16,373 Works

Data from: Testing the role of the Red Queen and Court Jester as drivers of the macroevolution of Apollo butterflies

Fabien L. Condamine, Jonathan Rolland, Sebastian Höhna, Felix A. H. Sperling & Isabel Sanmartín
In macroevolution, the Red Queen (RQ) model posits that biodiversity dynamics depend mainly on species-intrinsic biotic factors such as interactions among species or life-history traits, while the Court Jester (CJ) model states that extrinsic environmental abiotic factors have a stronger role. Until recently, a lack of relevant methodological approaches has prevented the unraveling of contributions from these two types of factors to the evolutionary history of a lineage. Here we take advantage of the rapid...

Data from: Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds

Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Mihai Valcu, Niels Dingemanse, Martin Bulla, Christiaan Both, Renée A. Duckworth, Lynna Marie Kiere, Patrik Karell, Tomáš Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (‘like attracts like’) which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates, from spatial or temporal separation, or from observer, reporting, publication or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we...

Data from: The impact of pathological high-frequency oscillations on hippocampal network activity in rats with chronic epilepsy

Laura A. Ewell, Kyle B. Fischer, Christian Leibold, Stefan Leutgeb & Jill K. Leutgeb
In epilepsy, brain networks generate pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs) during interictal periods. To understand how pHFOs differ from normal oscillations in overlapping frequency bands and potentially perturb hippocampal processing, we performed high-density single unit and local field potential recordings from hippocampi of behaving rats with and without chronic epilepsy. In epileptic animals, we observed two types of co-occurring fast oscillations, which by comparison to control animals we could classify as ‘ripple-like’ or ‘pHFO’. We compared...

Phenotypic variability in chorea-acanthocytosis associated with novel VPS13A mutations

Valter Niemelä, Ammar Salih, Daniela Solea, Björn Lindvall, Jan Weinberg, Gabriel Miltenberger, Tobias Granberg, Aikaterini Tzovla, Love Nordin, Torsten Danfors, Irina Savitcheva, Niklas Dahl & Martin Paucar
Objective: To perform a comprehensive characterization of a cohort of patients with chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) in Sweden. Methods: Clinical assessments, targeted genetic studies, neuroimaging with MRI,18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and dopamine transporter with [123I] FP-CIT (DaTscan) SPECT. One patient underwent Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Four patients living in Sweden but with different ethnical backgrounds were included. Their clinical features were variable. Biallelic VPS13A mutations were confirmed in all patients, including three novel mutations. All tested patients...

Cohesin depleted cells rebuild functional nuclear compartments after endomitosis

Marion Cremer, Katharina Brandstetter, Andreas Maiser, Suhas S P Rao, Volker Schmid, Miguel Guirao-Ortiz, Namita Mitra, Stefania Mamberti, Kyle N Klein, David Gilbert, Heinrich Leonhardt, Maria Cristina Cardoso, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Hartmann Harz & Thomas Cremer
Cohesin plays an essential role in chromatin loop extrusion, but its impact on a compartmentalized nuclear architecture is debatable. Using live-cell and super-resolved 3D microscopy, we demonstrate that cohesin-depleted cells pass through an endomitosis and rebuild a single multilobulated nucleus (MLN) with chromosome territories (CTs) pervaded by interchromatin channels. CTs contain chromatin domain clusters with a zonal organization of repressed chromatin domains in the interior and transcriptionally competent domains located at the periphery. Splicing speckles...

Designing communication technologies based on physiological sensing

Mariam Hassib
The human body, that marvelous chamber of secrets, reveals myriads of information about its owner’s physical, psychological, emotional and cognitive state. In the last century, scientists in the medical field achieved huge leaps in identifying, collecting and analysing of signals generated inside the human brain and body.The advancement in the technology of sensing and collecting those physiological signals has finally matured enough; making the mysterious human body a more attainable source of information to regular...

PCA coordinates describing dorsal colour pattern variation in 723 Morpho butterflies

Violaine Llaurens, Yann Le Poul, Agathe Puissant, Patrick Blandin & Vincent Debat
Species interactions such as mimicry can promote trait convergence but disentangling this effect from those of shared ecology, evolutionary history and niche conservatism is often challenging. Here by focusing on wing color pattern variation within and between three butterfly species living in sympatry in a large proportion of their range, we tested the effect of species interactions on trait diversification. These butterflies display a conspicuous iridescent blue coloration on the dorsal side of their wings...

Data from: Recovery of native genetic background in admixed Populations Using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information – using Cika cattle as a case breed

Mojca Simčič, Anamarija Smetko, Johann Sölkner, Doris Seichter, Gregor Gorjanc, Dragomir Kompan & Ivica Medugorac
The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning...

