28 Works

Data from: The devil is in the detail: estimating species richness, density, and relative abundance of tropical island herpetofauna

Surendran Harikrishnan & Vasudevan Karthikeyan
Background: One of the basic premises of drawing samples from populations is that the samples are representative of the populations. However, error in sampling is poorly recognized, and it goes unnoticed especially in community ecology. By combining traditional open quadrats used for sampling forest floor herpetofauna with intensive bounded quadrats, we explore the effect of sampling error on estimates of species richness, diversity, and density in the Andaman Islands. Results: Fisher’s α measure of species...

A possible association between early life factors and burden of functional bowel symptoms in adulthood

Johanna Wennerberg, Shantanu Sharma, Peter M. Nilsson & Bodil Ohlsson
The studies of early life factors and development of functional bowel diseases show inconsistent results. We therefore examined associations between certain early life factors and functional bowel symptoms in adulthood. Population-based cross-sectional study. Weight and height were measured and questionnaires were completed at the time point of enrollment in MOS. 1013 participants in the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) without organic bowel disease with data available from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Associations were calculated between...

Trends in morphological relationships among Gangetic Cyprinids

Arvind Dwivedi, Hariom Verma, Saurabh Dewan & Sushil Verma
Cyprinidae is the predominant and most diverse taxonomic group of freshwater fishes, exhibiting enormous diversity in shape, size and biology. The morphological diversity of Indian Cyprinids especially the Gangetic Cyprinids is largely unquantified. Geometric morphometrics (GM) approach is an efficient tool to quantify overall body shape variations and has wide application in taxonomic, evolutionary and ecological studies. In this study, digital photographs of 47 Cyprinid fish species from Ganga River were used to measure geometric...

Data from: Evolution and biogeography of Memecylon

Prabha Amarasinghe, Sneha Joshi, Navendu Page, Lahiru S. Wijedasa, Mary Merello, Hashendra Kathriarachchi, Robert Douglas Stone, Walter Judd, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah & Nico Cellinese
Premise The woody plant group Memecylon (Melastomataceae) is a large clade occupying diverse forest habitats in the Old World tropics and exhibiting high regional endemism. Its phylogenetic relationships have been previously studied using ribosomal DNA with extensive sampling from Africa and Madagascar. However, divergence times, biogeography, and character evolution of Memecylon remain uninvestigated. We present a phylogenomic analysis of Memecylon to provide a broad evolutionary perspective of this clade. Methods One hundred supercontigs of 67...

Data from: Conflict bear translocation: Investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Mukesh , Lalit Kumar Sharma, Samina Amin Charoo, Sambandam Sathyakumar & Mukesh
The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth ‘conflict bears’ from different sites in Dachigam...

Data from: Fine-scale population genetic structure of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in a human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape, India

Sujeet Kumar Singh, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Reeta Sharma, Puneet Pandey, Sudhanshu Mishra, Randeep Singh, Manoj Agrawal & Surendra Prakash Goyal
Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial...

Data from: Are fragments fruitful? A comparison of plant–seed disperser communities between fragments and contiguous forest in north-east India

Abir Jain, Navendu V. Page, Gopal S. Rawat & Rohit Naniwadekar
Plant–seed disperser interactions are critical for maintaining tropical plant diversity. However, these interactions are altered by habitat fragmentation, a pervasive threat to the tropics globally. We compared vegetation structure, richness and composition of plant–seed disperser interactions across two forest fragments (area: ~25 km2), and one contiguous forest site in the last remaining lowland tropical forests in north-east India. We compared network-level indices (nestedness, generality, and vulnerability) and species-level indices (degree and species strength) to identify...

Presence locations (direct and indirect) of blue sheep and livestock in Johar Valley, Uttarakhand, India from years 2015-2017

Ankita Bhattacharya, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Gopal Rawat & Bilal Habib
In-depth knowledge of distribution and their factors are important for species conservation and management. Many forms of such data have led to development of new analytical techniques for better interpretation. For mountainous terrains with certain limitations, species data is obtained in presence-only form. Point process model is one of the recent approaches for modelling such data, taking care of pseudo-absences and spatial independence. For conservation of regions with limited resources and species with similar ecological...

A possible association between early life factors and burden of functional bowel symptoms in adulthood

Johanna Wennerberg, Shantanu Sharma, Peter M. Nilsson & Bodil Ohlsson
The studies of early life factors and development of functional bowel diseases show inconsistent results. We therefore examined associations between certain early life factors and functional bowel symptoms in adulthood. Population-based cross-sectional study. Weight and height were measured and questionnaires were completed at the time point of enrollment in MOS. 1013 participants in the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) without organic bowel disease with data available from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Associations were calculated between...

