Data from: Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combatOlga Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Spyridis, Hyab Mehari Abraha, David R. Carrier & Todd C. Pataky
Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk”, that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of...
Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical AndesFrancisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...
Data from: A novel method to infer the origin of polyploids from AFLP data reveals that the Alpine polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) evolved mainly via autopolyploidyManuela Winkler, Pedro Escobar García, Andreas Gattringer, Michaela Sonnleitner, Karl Hülber, Peter Schönswetter & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Despite its evolutionary and ecological relevance the mode of polyploid origin has been notoriously difficult to be reconstructed from molecular data. Here, we present a method to identify the putative parents of polyploids and thus to infer the mode of their origin (auto- versus allopolyploidy) from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. To this end, we use Cohen's d of distances between in silico polyploids, generated within a priori defined scenarios of origin from a...
Data from: The impacts of climate change and disturbance on spatio-temporal trajectories of biodiversity in a temperate forest landscapeDominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnboeck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm & Rupert Seidl
The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and...
Data from: Future ecosystem services from European mountain forests under climate changeMarco Mina, Harald Bugmann, Thomas Cordonnier, Florian Irauschek, Matija Klopcic, Marta Pardos & Maxime Cailleret
Ecosystem services (ES) from mountain forests are highly relevant for human societies. ES with a direct economic support function (e.g. timber production), regulatory services (e.g. protection from natural hazards) and cultural services (e.g. recreation) are likely to be affected strongly by a rapidly changing climate. To evaluate whether adverse climate change effects on ES can be counteracted by adapting management, dynamic models and indicator-based assessments are needed. We applied a forest dynamic model in case...
Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across EuropeMiren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...
Data from: Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaksRupert Seidl, Daniel C. Donato, Kenneth F. Raffa & Monica G. Turner
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to bark beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and...
Data from: The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasiHannes Schuler, Kirsten Koeppler, Sabine Daxböck-Horvath, Bilal Rasool, Susanne Krumboeck, Dietmar Schwarz, Thomas Hoffmeister, Birgit Schlick-Steiner, Florian Steiner, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Riegler, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner & Thomas S. Hoffmeister
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in...
Data from: Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypothesesJason P. Sexton, Matthew B. Hufford, Ashley Bateman, David B. Lowry, Harald Meimberg, Sharon Y. Strauss, Kevin J. Rice & Ashley C.Bateman
Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance...
Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bearsJacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...
Data from: A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate changeBénédicte Wenden, José Antonio Campoy, Julien Lecourt, Gregorio López Ortega, Michael Blanke, Sanja Radičević, Elisabeth Schüller, Andreas Spornberger, Danilo Christen, Hugo Magein, Daniela Giovannini, Carlos Campillo, Svetoslav Malchev, José Miguel Peris, Mekjell Meland, Rolf Stehr, Gérard Charlot & José Quero-García
Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978 - 2015). Such dataset is...
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences11
University of Queensland2
Technical University Munich2
University of Innsbruck2
Aleksandras Stulginskis University1
Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research1
University of California, Merced1
Technical University of Zvolen1
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine1