97 Works

Fonio millet genome unlocks African orphan crop diversity for agriculture in a changing climate

Michael Abrouk, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Philippe Cubry, Denisa Šimoníková, Stéphane Cauet, Yveline Pailles, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Liubov Gapa, Nora Scarcelli, Marie Couderc, Leila Zekraoui, Nagarajan Kathiresan, Jana Čížková, Eva Hřibová, Jaroslav Doležel, Sandrine Arribat, Hélène Bergès, Jan Wieringa, Mathieu Gueye, Ndjido Kane, Christian Leclerc, Sandrine Causse, Sylvie Vancoppenolle, Claire Billot, Thomas Wicker … & Simon Krattinger
Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we established high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure,...

D1.1 Report on life sciences use cases and user stories

Heli Fitzgerald, Aino Juslén, Sabine von Mering, Mareike Petersen, Niels Raes, Sharif Islam, Frederik Berger, Tea Katharina von Bonsdorff-Salminen, Rui Figueira, Elspeth Haston, Eva Häffner, Laurence Livermore, Veljo Runnel, Sofie De Smedt, Sarah Vincent & Claus Weiland

D1.2 Report on Earth sciences use cases and user stories

Sabine von Mering, Mareike Petersen, Heli Fitzgerald, Aino Juslén, Niels Raes, Sharif Islam, Frederik Berger, Tea Katharina von Bonsdorff-Salminen, Rui Figueira, Elspeth Haston, Eva Häffner, Laurence Livermore, Veljo Runnel, Sofie De Smedt, Sarah Vincent & Claus Weiland

Data from: Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion

Sean Hoban, Jan A. Arntzen, Michael W. Bruford, José A. Godoy, A. Rus Hoelzel, Gernot Segelbacher, Carles Vilà & Giorgio Bertorelle
Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of...

Data from: Thermal limits in native and alien freshwater peracarid Crustacea: the role of habitat use and oxygen limitation

Wilco C.E.P. Verberk, Rob S.E.W. Leuven, Gerard Van Der Velde & Friederike Gabel
1. In order to predict which species can successfully cope with global warming and how other environmental stressors modulate their vulnerability to climate related environmental factors, an understanding of the ecophysiology underpinning thermal limits is essential for both conservation biology a nd invasion biology. 2. Heat tolerance and the extent to which heat tolerance differed with oxygen availability were examined for four native and four alien freshwater peracarid crustacean species, with differences in habitat use...

Data from: Postmating sexual selection and the enigmatic jawed genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus

Merel M. Van Haren, Johanna Liljestrand Rönn, Menno Schilthuizen & Göran Arnqvist
Insect genitalia exhibit rapid divergent evolution. Truly extraordinary structures have evolved in some groups, presumably as a result of post-mating sexual selection. To increase our understanding of this phenomenon, we studied the function of one such structure. The male genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchinae) contain a pair of jaw-like structures with unknown function. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to ablate the teeth on these jaws. We then experimentally assessed the effects of ablation of...

Data from: Phylogenetic tree shape and the structure of mutualistic networks

Scott Chamberlain, Diego P. Vázquez, Luisa Carvalheiro, Elizabeth Elle & Jana C. Vamosi
Species community composition is known to alter the network of interactions between two trophic levels, potentially affecting its functioning (e.g. plant pollination success) and the stability of communities. Phylogenies vary in shape with regard to the rate of evolutionary change across a tree (influencing tree balance) and variation in the timing of branching events (affecting the distribution of node ages in trees), both of which may influence the structure of species interaction networks. Because related...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomics resolves ancient divergences in the Lepidoptera

Adam L. Bazinet, Kim T. Mitter, Donald R. Davis, Erik J. Van Nieukerken, Michael P. Cummings & Charles Mitter
Classic morphological studies of the oldest, so-called nonditrysian lineages of Lepidoptera yielded a well-resolved phylogeny, supported by the stepwise origin of the traits characterizing the clade Ditrysia, which contains over 98% of extant lepidopterans. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular studies have robustly supported many aspects of the morphological hypothesis and strongly contradicted others, while leaving some relationships unsettled. Here we bring the greatly expanded gene sampling of RNA-Seq to bear on nonditrysian phylogeny, especially...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

The contribution of environmental and dispersal filters on beta diversity patterns in Amazonian tree communities

Juan Ernesto Guevara Andino, Nigel C.A. Pitman, Hans Ter Steege, Manuel Peralvo, Carlos Cerón & Paul V.A. Fine
Environmental filters (e.g. climate, geomorphology and soils) and dispersal filters are key determinants of species distributions of Amazonian tree communities. However, a comprehensive analysis of the role of environmental and dispersal filters is needed to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes that drive phylogenetic and taxonomic turnover of Amazonian tree communities. We compare measures of taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity in 40 one-hectare plots to test the relative importance of climate, soils, geology, geomorphology, pure...

Reconstructing hotspots of genetic diversity from glacial refugia and subsequent dispersal in Italian common toads (Bufo bufo)

Andrea Chiocchio, Jan Arntzen, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Wouter De Vries, Roberta Bisconti, Alice Pezzarossa, Luigi Maiorano & Daniele Canestrelli
Genetic diversity feeds the evolutionary process and allows populations to adapt to environmental changes. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of why hotspots of genetic diversity are so 'hot'. Here, we analysed the relative contribution of bioclimatic stability and genetic admixture between divergent lineages in shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity in the common toad Bufo bufo along the Italian peninsula. We combined population genetic, phylogeographic and species distribution modelling (SDM) approaches to map...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Data from: Phylogeny of gracillariid leaf-mining moths: evolution of larval behaviour inferred from phylogenomic and Sanger data

Xuankun Li, Ryan St Laurent, Chandra Earl, Camiel Doorenweerd, Erik Van Nieukerken, Don Davis, Atsushi Kawakita, Shigeki Kobayashi, Andreas Zwick, Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde, Issei Ohshima & Akito Kawahara
Gracillariidae is the most taxonomically diverse cosmopolitan leaf-mining moth family, consisting of nearly 2000 named species in 105 described genera, classified into eight extant subfamilies. The majority of gracillariid species are internal plant feeders as larvae, creating mines and galls in plant tissue. Despite their diversity and ecological adaptations, their phylogenetic relationships, especially at the subfamily level, remain largely uncertain. Genomic data (83 taxa and 589 loci) were integrated with Sanger data (130 taxa and...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding of orchid-derived products reveals widespread illegal orchid trade

Hugo J. De Boer, Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Vincent Manzanilla, Ancuta-Cristina Raclariu, Anna Kreziou, Sarawut Ounjai, Maslin Osathanunkul & Barbara Gravendeel
In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10...

Data from: Cenozoic dynamics of shallow-marine biodiversity in the Western Pacific

Moriaki Yasuhara, Hokuto Iwatani, Gene Hunt, Hisayo Okahashi, Tomoki Kase, Hiroki Hayashi, Toshiaki Irizuki, Yolanda M. Aguilar, Allan Gil S. Fernando & Willem Renema
Aim: Cenozoic dynamics of large-scale species diversity patterns remain poorly understood, especially for the Western Pacific, in part, because of the paucity of well-dated fossil records from the tropics. This article aims to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of species diversity in the Western Pacific through the Cenozoic, focusing on the tropical Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) biodiversity hotspot. Location: Tropical and north-western Pacific Ocean. Methods: We analysed well-preserved fossil ostracodes from the tropical Western Pacific and combined...

Data from: Neurocranial anatomy of an enigmatic Early Devonian fish sheds light on early osteichthyan evolution

Alice M. Clement, Benedict King, Sam Giles, Brian Choo, Per Ahlberg, Gavin C. Young, John A. Long & Per E Ahlberg
The skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ from the Early Devonian of Australia (AM-F101607) has significantly expanded our knowledge of early osteichthyan anatomy, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We herein describe a second skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ and present micro-CT data on both specimens to reveal novel anatomical features, including cranial endocasts. Several features previously considered to link ‘Ligulalepis’ with actinopterygians are now considered generalized osteichthyan characters or of uncertain polarity. The presence of a lateral cranial...

