17,883 Works

CEACAM1 aggravates renal injury in heterologous glomerulonephritis

Yao Bai
Glomerulonephritis is characterized by increasing membrane permeability due to impaired glomerular basement membrane eventually leads to hyperplasia of the basement membrane to form a crescent. the antibody will bind to the membrane then activate the immune system. previous study has shown that endothelial cell death plays a key role in nephritis, other studies already demonstrated that CEACAM1 regulates the endothelial barrier function in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. But there is no published paper reveal the relationship...

Data from: Parental and hybrid Daphnia from the D. longispina complex: long-term dynamics in genetic structure and significance of overwintering modes

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
In recent decades, hybridization has become a focus of attention because of its role in evolutionary processes. However, little is known about changes in genetic structure within and between parental species and hybrids over time. Here, we studied processes of genetic change in parental species and hybrids from the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea, Cladocera) over a period of six years across ten habitats. These cyclical parthenogens respond to fluctuating environments by switching from asexual to...

Data from: The largest early-diverging angiosperm family is mostly pollinated by ovipositing insects and so are most surviving lineages of early angiosperms

Shixiao Luo, Lian-Jie Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Zhong-Hui Ma, Dian-Xiang Zhang, Susanne S. Renner & Shi-Xiao Luo
Insect pollination in basal angiosperms is assumed to mostly involve ‘generalized’ insects looking for food, but direct observation of ANITA grade (283 species) pollinators are sparse. We present new data for numerous Schisandraceae, the largest ANITA family, from field work, nocturnal filming, electron microscopy, barcoding, and molecular clocks to infer pollinator/plant interactions over multiple years at sites throughout China to test the extent of pollinator specificity. Schisandraceae are pollinated by nocturnal gall midges that lay...

Data from: Capturing the population structure of microparasites: using ITS-sequence data and a pooled DNA approach

Sabine Giessler & Justyna Wolinska
The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is a common marker not only for the molecular identification of different taxa and strains, but also for the analysis of population structure of wild microparasite communities. Importantly, the multicopy nature of this region allows the amplification of low-quantity samples of the target DNA, a common problem in studies on unicellular, unculturable microparasites. We analysed ITS sequences from the protozoan parasite Caullerya mesnili (class Ichthyosporea)...

Data from: Behavioural mediators of genetic life-history trade-offs: a test of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis in field crickets

Francesca Santostefano, Alastair J. Wilson, Petri T. Niemela & Niels J. Dingemanse
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts associations between life-history and ‘risky’ behaviours. Individuals with ‘fast’ lifestyles should develop faster, reproduce earlier, exhibit more risk-prone behaviour, and die sooner than those with ‘slow’ lifestyles. While support for POLS has been equivocal to date, studies have relied on individual-level (phenotypic) patterns in which genetic trade-offs may be masked by environmental effects on phenotypes. We estimated genetic correlations between life-history (development, lifespan, size) and risky behaviours (exploration, aggression)...

Data from: Do microplastic particles affect Daphnia magna at the morphological, life history and molecular level?

Hannes Imhof, Jakub Rusek, Michaela Thiel, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Laforsch & Hannes K. Imhof
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 µm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading...

Data from: The assembly of ant-farmed gardens: mutualism specialization following host broadening

Guillaume Chomicki, Milan Janda & Susanne S. Renner
Ant-gardens (AGs) are ant/plant mutualisms in which ants farm epiphytes in return for nest space and food rewards. They occur in the Neotropics and Australasia, but not in Africa, and their evolutionary assembly remains unclear. We here use phylogenetic frameworks for important AG lineages in Australasia, namely the ant genus Philidris and domatium-bearing ferns (Lecanopteris) and flowering plants in the Apocynaceae (Hoya and Dischidia) and Rubiaceae (Myrmecodia, Hydnophytum, Anthorrhiza, Myrmephytum and Squamellaria). Our analyses revealed...

Data from: Increased developmental density decreases the magnitude of indirect genetic effects expressed during agonistic interactions in an insect

Chang S. Han, Cristina Tuni, Jakob Ulcik & Niels J. Dingemanse
The expression of aggression depends not only on the direct genetic effects (DGEs) of an individual’s genes on its own behaviour, but also on indirect genetic effects (IGEs) caused by heritable phenotypes expressed by social partners. IGEs can affect the amount of heritable variance on which selection can act. Despite the important roles of IGEs in the evolutionary process, it remains largely unknown whether the strength of IGEs varies across life stages or competitive regimes....

Data from: Early MoCA predicts long-term cognitive and functional outcome and mortality after stroke

Vera Zietemann, Marios K Georgakis, Thibaut Dondaine, Claudia Müller, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Anna Kopczak, Hilde Hénon, Stéphanie Bombois, Frank Arne Wollenweber, Régis Bordet & Martin Dichgans
Objective: To examine whether the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) administered within 7 days after stroke predicts long-term cognitive impairment, functional impairment, and mortality. Methods: MoCA was administered to 274 patients from two prospective hospital-based cohort studies in Germany (n=125) and France (n=149). Cognitive and functional outcomes were assessed at 6, 12 and 36 months post-stroke by comprehensive neuropsychological testing, the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living...

Data from: Extreme environments facilitate hybrid superiority - the story of a successful Daphnia galeata × longispina hybrid clone

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Monika Poxleitner, Amanda Navas Faria, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
Hybridization within the animal kingdom has long been underestimated. Hybrids have often been considered less fit than their parental species. In the present study, we observed that the Daphnia community of a small lake was dominated by a single D. galeata × D. longispina hybrid clone, during two consecutive years. Notably, in artificial community set-ups consisting of several clones representing parental species and other hybrids, this hybrid clone took over within about ten generations. Neither...

Data from: Individual versus pseudo-repeatability in behaviour: lessons from translocation experiments in a wild insect

Petri T. Niemelä & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Repeatability represents a key parameter in ecological and evolutionary research. Repeatability is underpinned by developmental plasticity and genetic variation but may become biased upwards by repeatable differences in environments to which individuals respond plastically. The extent of upward bias caused by the latter mechanism (causing “pseudo-repeatability”) is important yet rarely investigated in ecological research. 2. We repeatedly assayed a key behaviour (flight initiation distance) affecting longevity in a wild cricket population (Gryllus campestris). We...

Data from: Taxonomy of the proterosuchid archosauriforms (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the earliest Triassic of South Africa, and implications for the early archosauriform radiation

Martín D. Ezcurra & Richard J. Butler
Proterosuchidae is one of the first clades of Archosauriformes (archosaurs and closely related species) to appear in the fossil record, with the richest sample of the group coming from the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone (earliest Triassic) of South Africa. Four nominal proterosuchid species were described from South Africa during the twentieth century (Proterosuchus fergusi, Chasmatosaurus vanhoepeni, Chasmatosaurus alexanderi and Elaphrosuchus rubidgei), but interpretations of their taxonomy have been widely disparate. The most recent taxonomic revision concluded...

Data from: Sequential horizontal gene transfers from different hosts in a widespread Eurasian parasitic plant, Cynomorium coccineum

Natalie Cusimano & Susanne S. Renner
Premise of the study: Parasites with large geographic ranges, and different hosts in parts of their range, might acquire horizontally-transferred genes (HGTs), which might sometimes leave a footprint of gradual host and range expansion. Cynomorium coccineum, the only member of the Saxifragales family Cynomoriaceae, is a root holoparasite that occurs in water-stressed habitats from western China to the Canary Islands. It parasitizes at least ten angiosperm families from different orders, some of them only in...

Data from: Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds

Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Mihai Valcu, Niels Dingemanse, Martin Bulla, Christiaan Both, Renée A. Duckworth, Lynna Marie Kiere, Patrik Karell, Tomáš Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (‘like attracts like’) which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates, from spatial or temporal separation, or from observer, reporting, publication or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we...

Data from: Fur seal microbiota are shaped by the social and physical environment, show mother-offspring similarities and are associated with host genetic quality

Stefanie Grosser, Jan Sauer, Anneke Paijmans, Barbara Caspers, Jaume Forcada, Jochen Wolf & Joseph Hoffman
Despite an increasing appreciation of the importance of host-microbe interactions in ecological and evolutionary processes, the factors shaping microbial communities in wild populations remain poorly understood. We therefore exploited a natural experiment provided by two adjacent Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) colonies of high and low social density and combined 16S rRNA metabarcoding with microsatellite profiling of mother-offspring pairs to investigate environmental and genetic influences on skin microbial communities. Seal-associated bacterial communities differed profoundly between...

Data from: Enough for all: no mating effort adjustment to varying mate availability in a gift-giving spider

Martina Magris & Cristina Tuni
Reproduction is costly and since males possess a finite energetic budget, resource allocation to one mating event may constrain investment in subsequent matings. Consequently, males of many species evolved to adjust their reproductive investment in response to mating opportunities. When female availability is high, males are predicted to partition their reproductive effort among multiple partners to avoid resource depletion before mating opportunities have ceased. We tested this prediction in males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis,...

