89 Works

Data from: Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development reveals enzyme and carrier properties in relation to vacuole expansion

Bertrand P. Beauvoit, Sophie Colombié, Antoine Monier, Marie-Hélène Andrieu, Benoit Biais, Camille Bénard, Catherine Chéniclet, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Christine Nazaret, Jean-Pierre Mazat & Yves Gibon
A kinetic model combining enzyme activity measurements and subcellular compartmentation was parameterized to fit the sucrose, hexose, and glucose-6-P contents of pericarp throughout tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. The model was further validated using independent data obtained from domesticated and wild tomato species and on transgenic lines. A hierarchical clustering analysis of the calculated fluxes and enzyme capacities together revealed stage-dependent features. Cell division was characterized by a high sucrolytic activity of the vacuole, whereas...

Data from: Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Herve Jactel, Emmanuel S. Gritti, Lars Drössler, David I. Forrester, William L. Mason, Xavier Morin, Hans Pretzsch & Bastien Castagneyrol
While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity - forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity...

Data from: Range expansion compromises adaptive evolution in an outcrossing plant

Santiago C. Gonzalez-Martinez, Kate Ridout & John R. Pannell
Neutral genetic diversity gradients have long been used to infer the colonization history of species, but range expansion may also influence the efficacy of natural selection and patterns of non-synonymous polymorphism in different parts of a species’ range. Recent theory predicts both an accumulation of deleterious mutations and a reduction in the efficacy of positive selection as a result of range expansion. These signatures have been sought in a number of studies of the human...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic origins of a plant pathogen during disease spread using an original molecular epidemiology approach

Constance Xhaard, Benoît Barrès, Axelle Andrieux, Lydia Bousset, Fabien Halkett & Pascal Frey
The advent of molecular epidemiology has greatly improved our ability to identify population sources and track pathogen movement. Yet the wide spatial and temporal scales usually considered are useful only to infer historical migration pathways. In this study, Bayesian genetic assignments and a landscape epidemiology approach were combined to unravel genetic origin and annual spread during a single epidemic of a plant pathogen: the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina. The study focused on a particular...

Data from: Fine-scale environmental control of hybridization in oaks

Lélia Lagache, Etienne K. Klein, Erwan Guichoux & Rémy J. Petit
Natural hybridization is attracting much interest in modern speciation and conservation biology studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear why environmental changes often increase hybridization rates. To study this question, we surveyed mating events in a mixed oak stand and developed a spatially-explicit individual-based hybridization model. This model, where hybridization is frequency dependent, pollen is non-limiting and which allows immigrant pollen to compete with local pollen, takes into account...

Data from: Capturing neutral and adaptive genetic diversity for conservation in a highly structured tree species

Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Luis Santos-Del-Blanco, María Jesús Serra-Varela, Jarkko Koskela, Santiago César González-Martínez & Ricardo Alía
Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation - at both neutral molecular markers and...

Data from: Assessing early fitness consequences of exotic gene flow in the wild: a field study with Iberian pine relicts

Gregor M. Unger, Myriam Heuertz, Giuseppe G. Vendramin & Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio
Gene flow from plantations of nonlocal (genetically exotic) tree provenances into natural stands of the same species is probably a widespread phenomenon, but its effects remain largely unexamined. We investigated early fitness consequences of intraspecific exotic gene flow in the wild by assessing differences in survival among native, nonlocal, and F1 intraspecific hybrid seedlings naturally established within two native pine relicts (one of Pinus pinaster and the other of P. sylvestris) surrounded by nonlocal plantations....

Data from: What was old is new again: thermal adaptation within clonal lineages during range expansion in a fungal pathogen

Cécile Robin, Audrey Andanson, Gilles Saint-Jean, Olivier Fabreguettes & Cyril Dutech
Range-expanding species are expected to gain an increasing importance in the context of global change. They provide a great opportunity to study contemporary evolutionary changes and to unravel the mechanisms of evolution. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, originating from Asia, has been spread since the beginning of the 20th century into different continents. We took advantage of the C. parasitica recent emergence in northern France to study the changes in population genetic...

Data from: An inconvenient truth about xylem resistance to embolism in the model species for refilling Laurus nobilis L.

Laurent J. Lamarque
Direct, non-invasive X-ray microtomography and optical technique observations applied in stems and leaves of intact seedlings revealed that laurel is highly resistant to drought-induced xylem embolism. Contrary to what has been brought forward, daily cycles of embolism formation and refilling are unlikely to occur in this species and to explain how it copes with drought. There has been considerable controversy regarding xylem embolism resistance for long-vesselled angiosperm species and particularly for the model species for...

Catalogue of parasites and diseases of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule

Xavier de Montaudouin, Simão Correia, Rosa Freitas & Luísa Magalhães

La fabrique des corps sexués, entre médicalisation et pathologisation. La place du corps dans les trans studies en France

Anastasia Meidani & Arnaud Alessandrin
Chapitre 8 de: H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 153-156), Lausanne : Éditions HETSL.

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Escape of spring frost and disease through phenological variations in oak populations along elevation gradients

Cécile Françoise Dantec, Hugo Ducasse, Xavier Capdevielle, Olivier Fabreguettes, Sylvain Delzon & Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau
1. The timing of tree flushing follows strong phenotypic and genetic clines across environmental gradients. It may be seen as an adaptive response to abiotic (escape of spring frost and maximizing growing season length) and biotic (escape of pest and disease) hazards. However, few studies have investigated jointly both types of hazards. 2. We assessed exposure to both abiotic (spring frost) and biotic (powdery mildew) hazards within and between sessile oak populations along elevation gradients,...

Data from: Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests

Diem Nguyen, Bastien Castagneyrol, Helge Bruelheide, Filippo Bussotti, Virginie Guyot, Hervé Jactel, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Fernando Valladares, Jan Stenlid & Johanna Boberg
European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree species diversity in different forest types across Europe. We measured...

Data from: Within-range translocations and their consequences in European larch

Stefanie Wagner, Sascha Liepelt, Sophie Gerber & Rémy J. Petit
In contrast to biological invasions, translocations of individuals within a species range are understudied, due to difficulties in systematically detecting them. This results in limited knowledge about the corresponding processes and uncertainties regarding the status of extant populations. European larch, a forest tree whose fragmented native distribution is restricted to the Alps and to other Central European mountains, has been massively planted for at least 300 years. Here we focus on the genetic characterization of...

Data from: Allatostatin A signalling in Drosophila regulates feeding and sleep and is modulated by PDF

Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A. Veenstra & Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are...

Data from: Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

Juan Pablo Jaramilo-Correa, Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Delphine Grivet, Camille Lepoittevin, Federico Sebastiani, Myriam Heuertz, Pauline H. Garnier-Géré, Ricardo Alía, Christophe Plomion, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez, J.-P. Jaramillo-Correa, S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez & P. H. Garnier-Gere
Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) can be used as predictors...

Data from: ClonEstiMate, a Bayesian method for quantifying rates of clonality of populations genotyped at two-time steps

Ronan Becheler, Jean-Pierre Masson, Sophie Arnaud-Haond, Fabien Halkett, Stéphanie Mariette, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Myriam Valero, Christophe Destombe & Solenn Stoeckel
Partial clonality is commonly used in Eukaryotes and has large consequences for their evolution and ecology. Assessing accurately the relative importance of clonal versus sexual reproduction matters for studying and managing such species. Here, we proposed a Bayesian approach, ClonEstiMate, to infer rates of clonality c from populations sampled twice over a short time interval, ideally one generation time. The method relies on the likelihood of the transitions between genotype frequencies of ancestral and descendent...

Data from: Theta oscillations coincide with sustained hyperpolarization in CA3 pyramidal cells, underlying decreased firing

Ashley Kees, Meryl Malezieux & Christophe Mulle
Brain-state fluctuations modulate membrane potential dynamics of neurons, influencing the functional repertoire of the network. Pyramidal cells (PCs) in hippocampal CA3 are necessary for rapid memory encoding, preferentially occurring during exploratory behavior in the high-arousal theta state. However, the relationship between the membrane potential dynamics of CA3 PCs and theta has not been explored. Here, we characterize the changes in the membrane potential of PCs in relation to theta using electrophysiological recordings in awake mice....

