloparental care in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika supports the \"selfish shepherd effect\" hypothesis

Hyuk Je Lee, Valentin Heim & Axel Meyer
Alloparental care – care for unrelated young – is rare in animals, and its ecological or evolutionary advantages or, alternative maladaptive nature, remain unclear. We investigate alloparental care in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis from Lake Tanganyika that exhibits bi-parental care. In a genetic parentage analysis, we discovered a surprisingly high percentage of alloparental care represented by brood mixing, extra-pair paternity and extra-pair maternity in all broods that we investigated. The percentage of...

Data from: Invasive plant species are locally adapted just as frequently and at least as strongly as native plant species

Ayub M. O. Oduor, Roosa Leimu & Mark Van Kleunen
Concerns over the ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species have generated great research interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the capacity of such plants to occupy a broad range of habitats. It has been repeatedly suggested that rapid evolution of local adaptation to novel environments may enable invasive plants to occupy a broad range of habitats. However, the classical Darwinian view on evolution by natural selection is that the process is slow and...

Data from: Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus

Carmelo Fruciano, Paolo Franchini, Francesca Raffini, Shaohua Fan & Axel Meyer
Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in...

Data from: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification and characterization in a non-model organism, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), using next generation sequencing

Nathalie Smitz, Pim Van Hooft, Rasmus Heller, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Robert Kraus, Ben J. Greyling, Richard Crooijmans, Martien Groenen, Johan Michaux & Ben Greyling
This study aimed to develop a set of SNP markers with high resolution and accuracy within the African buffalo. Such a set can be used, among others, to depict subtle population genetic structure for a better understanding of buffalo population dynamics. In total, 18.5 million DNA sequences of 76 bp were generated by next generation sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II from a reduced representation library using DNA from a panel of 13 African...

Data from: Forest defoliator pests alter carbon and nitrogen cycles

Anne L-M-Arnold, Maren Grüning, Judy Simon, Annett-Barbara Reinhardt, Norbert Lamersdorf & Carsten Thies
Climate change may foster pest epidemics in forests, and thereby the fluxes of elements that are indicators of ecosystem functioning. We examined compounds of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in insect faeces, leaf litter, throughfall and analysed the soils of deciduous oak forests (Quercus petraea L.) that were heavily infested by the leaf herbivores winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) and mottled umber (Erannis defoliaria L.). In infested forests, total net canopy-to-soil fluxes of C and...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Konstanz
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Durham University
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Basel
  • University of Tübingen
  • Uppsala University
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of California, Davis