18,916 Works

Data from: Gizzard vs. teeth, it’s a tie: food-processing efficiency in herbivorous birds and mammals and implications for dinosaur feeding strategies

Julia Fritz, Jürgen Hummel, Ellen Kienzle, Oliver Wings, W. Jürgen Streich & Marcus Clauss
Particle size reduction is a primary means of improving efficiency in herbivores. The mode of food particle size reduction is one of the main differences between herbivorous birds (gizzard) and mammals (teeth). For a quantitative comparison of the efficiency of food comminution, we investigated mean fecal particle sizes (MPS) in 14 herbivorous bird species and compared these with a data set of 111 non-ruminant herbivorous mammal species. In general MPS increased with body mass, but...

Data from: Identification of X-linked quantitative trait loci affecting cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and fine-mapping by selective sweep analysis

Nicolas Svetec, Annegret Werzner, Ricardo Wilches, Pavlos Pavlidis, José M. Álvarez-Castro, Karl W. Broman, Dirk Metzler & Wolfgang Stephan
Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that colonizes a great variety of environments. One trait that shows abundant evidence for naturally segregating genetic variance in different populations of D. melanogaster is cold tolerance. Previous work has found quantitative trait loci (QTL) exclusively on the second and the third chromosomes. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of cold tolerance on the X chromosome and to compare the results with our analyses of selective sweeps, a...

Data from: Delimitation of the Thoracosphaeraceae (Dinophyceae), including the calcareous dinoflagellates, based on large amounts of ribosomal RNA sequence data

Marc Gottschling, Sylvia Soehner, Carmen Zinssmeister, Uwe John, Jörg Plötner, Michael Schweikert, Katerina Aligizaki & Malte Elbrächter
The phylogenetic relationships of the Dinophyceae (Alveolata) are not sufficiently resolved at present. The Thoracosphaeraceae (Peridiniales) are the only group of the Alveolata that include members with calcareous coccoid stages; this trait is considered apomorphic. Although the coccoid stage apparently is not calcareous, Bysmatrum has been assigned to the Thoracosphaeraceae based on thecal morphology. We tested the monophyly of the Thoracosphaeraceae using large sets of ribosomal RNA sequence data of the Alveolata including the Dinophyceae....

Data from: Genetic diversity, population structure and sex-biased dispersal in three co-evolving species

Susanne Foitzik, Sabine Bauer, Stefan Laurent & Pleuni S Pennings
Genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations are important for antagonistic coevolution. We investigated genetic variation and population structure of three closely related European ant species: the social parasite Harpagoxenus sublaevis and its two host species Leptothorax acervorum and Leptothorax muscorum. We sampled populations in 12 countries and analyzed eight microsatellite loci and an mtDNA sequence. We found high levels of genetic variation in all three species, only slightly less variation in the host L....

Data from: Macro- and microgeographic genetic structure in an ant species with alternative reproductive tactics in sexuals

Susanne Foitzik, Markus H. Rüger, Ilka M. Kureck & Dirk Metzler
The genetic structure of social insect populations is influenced by their social organisation and dispersal modes. The ant Hypoponera opacior shows diverse reproductive behaviours with regular cycles of outbreeding via winged sexuals and inbreeding via within-nest mating wingless sexuals that reproduce by budding. This unusual life cycle should be reflected in the genetic population structure and we studied this on different scales using microsatellites. On a macrogeographic scale, populations were considerably structured and migration rates...

Data from: Local and global abundance associated with extinction risk in late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic gastropods

Jonathan L. Payne, Sarah Truebe, Alexander Nützel & Ellen T. Chang
Ecological theory predicts an inverse association between population size and extinction risk, but most previous paleontological studies have not confirmed this relationship. The reasons for this discrepancy between theory and observation remain poorly understood. In this study, we compiled a global database of gastropod occurrences and collection-level abundances spanning the Early Permian through Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian). Globally, the database contains 5469 occurrences of 496 genera and 2156 species from 839 localities. Within the database, 30...

Data from: Macro- and microgeographic genetic structure in an ant species with alternative reproductive tactics in sexuals

Susanne Foitzik, Markus H. Rüger, Ilka M. Kureck & Dirk Metzler
The genetic structure of social insect populations is influenced by their social organisation and dispersal modes. The ant Hypoponera opacior shows diverse reproductive behaviours with regular cycles of outbreeding via winged sexuals and inbreeding via within-nest mating wingless sexuals that reproduce by budding. This unusual life cycle should be reflected in the genetic population structure and we studied this on different scales using microsatellites. On a macrogeographic scale, populations were considerably structured and migration rates...