Data from: Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands

Philippe Gaubert, Riddhi Patel, Geraldine Veron, Steve M. Goodman, Maraike Willsch, Raquel Vasconcelos, Andre Lourenço, Marie Sigaud, Fabienne Justy, Bheem Dutt Joshi, Joerns Fickel & Abdreas Wilting
The biogeographic dynamics affecting the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene has generated complex biodiversity patterns. We assessed the molecular biogeography of the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) through mitogenome and cytochrome b + control region sequencing of 89 historical and modern samples to (i) establish a time-calibrated phylogeography across the species’ native range and (ii) test introduction scenarios to western Indian Ocean islands. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified three geographic lineages (East...

Genetic analyses reveal population structure and recent decline in leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) across Indian subcontinent

Supriya Bhatt, Suvankar Biswas, Krithi Karanth, Bivash Pandav & Samrat Mondol
Background Large carnivores maintain the stability and functioning of ecosystems. Currently, many carnivore species face declining population sizes due to natural and anthropogenic pressures. The leopard, Panthera pardus, is probably the most widely distributed and highly adaptable large felid globally, still persisting in most of its historic range. However, we lack subspecies-level data on country or regional scale on population trends, as ecological monitoring approaches are difficult to apply on such wide-ranging species. We used...

Data from: Large frugivores matter more on an island: insights from island-mainland comparison of plant-frugivore communities

Rohit Naniwadekar, Abhishek Gopal, Navendu Page, Sartaj Ghuman, Vivek Ramachandran & Jahnavi Joshi
Endozoochory, a mutualistic interaction between plants and frugivores, is one of the key processes responsible for maintenance of tropical biodiversity. Islands, which have a smaller subset of plants and frugivores when compared with mainland communities, offer an interesting setting to understand the organization of plant-frugivore communities vis-a-vis the mainland sites. We examined the relative influence of functional traits and phylogenetic relationships on the plant-seed disperser interactions on an island and a mainland site. The island...

Role of species richness and human-impacts in resisting invasive species in tropical forests

Ninad Mungi, Qamar Qureshi & Yadvendradev Jhala
The biotic resistance hypothesis suggests that biodiversity rich areas should be resistant to biological invasions. Globally, conservationists use this hypothesis to protect diverse ecosystems. However, supporting data are often contradictory, possibly due to several confounding factors. Complexity in inferences increase in the tropics, which are sparsely studied. We hypothesize that human impacts, forest type and climate would modulate the relationship between native and invasive plant richness. To understand these interacting and varying effects of native...

Diversification of body shape in catfishes of the Ganga River

Arvind Dwivedi, Hariom Verma & Saurabh Dewan
Catfishes of the order Siluriformes are an exceptionally diverse group occupying significant fraction of the world's freshwater ichthyofauna. Catfish species renders a model system for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. However, there is dearth of knowledge on the phylogenetic history with reference to morphological diversity of catfishes in the Ganga River. Geometric morphometrics is an efficient approach to quantify shape variations and has lately found application in range of taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. This study...

Data from: Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages

Bibek Yumnam, Yadvendradev V. Jhala, Qamar Qureshi, Jesus E. Maldonado, Rajesh Gopal, Swati Saini, Y. Srinivas & Robert C. Fleischer
Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to...

Data from: Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds

Per Alström, Daniel M. Hooper, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Dhananjai Mohan, Magnus Gelang, Hung Le Manh, Jian Zhao, Fumin Lei, Trevor D. Price & P. Alstrom
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and...

Data from: Early diversification of sperm size in the evolutionary history of the old world leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae)

K. Supriya, Melissah Rowe, Terje Laskemoen, Dhananjai Mohan, Trevor Price, Jan Lifjeld, J. T. Lifjeld & T. D. Price
Sperm morphological traits are highly variable among species and are commonly thought to evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of sperm morphology, and whether rates of evolutionary change are variable over time and among taxonomic groups. Here, we examine sperm morphology from 21 species of Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), a group of generally dull, sexually monochromatic birds, which are known to have high levels of extra-pair paternity....

Data from: Selfish partners: resource partitioning in male coalitions of Asiatic lions

Stotra Chakrabarti & Yadvendradev V. Jhala
Behavioral plasticity within species is adaptive which directs survival traits to take multiple pathways under varying conditions. Male-male cooperation is an evolutionary strategy often exhibiting an array of alternatives between and within species. African male lions coalesce to safeguard territories and mate-acquisition. Unique to these coalitions is lack of strict hierarchies between partners, who have similar resource-securities possibly because of many mating-opportunities within large female-groups. Skewed mating and feeding rights have only been documented in...

Data from: Demography of a high density tiger population and its implications for tiger recovery

Shikha Bisht, Sudip Banerjee, Qamar Qureshi & Yadvendradev Jhala
1.Prioritising conservation of source populations within landscapes is proposed as a strategy for recovering tigers globally. We studied population dynamics of tigers in Corbett National Park (CNP) in Indian Terai, which harbours the largest and highest density tiger population in any protected area of the world. Through population viability models we demonstrate the importance of CNP in tiger recovery of western Terai. 2.We camera trapped 521 km2 of CNP using open population capture‐mark‐recapture framework between...

Capture history of Asiatic black bear from Himachal Pradesh, India

Nilanjan Chatterjee, Ankita Bhattacharya, Kunal Angrish, Dharamveer Meena, Bitapi Sinha & Bilal Habib
Robust population estimation of rare or elusive threatened species lacking distinct identifiable features poses a challenge in the field of conservation and management. The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is one such species. Methodological frameworks—such as radiotelemetry, genetic sampling, and camera-trapping—though crucial and advantageous, sometimes require additional information through invasive methods for individual identification. In this study, we estimated the population density of Asiatic black bear in 2 protected areas in the Indian Himalayan Region...

Differentiating three Indian shads by applying shape analysis from digital images

Arvind Dwivedi
Tenualosa ilisha, T. toli and Hilsa kelee are three Indian shad species of the family Clupeidae. In past, relationships among these shads have been explored in few morphological studies but still remain poorly understood. In this study, 120 specimens of three shad species were collected from the wild and a truss network system of 13 landmarks was interconnected to yield 77 size-adjusted characters. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) produced 13 discriminating variables in delineating the three...

Data from: Assessing changes in distribution of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and its wild prey over 2 decades in the Indian Himalaya through interview-based occupancy surveys

Abhishek Ghoshal, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Bivash Pandav, Koustubh Sharma, Charudutt Mishra, R. Raghunath & Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi
Understanding species distributions, patterns of change and threats can form the basis for assessing the conservation status of elusive species that are difficult to survey. The snow leopard Panthera uncia is the top predator of the Central and South Asian mountains. Knowledge of the distribution and status of this elusive felid and its wild prey is limited. Using recall-based key-informant interviews we estimated site use by snow leopards and their primary wild prey, blue sheep...

Data from: Understanding cryptic introgression and mixed ancestry of Red Junglefowl in India

Mukesh Thakur, Merwyn Fernandes, Sambandam Sathyakumar, Sujeet K. Singh, Ramesh Kumar Vijh, Jianlin Han, Dong-Dong Wu & Ya-Ping Zhang
Red Junglefowl (RJF), the wild progenitor of modern day chicken (DC), are believed to be in genetic endangerment due to introgression of domestic genes through opportunistic matings with domestic or feral chickens. Previous studies from India reported rare hybridization of RJF in wild, however, RJF population structure,pattern of gene flow and their admixture with DC populations are poorly understood at the landscape level. We conducted this study with the large sample size, covering the predicted...

Data from: Cross-species screening of microsatellite markers for individual identification of snow petrel Pagodroma nivea and Wilson’s storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus in Antarctica

Anant Pande, Nidhi Rawat, Kuppusamy Sivakumar, Sambandam Sathyakumar, Vinod B. Mathur & Samrat Mondol
Seabirds are important indicators of marine ecosystem health. Species within the order Procellariiformes are the most abundant seabird species group distributed from warm tropical to cold temperate regions including Antarctica. There is a paucity of information on basic biology of the pelagic seabird species nesting on the Antarctic continents, and long-term studies are required to gather data on their population demography, genetics and other ecological parameters. Under the ‘Biology and Environmental Sciences’ component of the...

Dendritic prioritization through spatial stream network modeling informs targeted management of Himalayan riverscapes under brown trout invasion

Aashna Sharma, Vineet Dubey, Jeyaraj Johnson, Yogesh Rawal & Kuppusamy Sivakumar
With the concept of ‘riverscapes’ long pending to be acknowledged in the ‘landscape-centric’ legislative framework of Himalayan nations, conservation of native riverine species stays practically unheeded. This necessitates urgent prioritization of stream networks to conserve the lotic taxa under invasion pressures. Himalayan riverscapes are pervaded with the invasive-exotic brown trout Salmo trutta, posing serious threats to the co-occurring native, the snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii. Using intensive surveys (218.7km) and geostatistical stream network models (n=537), we...

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