High-quality SNPs from genic regions highlight introgression patterns among European white oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur)

Tiange Lang, Pierre Abadie, Valerie Leger, Thibaut Decourcelle, Jean-Marc Frigerio, Christian Burban, Catherine Bodenes, Erwan Guichoux, Gregoire Le Provost, Cecile Robin, Naoki Tani, Patrick Leger, Camille Lepoittevin, Veronica El Mujtar, Francois Hubert, Josquin Tibbits, Jorge Paiva, Alain Franc, Frederic Raspail, Stephanie Mariette, Marie-Pierre Reviron, Christophe Plomion, Antoine Kremer, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau & Pauline Garnier-Géré
In the post-genomics era, non-model species like most Fagaceae still lack operational diversity resources for population genomics studies. Sanger sequences were produced from over 800 gene fragments covering ~530 kb across the genic partition of European oaks in a range-wide sampling of 25 individuals (11 Quercus petraea, 13 Q. robur, one Q. ilex as an outgroup). Regions targeted represented broad functional categories potentially involved in species ecological preferences, and a random set of genes. Using...

A regional assessment of changes in plant-plant interactions along topography gradients in Tunisian sebkhas

Ghassen Chaieb, Chedly Abdelly & Richard Michalet
Facilitation among plants in dry ecosystems is crucial for diversity and ecosystem functioning and stability. However, the importance of facilitation in extremely stressful conditions is highly debated. We attempt to separate the effects of direct non-resource and resource stress factors on plant-plant interactions by assessing changes in facilitation and competition along salinity gradients at two contrasting levels of aridity. We selected eight saline depressions (hereafter sebkhas) in the wet and dry Mediterranean arid climate of...

Data from: Comparison and validation of Oomycetes metabarcoding primers for Phytophthora high throughput sequencing

Jean Legeay, Claude Husson, Tristan Cordier, Corinne Vacher, Benoît Marcais & Marc Buée
Oomycetes are eukaryotic plant pathogens that require health monitoring. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods replace progressively cultivation-based approaches in soil surveys of Oomycetes, but very little control has been done from synthetic communities. Indeed, several potential biases do exist and need to be assessed for Oomycetes communities. We created a mock community by mixing DNA from 24 Phytophthora species. We amplified two barcode regions with Oomycete-specific primers before HTS. With this aim, we used three primer...

Data from: Phenotypic effects of the nurse Thylacospermum caespitosum on dependent plant species along regional climate stress gradients

Xingpei Jiang, Richard Michalet, Shuyan Chen, Liang Zhao, Xiangtai Wang, Chenyue Wang, Lizhe An & Sa Xiao
Contrasting phenotypes of alpine cushion species have been recurrently described in several mountain ranges along small-scale topography gradients, with tight competitive phenotypes in stressful convex topography and loose facilitative phenotypes in sheltered concave topography. The consistency of phenotypic effects along large-scale climate stress gradients have been proposed as a test of the likely genetic bases of the differences observed at small-scale. Inversely, plastic phenotypic effects are more likely to vanish at some points along climate...

Data from: Impact of the Ebola outbreak on Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection medical activities in coastal Guinea, 2014-2015: a retrospective analysis from the Guinean national Human African Trypanosomiasis control program

Mariame Camara, Eric Ouattara, Alexandre Duvignaud, René Migliani, Oumou Camara, Mamadou Leno, Philippe Solano, Bruno Bucheton, Mamadou Camara & Denis Malvy
Background: The 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak massively hit Guinea. The coastal districts of Boffa, Dubreka and Forecariah, three major foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), were particularly affected. We aimed to assess the impact of this epidemic on sleeping sickness screening and caring activities. Methodology/Principal findings: We used preexisting data from the Guinean sleeping sickness control program, collected between 2012 and 2015. We described monthly: the number of persons (i) screened actively; (ii) or passively; (iii)...

Data and R code for: An experimental approach to assessing the impact of ecosystem engineers on biodiversity and ecosystem functions

Gianalberto Losapio, Bernhard Schmid, Jordi Bascompte, Richard Michalet, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Rainer Neumeyer, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants acting as ecosystem engineers create habitats and facilitate biodiversity maintenance within plant communities. Furthermore, biodiversity research has demonstrated that plant diversity enhances the productivity and functioning of ecosystems. However, these two fields of research developed in parallel and independent from one another, with the consequence that little is known about the role of ecosystem engineers in the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across trophic levels. Here, we present an experimental framework to study...

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