21 Works

Data from: Postural control during quiet bipedal standing in rats

Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Soichiro Fujiki, Yamato Sato, Shinya Aoi, Kazuo Tsuchiya & Dai Yanagihara
The control of bipedal posture in humans is subject to non-ideal conditions such as delayed sensation and heartbeat noise. However, the controller achieves a high level of functionality by utilizing body dynamics dexterously. In order to elucidate the neural mechanism responsible for postural control, the present study made use of an experimental setup involving rats because they have more accessible neural structures. The experimental design requires rats to stand bipedally in order to obtain a...

Data from: Vine tendrils use contact chemoreception to avoid conspecific leaves

Yuya Fukano
Movement and growth habit of climbing plants have attracted attention since the time of Charles Darwin; however, there are no reports on whether plants can choose suitable hosts or avoid unsuitable ones based on chemoreception. Here, I show that the tendrils of Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) appear to avoid conspecific leaves using contact chemoreception for oxalates, which are highly concentrated in C. japonica leaves. The coiling experiments show that C. japonica has a flexible plastic response...

Data from: Calcium dynamics regulating the timing of decision-making in C. elegans

Yuki Tanimoto, Akiko Yamazoe-Umemoto, Kosuke Fujita, Yuya Kawazoe, Yosuke Miyanishi, Shuhei J. Yamazaki, Xianfeng Fei, Karl Emanuel Busch, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Junichi Nakai, Yuichi Iino, Yuishi Iwasaki, Koichi Hashimoto & Koutarou D. Kimura
Brains regulate behavioral responses with distinct timings. Here we investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the timing of decision-making during olfactory navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that, based on subtle changes in odor concentrations, the animals appear to choose the appropriate migratory direction from multiple trials as a form of behavioral decision-making. Through optophysiological, mathematical and genetic analyses of neural activity under virtual odor gradients, we further find that odor concentration information is...

Data from: Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier

Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Honda, Wilfredo H. Uy, Darwin I. Baslot, Tom G. Genovia, Yohei Nakamura, Lawrence Patrick C. Bernardo, Hiroyuki Kurokochi, Allyn Duvin S. Pantallano, Chunlan Lian, Kazuo Nadaoka & Masahiro Nakaoka
The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes (Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Adoption of alternative migratory tactics: a view from the ultimate mechanism and threshold trait changes in a salmonid fish

Genki Sahashi & Kentaro Morita
Partial migration, in which a portion of the population migrates while the rest of the population remains as residents, is a common form of migration. Alternative migratory tactics (AMTs) of partial migration are often determined by polygenic threshold traits. However, the ultimate mechanisms that drive inter-population variations in threshold traits are not well understood. We present a simple schematic model to explain how the threshold trait changes with fitness consequences under opposing natural and artificial...

Data from: Selection on an extreme weapon in the frog legged leaf beetle (Sagra femorata)

Devin M. O'Brien, Masako Katsuki & Douglas J. Emlen
Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hindleg length), and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hindleg...

Data from: Anatomy and affinities of a new 535-million-year-old medusozoan from the Kuanchuanpu Formation, South China

Xing Wang, Jian Han, Jean Vannier, Qiang Ou, Xiaoguang Yang, Kentaro Uesugi, Osamu Sasaki & Tsuyoshi Komiya
We describe here Sinaster petalon gen. et sp. nov., a new embryonic form from the c. 535 million-year-old Kuanchuanpu Formation of South China (Ningqiang, Shaanxi Province). The excellent three-dimensional, phosphatic preservation of these microfossils allowed us to use x-ray microtomographic techniques to make accurate reconstructions of their internal structures and to compare their anatomy point-by-point with that of extant cnidarians and other animal groups. Sinaster petalon has anatomical features typical of extant Medusozoa (Cnidaria), such...

Data from: Speed dependency in α-motoneuron activity and locomotor modules in human locomotion: indirect evidence for phylogenetically conserved spinal circuits

Hikaru Yokoyama, Tetsuya Ogawa, Masahiro Shinya, Noritaka Kawashima & Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). Vertebrate studies have demonstrated the following two characteristics of the speed control mechanisms of the spinal CPGs: (i) rostral segment activation is indispensable for achieving high-speed locomotion; and (ii) specific combinations between spinal interneuronal modules and motoneuron (MN) pools are sequentially activated with increasing speed. Here, to investigate whether similar control mechanisms exist in humans, we examined spinal neural activity during varied-speed...

Data from: Dynamical state transitions into addictive behaviour and their early-warning signals

Jerome Clifford Foo, Hamid Reza Noori, Ikuhiro Yamaguchi, Valentina Vengeliene, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Toru Nakamura, Kenji Morita, Rainer Spanagel & Yoshiharu Yamamoto
The theory of critical transitions in complex systems (ecosystems, climate, etc.), and especially its ability to predict abrupt changes by early-warning signals based on analysis of fluctuations close to tipping points, is seen as a promising avenue to study disease dynamics. However, the biomedical field still lacks a clear demonstration of this concept. Here, we used a well-established animal model in which initial alcohol exposure followed by deprivation and subsequent reintroduction of alcohol induces excessive...

Data from: Female sociality and sexual conflict shape offspring survival in a Neotropical primate

Urs Kalbitzer, Mackenzie L. Bergstrom, Sarah D. Carnegie, Eva C. Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Fernando A. Campos, Katharine M. Jack & Linda M. Fedigan
Most mammals live in social groups in which members form differentiated social relationships. Individuals may vary in their degree of sociality, and this variation can be associated with differential fitness. In some species, for example, female sociality has a positive effect on infant survival. However, investigations of such cases are still rare, and no previous study has considered how male infanticide might constrain effects of female sociality on infant survival. Infanticide is part of the...

Data from: Repeated evolution and reversibility of self-fertilization in the volvocine green algae

Erik R. Hanschen, Matthew D. Herron, John J. Wiens, Hisayoshi Nozaki & Richard E. Michod
Outcrossing and self-fertilization are fundamental strategies of sexual reproduction, each with different evolutionary costs and benefits. Self-fertilization is thought to be an evolutionary “dead-end” strategy, beneficial in the short term but costly in the long term, resulting in self-fertilizing species that occupy only the tips of phylogenetic trees. Here, we use volvocine green algae to investigate the evolution of self-fertilization. We use ancestral-state reconstructions to show that self-fertilization has repeatedly evolved from outcrossing ancestors and...

Data from: Rapid transporter regulation prevents substrate flow traffic jams in boron transport

Naoyuki Sotta, Susan Duncan, Mayuki Tanaka, Takafumi Sato, Athanasius F. M. Maree, Toru Fujiwara & Verônica A. Grieneisen
Nutrient uptake by roots often involves substrate-dependent regulated nutrient transporters. For robust uptake, the system requires a regulatory circuit within cells and a collective, coordinated behaviour across the tissue. A paradigm for such systems is boron uptake, known for its directional transport and homeostasis, as boron is essential for plant growth but toxic at high concentrations. In Arabidopsis thaliana Boron up- take occurs via diffusion facilitators (NIPs) and exporters (BORs), each presenting distinct polarity. Intriguingly,...

Data from: A late Pleistocene marine glacial refugium in the south-west of Hainan Island, China: Phylogeographical insights from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum

Zi-Min Hu, Attachai Kantachumpoo, Ruo-Yu Liu, Zhong-Min Sun, Jian-Ting Yao, Teruhisa Komatsu, Shinya Uwai & De-Lin Duan
Aim: Hainan Island, southern China, is characterized by rich diversity and endemism of marine organisms, yet the underpinning mechanisms and processes contributing to speciation and diversification are poorly understood. Here, the brown alga Sargassum polycystum is used as a model to identify putative marine glacial refugia and explore biogeographical patterns driven by climate change in the late Pleistocene ice ages. Location: South-East Asia. Methods: Mitochondrial cox1 and cox3 and nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) were...

Data from: Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure

Martin Volf, Petr Pyszko, Tomokazu Abe, Martin Libra, Nela Kotaskova, Martin Šigut, Rajesh Kumar, Ondrej Kaman, Philip Butterill, Jan Šipoš, Haruka Abe, Hiroaki Fukushima, Pavel Drozd, Naoto Kamata, Masashi Murakami, Vojtech Novotny & Philip T. Butterill
1. Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food...

Data from: Hybridization can promote adaptive radiation by means of transgressive segregation

Kotaro Kagawa & Gaku Takimoto
Understanding the mechanisms of rapid adaptive radiation has been a central problem of evolutionary ecology. Recently, there is a growing recognition that hybridization between different evolutionary lineages can facilitate adaptive radiation by creating novel phenotypes. Yet, theoretical plausibility of this hypothesis remains unclear because, for example, hybridization can negate pre-existing species richness. Here, we theoretically investigate whether and under what conditions hybridization promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation by using an individual-based model to simulate...

Data from: Aging, mortality, and the fast growth trade-off of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Hidenori Nakaoka & Yuichi Wakamoto
Replicative aging has been demonstrated in asymmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, seemingly caused by unequal damage partitioning. Although asymmetric segregation and inheritance of potential aging factors also occurs in symmetrically dividing species, it nevertheless remains controversial whether this results in aging. Based on large-scale single-cell lineage data obtained by time-lapse microscopy with a microfluidic device, in this report, we demonstrate the absence of replicative aging in old-pole cell lineages of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cultured under constant favorable...

Data from: Predicting evolution in response to climate change: the example of sprouting probability in three dormancy-prone orchid species

Richard P. Shefferson, Ryo Mizuta & Michael J. Hutchings
Although many ecological properties of species respond to climate change, their evolutionary responses are poorly understood. Here, we use data from long-term demographic studies to predict evolutionary responses of three herbaceous perennial orchid species, Cypripedium parviflorum, C. candidum and Ophrys sphegodes, to predicted climate changes in the habitats they occupy. We focus on the evolution of sprouting probability, because all three species exhibit long-term vegetative dormancy, i.e. individual plants may not emerge above-ground, potentially for...

Data from: Contribution of lianas to community-level canopy transpiration in a warm-temperate forest

Ryuji Ichihashi, Chen-Way Chiu, Hikaru Komatsu, Tomonori Kume, Yoshinori Shinohara, Makiko Tateishi, Kenji Tsuruta, Kyoichi Otsuki & Chen-Wei Chiu
1. Lianas (woody climbers) have a greater amount of leaves relative to basal area or standing biomass than trees, and very wide vessels that permit efficient water transport. These features suggest that lianas possibly consume proportionally more water through transpiration than trees. Despite their potential importance, researchers have made only limited attempts to evaluate effects of lianas on forest water dynamics. 2. We conducted sap flow measurements for 1 year using a thermal-dissipation method for...

Data from: Inferring fitness landscapes and selection on phenotypic states from single-cell genealogical data

Takashi Nozoe, Edo Kussell & Yuichi Wakamoto
Recent advances in single-cell time-lapse microscopy have revealed non-genetic heterogeneity and temporal fluctuations of cellular phenotypes. While different phenotypic traits such as abundance of growth-related proteins in single cells may have differential effects on the reproductive success of cells, rigorous experimental quantification of this process has remained elusive due to the complexity of single cell physiology within the context of a proliferating population. We introduce and apply a practical empirical method to quantify the fitness...

Data from: Effects of radiation from contaminated soil and moss in Fukushima on embryogenesis and egg hatching of the aphid Prociphilus oriens

Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Yang Li, Tetsuji Imanaka, Hitoshi Sato & Ken Ishida
Radiation-contaminated soils are widespread around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and such soils raise concerns over its harmful effect on soil-dwelling organisms. We evaluated the effects of contaminated soil and moss sampled in Fukushima on the embryogenesis and hatching of aphid eggs, along with the measurement of the egg exposure dose. Cs-137 concentration in soil and moss from Fukushima ranged from 2200 to 3300 Bq/g and from 64 to 105 Bq/g, respectively. Eggs of...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21

Affiliations

  • University of Tokyo
    21
  • Hokkaido University
    3
  • Kyoto University
    3
  • Tohoku University
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • National Oceanography Centre
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    1
  • Spanish Institute of Oceanography
    1
  • Stanford University
    1