36 Works

Data from: Spotted in the news: using media reports to examine leopard distribution, depredation, and management practices outside protected areas in southern India

Vidya Athreya, Arjun Srivathsa, Mahi Puri, Krithi K. Karanth & N. Samba Kumar
There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns...

Mountain goat molt from community photographs

Katarzyna Nowak, Shane Richards, Joel Berger, Amy Panikowski, Aerin Jacob, Donald Reid, Greg Newman, Nicholas Young & Jon Beckmann
Participatory approaches, such as community photography, can engage the public in questions of societal and scientific interest while helping advance understanding of ecological patterns and processes. We combined data extracted from community-sourced, spatially-explicit photographs with research findings from 2018 fieldwork in the Yukon, Canada, to evaluate winter coat molt patterns and phenology in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), a cold-adapted, alpine mammal. Leveraging the community science portals iNaturalist and CitSci, in less than a year we...

Data from: Nesting success and nest-site selection of white-rumped vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in western Maharashtra, India

Iravatee D Majgaonkar, Christopher G. R. Bowden, Suhel Quader & Iravatee Majgaonkar
A few breeding populations of White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis still survive in pockets of their original vast range in India, having weathered a diclofenac induced population decline of 99.9% since the early 1990s. These breeding populations are potential sources of recruits, now that the overall population appears to be stabilising or even recovering in some areas. We studied two White-rumped Vulture nesting colonies in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra in 2013-14, to investigate site-specific...

Kelp forests at the end of the earth: 45 years later

Alan Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom Bell, Jennifer Caselle, Claudio Campagna, Mathias Hune, Alex Munoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-Leon, Enric Sala & Paul Dayton
The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropogenic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducted in 1973 showed no significant differences in the densities of adult and juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera kelp or kelp holdfast diameter between...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Elevation and landscape change drive the distribution of a montane, endemic grassland bird

Abhimanyu Lele, V. V. Robin, M. Arasumani, C. K. Vishnudas, Devcharan Jathanna & Viral Joshi
This dataset documents the presence and abundance of the Nilgiri pipit (Anthus nilghiriensis) in 170 survey sites across most of its global range. Between one and four surveys were carried out at each site between November 2017 and May 2018 by experienced observers. Survey duration was proportional to site area. A wide range of habitat characteristics were also surveyed, and additional habitat characteristics for each site were gathered from remotely sensed data.

Historical (1901-1920), contemporary (1979-2013), and future (2061-2080) terrestrial life zones

Paul R. Elsen, Earl C. Saxon, B. Alexander Simmons, Michelle Ward, Brooke A. Williams, Hedley S. Grantham, Salit Kark, Noam Levin, Katharina-Victoria Perez-Hammerle, April E. Reside & James E. M. Watson
Datasets depicting historical (1901-1920), contemporary (1979-2013), and future (2061-2080) life zones as global rasters at 30 arc-second resolution in GeoTiff format are included, which were produced for the study "Accelerated shifts in terrestrial life zones under rapid climate change", published in Global Change Biology by Elsen et al. Life zones are determined by distinct combinations of biotemperature and precipitation and represent broad-scale ecosystem types (sensu Holdridge[1]). For the future period, life zone maps were produced...

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregation

Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran & Rohan Arthur
Background: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. Results: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears...

Analytic dataset informing prediction of subterranean cave and mine ambient temperatures

Meredith McClure, Daniel Crowley, Catherine Haase, Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Raina Plowright, Brett Dickson & Sarah Olson
Caves and other subterranean features provide unique environments for many species. The importance of cave microclimate is particularly relevant at temperate latitudes where bats make seasonal use of caves for hibernation. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease that has devastated populations of hibernating bats across eastern and central North America, has brought renewed interest in bat hibernation and hibernaculum conditions. A recent review synthesized current understanding of cave climatology, exploring the qualitative relationship between cave...

The expansion wave of an invasive predator leaves declining waterbird populations behind

Marcin Brzeziński, Michał Żmihorski, Marek Nieoczym, Piotr Wilniewczyc & Andrzej Zalewski
Aim: Theory predicts that the evolutionary adaptations of prey to reduce predator pressure often fail in confrontation with non-native predators; thus, their predation usually leads to sharp declines of prey populations. However, over time, prey can develop anti-predator adaptations, reduce predator impact and recover its population. We analyse the numerical response of multiple prey species to the impact of a non-native predator on a large spatiotemporal scale. Location: Poland Methods: Long-term population dynamics of 13...