Data from: Enough for all: no mating effort adjustment to varying mate availability in a gift-giving spider

Martina Magris & Cristina Tuni
Reproduction is costly and since males possess a finite energetic budget, resource allocation to one mating event may constrain investment in subsequent matings. Consequently, males of many species evolved to adjust their reproductive investment in response to mating opportunities. When female availability is high, males are predicted to partition their reproductive effort among multiple partners to avoid resource depletion before mating opportunities have ceased. We tested this prediction in males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis,...

Data from: Fur seal microbiota are shaped by the social and physical environment, show mother-offspring similarities and are associated with host genetic quality

Stefanie Grosser, Jan Sauer, Anneke Paijmans, Barbara Caspers, Jaume Forcada, Jochen Wolf & Joseph Hoffman
Despite an increasing appreciation of the importance of host-microbe interactions in ecological and evolutionary processes, the factors shaping microbial communities in wild populations remain poorly understood. We therefore exploited a natural experiment provided by two adjacent Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) colonies of high and low social density and combined 16S rRNA metabarcoding with microsatellite profiling of mother-offspring pairs to investigate environmental and genetic influences on skin microbial communities. Seal-associated bacterial communities differed profoundly between...

Data from: Sequential horizontal gene transfers from different hosts in a widespread Eurasian parasitic plant, Cynomorium coccineum

Natalie Cusimano & Susanne S. Renner
Premise of the study: Parasites with large geographic ranges, and different hosts in parts of their range, might acquire horizontally-transferred genes (HGTs), which might sometimes leave a footprint of gradual host and range expansion. Cynomorium coccineum, the only member of the Saxifragales family Cynomoriaceae, is a root holoparasite that occurs in water-stressed habitats from western China to the Canary Islands. It parasitizes at least ten angiosperm families from different orders, some of them only in...

Data from: Individual versus pseudo-repeatability in behaviour: lessons from translocation experiments in a wild insect

Petri T. Niemelä & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Repeatability represents a key parameter in ecological and evolutionary research. Repeatability is underpinned by developmental plasticity and genetic variation but may become biased upwards by repeatable differences in environments to which individuals respond plastically. The extent of upward bias caused by the latter mechanism (causing “pseudo-repeatability”) is important yet rarely investigated in ecological research. 2. We repeatedly assayed a key behaviour (flight initiation distance) affecting longevity in a wild cricket population (Gryllus campestris). We...

Data from: Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction

Sebastian Beggel, Joerg Brandner, Alexander F. Cerwenka & Juergen Geist
Background: Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogobius melanostomus in their effects on the native amphipod...

Gut Microbiota from Multiple Sclerosis patients triggers spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice --16S data--

Hartmut Wekerle, Kerstin Berer, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Egle Cekanaviciute, Sherman Jia, Liang Xiao, Zhongkui Xia, Chuan Liu, Luisa Klotz, Uta Stauffer, Sergio Baranzini, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld & Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy
The commensal microbiota has emerged as a key factor influencing human health and has been associated with several diseases, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate the role of the microbiome in multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex autoimmune disorder shaped by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors, we recruited a cohort of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS, and compared their gut microbial composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of...

Individual variation in age-dependent reproduction: fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

Niels Dingemanse, Maria Moiron, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet & Robin N. Abbey-Lee
1. Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace-of-life. Previous work focused on whether “risky” phenotypes live-fast-but-die-young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early-life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. 2. We used a 7-year longitudinal dataset with >1200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within-individual age-dependency...

Genetically determined blood pressure, antihypertensive drug classes and risk of stroke subtypes

Marios Georgakis, Dipender Gill, Alastair Webb, Evangelos Evangelou, Paul Elliott, Cathie Sudlow, Abbas Dehghan, Rainer Malik, Ioanna Tzoulaki & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian Randomization to explore whether the effects of blood pressure (BP) and BP lowering through different antihypertensive drug classes on stroke risk vary by stroke etiology. Methods: We selected genetic variants associated with systolic and diastolic BP and BP-lowering variants in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets from a GWAS on 757,601 individuals. Applying two-sample Mendelian randomization, we examined associations with any stroke (67,162 cases; 454,450 controls), ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large...

Joining a group diverts regret and responsibility away from the individual

Marwa El Zein & Bahador Bahrami
It has recently been proposed that a key motivation for joining groups is the protection from negative consequences of undesirable outcomes. To test this claim we investigated how experienced outcomes triggering loss and regret impacted people’s tendency to decide alone or join a group, and how decisions differed when voluntarily made alone vs in group. Replicated across two experiments, participants (N=125 and N=496) selected whether to play alone or contribute their vote to a group...

Data from: Public health and cost consequences of time delays to thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Wolfgang Kunz
Objective: To determine public health and cost consequences of time delays to EVT for patients, healthcare systems, and society, we estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of EVT-treated patients and associated costs based on times to treatment. Methods: The Markov model analysis was performed from United States healthcare and societal perspectives over a lifetime horizon. Contemporary data from seven trials within the HERMES collaboration served as data source. Aside from cumulative lifetime costs, we calculated the...

Vacuolar sucrose homeostasis is critical for development, seed properties and survival of dark phases of Arabidopsis

Duc Phuong Vu, Cristina Martins Rodrigues, Benjamin Jung, Garvin Meissner, Patrick A.W. Klemens, Daniela Holtgräwe, Lisa Fürtauer, Thomas Nägele, Petra Nieberl, Benjamin Pommerrenig & Ekkehard H. Neuhaus
Although we know that most of the cellular sucrose is present in the cytosol and vacuole, our knowledge on the impact of this sucrose compartmentation on plant properties is still fragmentary. Here we attempted to alter the intracellular sucrose compartmentation of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells by either, overexpression of the vacuolar sucrose loader BvTST2.1 or by generation of mutants with decreased vacuolar invertase activity (amiR vi1-2). Surprisingly, BvTST2.1 overexpression led to increased monosaccharide levels in leaves,...

Historical isolation facilitates species radiation by sexual selection: insights from Chorthippus grasshoppers

Zachary Nolen, Burcin Yildirim, Iker Irisarri, Shanlin Liu, Clara Groot Crego, Daniel Amby, Frieder Mayer, M. Gilbert & Ricardo Pereira
Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that species radiations are facilitated when a trait under divergent natural selection is also involved in sexual selection. It is yet unclear how quick and effective radiations are where assortative mating is unrelated to the ecological environment and primarily results from sexual selection. We address this question using sympatric grasshopper species of the genus Chorthippus, which have evolved strong behavioral isolation while lacking noticeable eco-morphological divergence. Mitochondrial genomes suggest...

Einfluss der Matrix-Zusammensetzung von Vitamin E auf die Bioverfügbarkeit bei wachsenden Schweinen

Juliane Lang
In dem vorliegenden Versuch wurde die Möglichkeit überprüft, bei einem Vitamin E Präparat, das in der Schweinefütterung eingesetzt wird, die Gelatine-Matrix – ein Zusatzstoff tierischer Herkunft - durch einen pflanzlichen Trägerstoff zu ersetzen, ohne dabei Einbußen in der Bioverfügbarkeit des Vitamin E zu erhalten. Zu diesem Zweck wurden 14 Ferkel im Alter von 4 Wochen über 60 Tage mit einer Vitamin E reduzierten Diät depletiert. Im Anschluss daran wurden sie in 2 Gruppen eingeteilt und...

Condylomata acuminata bei Kindern

Katerina Schiffner
Fragestellung Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die theoretische Darstellung eines Behandlungsstandards bei Condylomata acuminata (virusbedingte, infektiöse Warzen im Genitalbereich) im Kindesalter und die Überprüfung der praktischen Durchführung im klinischen Alltag im Vergleich zur Behandlung einer „Kontrastgruppe“, nämlich Kinder mit nicht-infektiösen Erkrankungen im Genitalbereich (Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus genital, genitales atopisches Ekzem). Condylomata acuminata Condylomata acuminata sind eine der häufigsten sexuell übertragbaren Virusinfektionen, verursacht durch das „Humane Papillom-Virus“. Die Inkubationszeit ist variabel, die Rezidivrate sehr hoch. Somit...

Klinische Ergebnisse nach stereotaktischer Präzisionsbestrahlung großer uvealer Melanome mit dem Gamma-Knife

Sabine Schonenbach
Von Juni 1997 bis April 2001 wurden 97 Patienten, die an einem unilateralen uvealen Melanom litten, mit dem Gamma-Knife radiochirurgisch behandelt. Die Melanome aller 97 Patienten waren aufgrund der Lokalisation oder der Größe für eine Therapie mit Ruthenium-Applikatoren nicht geeignet. Alle 97 Patienten, die sich der Therapie mit dem Gamma-Knife unterzogen, wurden in eine engmaschige Nachsorge aufgenommen. Bei der Nachsorge wurden in regelmäßigen Abständen klinische, echographische und neuroradiologische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Die Daten der Patienten beziehen...

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