Data from: Genetic diversity, population structure and sex-biased dispersal in three co-evolving species

Susanne Foitzik, Sabine Bauer, Stefan Laurent & Pleuni S Pennings
Genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations are important for antagonistic coevolution. We investigated genetic variation and population structure of three closely related European ant species: the social parasite Harpagoxenus sublaevis and its two host species Leptothorax acervorum and Leptothorax muscorum. We sampled populations in 12 countries and analyzed eight microsatellite loci and an mtDNA sequence. We found high levels of genetic variation in all three species, only slightly less variation in the host L....

Data from: Local and global abundance associated with extinction risk in late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic gastropods

Jonathan L. Payne, Sarah Truebe, Alexander Nützel & Ellen T. Chang
Ecological theory predicts an inverse association between population size and extinction risk, but most previous paleontological studies have not confirmed this relationship. The reasons for this discrepancy between theory and observation remain poorly understood. In this study, we compiled a global database of gastropod occurrences and collection-level abundances spanning the Early Permian through Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian). Globally, the database contains 5469 occurrences of 496 genera and 2156 species from 839 localities. Within the database, 30...

Data from: A new method for handling missing species in diversification analysis applicable to randomly or non-randomly sampled phylogenies

Natalie Cusimano, Tanja Stadler & Susanne S. Renner
Chronograms from molecular dating are increasingly being used to infer rates of diversification and their change over time. A major limitation in such analyses is incomplete species sampling that moreover is usually non-random. While the widely used γ statistic with the MCCR test or the birth-death likelihood analysis with the ∆AICrc test statistic are appropriate for comparing the fit of different diversification models in phylogenies with random species sampling, no objective, automated method has been...

Data from: Can Daphnia lumholtzi invade European lakes?

Meike Wittmann, Wilfried Gabriel, Eva-Maria Harz, Christian Laforsch & Jonathan Jeschke
The cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi is a subtropical and tropical zooplankter, and an invasive species in North America. Thus far, D. lumholtzi has not been detected in Europe. Here we investigated whether a hypothetical introduction to Europe could result in a successful invasion, either now or in the near future when facilitated by climate change. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether different clones of D. lumholtzi can invade a resident community consisting of native Daphnia from...

Data from: Manipulating virulence factor availability can have complex consequences for infections

Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P. Brown & Rolf Kuemmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts, and...

Data from: Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions

Celine Bellard, Piero Genovesi & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1,372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence...

Data from: Detecting recent selective sweeps while controlling for mutation rate and background selection

Christian D. Huber, Michael DeGiorgio, Ines Hellmann & Rasmus Nielsen
A composite likelihood ratio test implemented in the program SweepFinder is a commonly used method for scanning a genome for recent selective sweeps. SweepFinder uses information on the spatial pattern (along the chromosome) of the site frequency spectrum (SFS) around the selected locus. To avoid confounding effects of background selection and variation in the mutation process along the genome, the method is typically applied only to sites that are variable within species. However, the power...

Data from: Macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses: Pseudomyrmex ants and their ant-housing plants in the Neotropics

Guillaume Chomicki, Philip S. Ward & Susanne S. Renner
Symbioses include some of the clearest cases of coevolution, but their origin, loss, or reassembly with different partners can rarely be inferred. Here we use ant/plant symbioses involving three plant clades to investigate the evolution of symbioses. We generated phylogenies for the big-eyed arboreal ants (Pseudomyrmecinae), including 72% of their 286 species, as well as for five of their plant host groups, in each case sampling >61% of the species. We show that the ant-housing...

Data from: Genetic structure of Daphnia galeata populations in Eastern China

Wenzhi Wei, Sabine Gießler, Justyna Wolinska, Xiaolin Ma, Zhong Yang, Wei Hu & Mingbo Yin
This study presents the first examination of the genetic structure of Daphnia longispina complex populations in Eastern China. Only one species, D. galeata, was present across the eight investigated lakes; as identified by taxon assignment using allelic variation at 15 microsatellite loci. Three genetically differentiated D. galeata subgroups emerged independent of the type of statistical analysis applied. Thus, Bayesian clustering, discriminant analysis based on results from factorial correspondence analysis, and UPGMA clustering consistently showed that...