Data and code for simulation study and case study in \"A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity\"

Rahel Sollmann, Mitchell Eaton, William Link, Paul Mulondo, Samuel Ayebare, Sarah Prinsloo & Devin Johnson
This dataset contains the R and JAGS code underlying the simulation study, as well as the data and code underlying the case study on bird occurrence in Murchison Falls National Park, presented in the paper "A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity".

Isotope analysis combined with DNA barcoding provide new insights into the dietary niche of khulan in the Mongolian Gobi

Martina Burnik Šturm, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Boglarka Balint, John C. Payne, Christian C. Voigt & Petra Kaczensky
With increasing livestock numbers, competition and avoidance are increasingly shaping resource availability for wild ungulates. Shifts in the dietary niche of wild ungulates are likely and can be expected to negatively affect their fitness. The Mongolian Gobi constitutes the largest remaining refuge for several threatened ungulates, but unprecedentedly high livestock numbers are sparking growing concerns over rangeland health and impacts on threatened ungulates like the Asiatic wild ass (khulan). Previous stable isotope analysis of khulan...

Dog in the matrix: Envisioning countrywide connectivity conservation for an endangered carnivore

Ryan G. Rodrigues, Arjun Srivathsa & Divya Vasudev
Elevated rates of anthropogenic impacts on land-use regimes have pushed terrestrial megafauna to the brink of extinction. Consequently, it is critical to adopt conservation approaches that safeguard individual populations, while retaining connectivity among these populations. Conserving spatially structured populations of imperiled species at large scales is often complex; the past decades have therefore seen a rise in spatial conservation prioritization exercises aimed at shaping landscape-scale conservation programmes. We present a framework for informing nationwide connectivity...

Data from: A burning issue: Savanna fire management can generate enough carbon revenue to help restore Africa’s rangelands and fill protected area funding gaps

Timothy Tear, Nicholas Wolff, Geoffrey Lipsett-Moore, Mark Ritchie, Natasha Ribeiro, Lisanne Petracca, Peter Lindsey, Luke Hunter, Andrew Loveridge & Franziska Steinbruch
Many savanna-dependent species in Africa including large herbivores and apex predators are at increasing risk of extinction. Achieving effective management of protected areas (PAs) in Africa where lions live will cost an estimated USD >$1-2 B/year in new funding. We explored the potential for fire management-based carbon-financing programs to fill this funding gap and benefit degrading savanna ecosystems. We demonstrated how introducing early dry season fire management programs could produce potential carbon revenues (PCR) from...

Body size and digestive system shape resource selection by ungulates: a cross-taxa test of the Forage Maturation Hypothesis

Saeideh Esmaeili, Brett Jesmer, Shannon Albeke, Ellen Aikens, Kathryn Schoenecker, Sarah King, Briana Abrahms, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Jeffrey Beck, Randall Boone, Francesca Cagnacci, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, Paul Cross, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Jagdag Enkhbayar, Ilya Fischhoff, Adam Ford, Kate Jenks, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Jacob Hennig, Takehiko Ito, Petra Kaczensky, Matthew Kauffman, John Linnell … & Jacob Goheen
The Forage Maturation Hypothesis (FMH) states that energy intake for ungulates is maximized when forage biomass is at intermediate levels. Nevertheless, metabolic allometry and different digestive systems suggest that resource selection should vary across ungulate species. By combining GPS relocations with remotely-sensed data on forage characteristics and surface water, we quantified the effect of body size and digestive system in determining movements of 30 populations of hindgut fermenters (equids) and ruminants across biomes. Selection for...

Data from: Leopard in a tea-cup: a study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India

Aritra Kshettry, Srinivas Vaidyanathan & Vidya Athreya
There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples’ lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order...

Data from: Species-specific spatiotemporal patterns of leopard, lion and tiger attacks on humans

Craig Packer, Shweta Shivakumar, Vidya Athreya, Meggan E. Craft, Harshawardhen Dhanwatey, Poonam Dhanwatey, Bhim Gurung, Anup Joshi, Hadas Kushnir, John D.C. Linnell, Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones & John D. C. Linnell
1. Large carnivores of the genus Panthera can pose serious threats to public safety. Although the annual number of attacks on humans is rare compared to livestock depredation, such incidents undermine popular support for wildlife conservation and require immediate responses to protect human life. 2. We used a space-time scan method to perform a novel spatiotemporal analysis of 908 attacks on humans by lions, leopards and tigers to estimate the risks of further attacks in...

Using cumulative impact mapping to prioritise marine conservation efforts in Equatorial Guinea

Brittany T. Trew, Hedley S. Grantham, Christian Barrientos, Tim Collins, Philip D. Doherty, Angela Formia, Brendan J. Godley, Sara M. Maxwell, Richard J. Parnell, Stephen K. Pikesley, Dominic Tilley, Matthew J. Witt & Kristian Metcalfe
Marine biodiversity is under extreme pressure from anthropogenic activity globally, leading to calls to protect at least 10% of the world’s oceans within marine protected areas (MPAs) and other effective area-based conservation measures by 2020. Fulfilling such commitments, however, requires a detailed understanding of the distribution of potentially detrimental human activities, and their predicted impacts. One such approach that is being increasingly used to strengthen our understanding of human impacts is cumulative impact mapping; as...

Incorporating evaporative water loss into bioenergetic models of hibernation to test for relative influence of host and pathogen traits on white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Liam McGuire, Kaleigh Norquay, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Raina Plowright & Sarah Olson
Hibernation consists of extended durations of torpor interrupted by periodic arousals. The ‘dehydration hypothesis’ proposes that hibernating mammals arouse to replenish water lost through evaporation during torpor. Arousals are energetically expensive, and increased arousal frequency can alter survival throughout hibernation. Yet we lack a means to assess the effect of evaporative water loss (EWL), determined by animal physiology and hibernation microclimate, on torpor bout duration and subsequent survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease impacting...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals novel relationships among Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.)

Yoamel Milian-Garcia, George Amato, John Gatesy, Evon Hekkala, Natalia Rossi & Michael Russello
Extant species in the order Crocodylia are remnants of an ancient lineage of large-bodied archosaur reptiles. Despite decades of systematic studies, phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Crocodylus (true crocodiles) in the Neotropics are poorly understood. Here we estimated phylogenomic relationships among the four extant Crocodylus species in the Americas. Species-tree reconstructions using genotypic data from 17,538 SNPs collected for 33 individuals spanning six Crocodylus species (four ingroup and two outgroup) revealed novel relationships...

Similar hibernation physiology in bats across broad geographic ranges

Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, Yvonne Dzal, Catherine Haase, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Sarah Olson & Cori Lausen
Species with broad geographic ranges may experience varied environmental conditions throughout their range leading to local adaptation. Variation among populations reflects potential adaptability or plasticity, with implications for populations impacted by disease, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences. However, behavior may counteract divergent selection among populations. We studied intraspecific variation in hibernation physiology of Myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis) and Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend’s big-eared bat), two species of bats with large geographic ranges. We studied...

Genomics of population differentiation in humpback dolphins, Sousa spp. in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

Ana Rita Amaral, Cátia Chanfana, Brian Smith, Rubaiyat Mansur, Tim Collins, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Guido Parra, Michael Krutzen, Thomas Jefferson, Leszek Karczmarski, Almeida Guissamulo, & Howard Rosenbaum
Speciation is a fundamental process in evolution and crucial to the formation of biodiversity. It is a continuous and complex process, which can involve multiple interacting barriers leading to heterogeneous genomic landscapes with various peaks of divergence among populations. In this study, we used a population genomics approach to gain insights on the speciation process and to understand the population structure within the genus Sousa across its distribution in the Indo-Pacifc region. We found 5...

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

When waterholes get busy, rare interactions thrive: Photographic evidence of a jaguar (Panthera onca) killing an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

Lucy Perera-Romero, Rony García-Anleu, Roan McNab & Daniel Thornton
During a camera trap survey conducted in Guatemala in the 2019 dry season, we documented a jaguar killing an ocelot at a waterhole with high mammal activity. During severe droughts, the probability of aggressive interactions between carnivores might increase when fixed, valuable resources such as water cannot be easily partitioned.

Resource pulses influence the spatio-temporal dynamics of a large carnivore population

Femke Broekhuis, Nicholas Elliot, Kosiom Keiwua, Kelvin Koinet, David Macdonald, Niels Mogensen, David Thuo & Arjun Gopalaswamy
Resource availability is a key component in animal ecology, yet the manner in which carnivore populations respond to spatial and temporal fluctuations of resources remains unclear. We take a population-level approach to determine how resource pulses, in this case a temporary hyper-abundance of prey, influence the densities and space-use of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. The Maasai Mara in Kenya experiences an annual migration of > 1.4 million wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and large numbers of zebras Equus...

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

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    36
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