Data from: Phylogeny of Tetillidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spirophorida) based on three molecular markers

Amir Szitenberg, Leontine E. Becking, Sergio Vargas, Júlio C. C. Fernandez, Nadiezhda Santodomingo, Gert Wörheide, Micha Ilan, Michelle Kelly & Dorothée Huchon
Tetillidae are spherical to elliptical cosmopolitan demosponges. The family comprises eight genera: namely, Acanthotetilla Burton, 1959, Amphitethya Lendenfeld, 1907, Cinachyra Sollas, 1886, Cinachyrella Wilson, 1925, Craniella Schmidt, 1870, Fangophilina Schmidt, 1880, Paratetilla Dendy, 1905, and Tetilla Schmidt, 1868. These genera are characterized by few conflicting morphological characters, resulting in an ambiguity of phylogenetic relationships. The phylogeny of tetillid genera was investigated using the cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA (C1-D2 domains) genes in 88 specimens...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

Abraham S. H. Breure & Abraham Breure
The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are...

Pontocaspian habitat polygon shapefiles from: Decline of unique Pontocaspian biodiversity in the Black Sea Basin: a review

Aleksandre Gogaladze, Mikhail Son, Matteo Lattuada, Vitaliy Anistratenko, Vitaly Syomin, Ana Bianca Pavel, Oana Popa, Luis Popa, Jan-Johan Ter Poorten, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Niels Raes, Thomas Wilke, Arthur Francis Sands, Teodora Trichkova, Zdravko Hubenov, Maxim Vinarski, Olga Anistratenko, Tatiana Alexenko & Frank Wesselingh
The unique aquatic Pontocaspian (PC) biota of the Black Sea Basin (BSB) is in decline. The lack of detailed knowledge on the status and trends of species, populations and communities hampers a thorough risk assessment and precludes effective conservation. This paper reviews PC biodiversity trends in the BSB ( Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine and Russia) using endemic molluscs as a model group. We aim to assess changes in PC habitats, community structure and species distribution...

DiSSCo Prepare Deliverable D8.1 \"Communication and Dissemination Strategy\"

Ana Casino, Céline Cassarino, Marie-Laure Kamatali, Karsten Gödderz, Eva Alonso, Maria Judite Alves, François DUSOULIER & Hilary Goodson
The Communication and Dissemination (C&D) Strategy for DiSSCo Prepare is a supporting instrument to facilitate efficient communication among project partners, strengthen coherence and enlighten the shared vision for external outreach whilst procures and empowers engagement of third parties. The C&D Strategy collates the tools, channels and mechanisms necessary to develop cross-cutting activities throughout the project’s duration and beyond. This document will aim to ensure the most effective information exchange both internally and externally towards external...

Data from: The origin of the legumes is a complex paleopolyploid phylogenomic tangle closely associated with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event

Erik Koenen, Dario Ojeda, Freek Bakker, Jan Wieringa, Catherine Kidner, Olivier Hardy, Toby Pennington, Patrick Herendeen, Anne Bruneau & Colin Hughes
The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine...

A genomic footprint of a moving hybrid zone in marbled newts

Jan W. Arntzen, Julia López-Delgado, Isolde Van Riemsdijk & Ben Wielstra
We developed a panel of 44 nuclear genetic markers and applied this to two species of marbled newts in the north (Triturus marmoratus) and the south (T. pygmaeus) of the Iberian Peninsula, to document pattern and process of interspecific gene flow. The northernmost occurrence of T. pygmaeus genetic material was in a T. marmoratus population north of the Vouga river estuary. This suggested the past presence of a hybrid zone, possibly coinciding with a natural...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

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