Gut Microbiota from Multiple Sclerosis patients triggers spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice --16S data--

Hartmut Wekerle, Kerstin Berer, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Egle Cekanaviciute, Sherman Jia, Liang Xiao, Zhongkui Xia, Chuan Liu, Luisa Klotz, Uta Stauffer, Sergio Baranzini, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld & Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy
The commensal microbiota has emerged as a key factor influencing human health and has been associated with several diseases, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate the role of the microbiome in multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex autoimmune disorder shaped by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors, we recruited a cohort of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS, and compared their gut microbial composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of...

Data from: Testing the role of the Red Queen and Court Jester as drivers of the macroevolution of Apollo butterflies

Fabien L. Condamine, Jonathan Rolland, Sebastian Höhna, Felix A. H. Sperling & Isabel Sanmartín
In macroevolution, the Red Queen (RQ) model posits that biodiversity dynamics depend mainly on species-intrinsic biotic factors such as interactions among species or life-history traits, while the Court Jester (CJ) model states that extrinsic environmental abiotic factors have a stronger role. Until recently, a lack of relevant methodological approaches has prevented the unraveling of contributions from these two types of factors to the evolutionary history of a lineage. Here we take advantage of the rapid...

Data from: 'Escaping' the X chromosome leads to increased gene expression in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster

Claus Kemkemer, Ana Catalán & John Parsch
Genomic analyses of Drosophila species suggest that the X chromosome presents an unfavourable environment for the expression of genes in the male germline. A previous study in D. melanogaster used a reporter gene driven by a testis-specific promoter to show that expression was greatly reduced when the gene was inserted onto the X chromosome as compared with the autosomes. However, a limitation of this study was that only the expression regulated by a single, autosomal-derived...

Data from: Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction

Sebastian Beggel, Joerg Brandner, Alexander F. Cerwenka & Juergen Geist
Background: Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogobius melanostomus in their effects on the native amphipod...

Data from: Bioinformatic processing of RAD-seq data dramatically impacts downstream population genetic inference

Aaron B. A. Shafer, Claire R. Peart, Sergio Tusso, Inbar Maayan, Alan Brelsford, Christopher W. Wheat & Jochen B. W. Wolf
Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) provides high-resolution population genomic data at low cost, and has become an important component in ecological and evolutionary studies. As with all high-throughput technologies, analytic strategies require critical validation to ensure accurate and unbiased interpretation. To test for the impact of bioinformatic data processing on downstream population genetic inferences, we analysed mammalian RAD-seq data (>100 individuals) with 312 combinations of methodology (de novo vs. mapping to references of increasing divergence)...

Data from: Recovery of native genetic background in admixed Populations Using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information – using Cika cattle as a case breed

Mojca Simčič, Anamarija Smetko, Johann Sölkner, Doris Seichter, Gregor Gorjanc, Dragomir Kompan & Ivica Medugorac
The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning...

Data from: The impact of pathological high-frequency oscillations on hippocampal network activity in rats with chronic epilepsy

Laura A. Ewell, Kyle B. Fischer, Christian Leibold, Stefan Leutgeb & Jill K. Leutgeb
In epilepsy, brain networks generate pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs) during interictal periods. To understand how pHFOs differ from normal oscillations in overlapping frequency bands and potentially perturb hippocampal processing, we performed high-density single unit and local field potential recordings from hippocampi of behaving rats with and without chronic epilepsy. In epileptic animals, we observed two types of co-occurring fast oscillations, which by comparison to control animals we could classify as ‘ripple-like’ or ‘pHFO’. We compared...

Einfluss der nichtinvasiven Blutdruckmessung auf die Blutdruckstabilität bei perioperativen und kritisch kranken Patienten

Agnes Sophia Meidert

Genetically determined blood pressure, antihypertensive drug classes and risk of stroke subtypes

Marios Georgakis, Dipender Gill, Alastair Webb, Evangelos Evangelou, Paul Elliott, Cathie Sudlow, Abbas Dehghan, Rainer Malik, Ioanna Tzoulaki & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian Randomization to explore whether the effects of blood pressure (BP) and BP lowering through different antihypertensive drug classes on stroke risk vary by stroke etiology. Methods: We selected genetic variants associated with systolic and diastolic BP and BP-lowering variants in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets from a GWAS on 757,601 individuals. Applying two-sample Mendelian randomization, we examined associations with any stroke (67,162 cases; 454,450 controls), ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large...

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