Data from: Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events

Daniel Živković & Aurélien Tellier
Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on whole genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age-structure (e.g. in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, i.e. seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates,...

Data from: The monophyly of Euparkeriidae (Reptilia: Archosauriformes) and the origins of Archosauria: a revision of Dorosuchus neoetus from the Mid-Triassic of Russia

Roland B. Sookias, Andrey G. Sennikov, David J. Gower & Richard J. Butler
Euparkeria capensis is resolved as the sister taxon to crown Archosauria in many cladistic phylogenies and provides a key outgroup which may approximate the ancestral archosaur morphology. Several other taxa have been referred to the family Euparkeriidae, but the monophyly of this taxon remains doubtful and largely untested. In order to test this monophyly, the archosauriform and putative euparkeriid Dorosuchus neoetus from the Mid-Triassic of Russia is reexamined in light of recent work on the...

Data from: Rumbling orchids: how to assess divergent evolution between chloroplast endosymbionts and the nuclear host

Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Juan Antonio Balbuena & Marc Gottschling
Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or “outlier” associations (i.e., linked pairs of “operational terminal units” in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have...

Data from: Repeatability, heritability, and age-dependence in the aggressiveness reaction norms of a wild passerine bird

Yimen Gerardo Araya Ajoy, Niels J. Dingemanse & Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy
Labile characters allow individuals to flexibly adjust their phenotype to changes in environmental conditions. There is growing evidence that individuals can differ both in average expression and level of plasticity in this type of character. Both of these aspects are studied in conjunction within a reaction norm framework. Theoreticians have investigated the factors promoting variation in reaction norm intercepts (average phenotype) and slopes (level of plasticity) of a key labile character: behaviour. A general prediction...

Data from: Male spiders reduce pre- and postmating sexual investment in response to sperm competition risk

Cristina Tuni, Sabrina Weber, Trine Bilde & Gabriele Uhl
The interplay between pre- and post-mating responses to intra-sexual competition remains enigmatic. Sperm competition models often assume a trade-off between pre- and post-mating traits that enhance mate acquisition and fertilization success, respectively. However, when males court females through food donations (i.e. nuptial gifts), pre- and post-mating responses may be aligned, as nuptial gifts have the dual function of facilitating both mate acquisition and sperm transfer. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis nuptial gifts consist of silk-wrapped...

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Data from: Measurement artefacts lead to false positives in the study of birdsong in noise

Henrik Brumm, Sue Anne Zollinger, Petri T. Niemelä & Philipp Sprau
1: Numerous studies over the past decade have reported correlations between elevated levels of anthropogenic noise and a rise in the minimum frequency of acoustic signals of animals living in noisy habitats. This pattern appears to be occurring globally, and higher pitched signals have been hypothesized to be adaptive changes that reduce masking by low-frequency traffic noise. However, the sound analysis methods most often used in these studies are prone to measurement errors that can...

Data from: Paternal-effects in a terrestrial ectotherm are temperature dependent but no evidence for adaptive effects

Clelia Gasparini, ChuChu Lu, Niels Dingemanse & Cristina Tuni
1. Global rising of average temperatures and increase in extreme climatic events may largely impact animal survival and reproduction. Yet, how variation in temperature may affect male fertility, in particular ejaculate traits, and whether this can in turn affect offspring fitness, is seldom addressed. Paternal effects may be of key importance as they could impact the rate and direction of evolutionary change in response to climate change. 2. We tested the effects of temperature experienced...

Data from: Early arrival and climatically-linked geographic expansion of New World monkeys from tiny African ancestors

Daniele Silvestro, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Martha L. Serrano-Serrano, Oriane Loiseau, Victor Rossier, Jonathan Rolland, Alexander Zizka, Sebastian Höhna, Alexandre Antonelli & Nicolas Salamin
New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are one of the most diverse groups of primates, occupying today a wide range of ecosystems in the American tropics and exhibiting large variations in ecology, morphology, and behavior. Although the relationships among the almost 200 living species are relatively well understood, we lack robust estimates of the timing of origin, ancestral morphology, and geographic range evolution of the clade. Here we integrate paleontological and molecular evidence to assess the evolutionary...

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