67 Works

Data from: Historical connectivity, contemporary isolation, and local adaptation in a widespread but discontinuously distributed species, Rhododendron oldhamii, endemic to Taiwan

Shih-Ying Hwang, Y-C Hsieh, J-D Chung, C-N Wang, C-T Chang & C-Y Chen
Elucidation of the evolutionary processes that constrain or facilitate adaptive divergence is a central goal in evolutionary biology, especially in non-model organisms. We tested whether changes in dynamics of gene flow (historical vs contemporary) caused population isolation and examined local adaptation in response to environmental selective forces in fragmented Rhododendron oldhamii populations. Variation in 26 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat loci from 18 populations in Taiwan was investigated by examining patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding,...

Data from: Influences of environmental and spatial factors on genetic and epigenetic variations in Rhododendron oldhamii (Ericaceae)

Chun-Lin Huang, Jui-Hung Chen, Ming-Hsuan Tsang, Jeng-Der Chung, Chung-Te Chang & Shih-Ying Hwang
Test of the relationship of genetic and particularly epigenetic variation with geographic isolation and environment is important to reveal potential environmental drivers for selection. Rhododendron oldhamii is widespread but inhabits fragmented subtropical forest landscapes and populations across its range may exhibit different levels of genetic and epigenetic structuring correlated to their environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic variations and their ecological correlates in R. oldhamii. Genetic and epigenetic variations were surveyed using...

Data from: Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing

Johan Petter Dahlgren, Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dag-Inge Øien, Asbjørn Moen & Nina Sletvold
The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence—an increase in death rate with advancing age—is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to...

Data from: Age-dependent trajectories differ between within-pair and extra-pair paternity success

Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre J. P. Simons, Julia Schroeder, Antje Girndt, Isabel S. Winney, Terry Burke, Shinichi Nakagawa & Y.-H. Hsu
Reproductive success is associated with age in many taxa, increasing in early life followed by reproductive senescence. In socially monogamous, but genetically polygamous species, this generates the interesting possibility of differential trajectories of within-pair and extra-pair siring success with age in males. We investigate these relationships simultaneously using within-individual analyses with 13 years of data from an insular house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population. As expected, we found that both within- and extra-pair paternity success increased...

Data from: Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect

Lu-Yi Wang, Wen-San Huang, Hsin-Chieh Tang, Lung-Chun Huang & Chung-Ping Lin
Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of ‘hard’ (mature) vs. ‘soft’ (teneral) and ‘clawed’...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Latitudinal cline of larval growth rate and its proximate mechanisms in a rhinoceros beetle

Wataru Kojima, Tatsunori Nakakura, Ayumi Fukuda, Chung-Ping Lin, Masahiro Harada, Yuki Hashimoto, Aika Kawachi, Shiho Suhama & Ryo Yamamoto
1. Juvenile growth rate is a key life-history trait with a major effect on various fitness components. Duration of the growing season changes with latitude, often resulting in latitudinal variations in growth rate. While many studies have shown a latitudinal cline of growth rate, most have used linear measurements of growth rate without considering the nonlinear nature of growth trajectories. Furthermore, elucidation of the proximate mechanisms causing increased growth rates would provide a fundamental understanding...

Data from: Transitions in smartphone addiction proneness among children: the effect of gender and use patterns

Fong-Ching Chang, Jeng-Tung Chiang, Kun-Wei Lee & Szu-Yuan Hsu
Objectives This study assessed the incidence of transitions in smartphone addiction proneness (SAP) among children and examined the effects of gender, use patterns (social networking sites (SNSs) use and smartphone gaming) and depression on smartphone addiction transitions.Methods A representative sample of 2,155 children from Taipei completed longitudinal surveys in both 2015 (5th grade) and 2016 (6th grade). Latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to characterize transitions in SAP and to examine the effects of use...

Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities

Øystein H. Opedal, Kristin Nystuen, Dagmar Hagen, Håkon Holien, Mia Sørensen, Simone Lang, Sigrid Lindmo, G. RIchard Strimbeck & Bente Graae
Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics, and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field...

Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium solani species complex reveal degrees of compartmentalization

Daphne Z. Hoh, Hsin-Han Lee, Naohisa Wada, Wei-An Liu, Min R. Lu, Cheng-Kuo Lai, Huei-Mien Ke, Pei-Feng Sun, Sen-Lin Tang, Wen-Hsin Chung, Ying-Lien Chen, Chia-Lin Chung & Isheng Jason Tsai
Abstract Background The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) comprises fungal pathogens responsible for mortality in a diverse range of animals and plants, but their genome diversity and transcriptome responses in animal pathogenicity remain to be elucidated. We sequenced, assembled and annotated six chromosome-level FSSC clade 3 genomes of aquatic animal and plant host origins. We established a pathosystem and investigated the expression data of F. falciforme and F. keratoplasticum in Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)...

Data from: Fighting experience alters brain androgen receptor expression dependent on testosterone status

Cheng-Yu Li, Ryan L. Earley, Shu-Ping Huang, Yuying Hsu, S.-P. Huang & C.-Y. Li
Contest decisions are influenced by the outcomes of recent fights (winner–loser effects). Steroid hormones and serotonin are closely associated with aggression and therefore probably also play important roles in mediating winner–loser effects. In mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, individuals with higher testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels are more capable of winning, but titres of these hormones do not directly mediate winner–loser effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of winning/losing experiences on brain...

Data from: Large ecosystem service benefits of assisted natural regeneration

Yusheng Yang, Lixin Wang, Zhijie Yang, Chao Xu, Jingsheng Xie, Guangshui Chen, Chengfang Lin, Jianfen Guo, Xiaofei Liu, Decheng Xiong, Weisheng Lin, Shidong Chen, Zongming He, Kaimiao Lin, Miaohua Jiang & Teng-Chiu Lin
China manages the largest monoculture plantations in the world, with 24% being Chinese fir plantations. Maximizing the ecosystem services of Chinese fir plantations has important implications in global carbon cycle and biodiversity protection. Assisted natural regeneration (ANR) is a practice to convert degraded lands into more productive forests with great ecosystems services. However, the quantitative understanding of ANR ecosystem service benefits is very limited. We conducted a comprehensive field manipulation experiment to evaluate the ANR...

Data from: Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-uses

Stuart W. Smith, James D. M. Speed, John Bukombe, Shombe N. Hassan, Richard D. Lyamuya, Philipo Jacob Mtweve, Anders Sundsdal & Bente J. Graae
Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition processes have primarily focused on leaf and wood litter. For a whole-plant understanding of how land-use and macro-fauna influence decomposition, investigating root litter is required. Using litterbags, we quantified rates of root decomposition across contrasting tropical savanna land-uses, namely wildlife and fire-dominated protected areas and livestock pastureland...

Morphological and isotope data on three passerines in Taiwan

Pei-Jen Shaner & Yu‐Cheng Hsu
The niche variation hypothesis (NVH) predicts that populations with wider niches exhibit greater morphological variation through increased inter-individual differences in both niche and morphology. In this study, we examined niche-trait relationships in three passerine species (Cyanoderma ruficeps, Sinosuthora webbiana, Zosterops simplex). A total of 289 C. ruficeps from 7 sites, 259 S. webbiana from 8 sites, and 144 Z. simplex from 6 sites were sampled along an elevation gradient (0-2,700 m) in Taiwan from 2009...

Impact of upwelling on phytoplankton blooms and hypoxia along the Chinese coast in the East China Sea

Chung-Chi Chen, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Gwo-Ching Gong & Tzong-Yueh Chen
This study evaluates the rarely observed phenomenon of the simultaneous occurrences of phytoplankton blooms, hypoxia, and upwelling along the Zhejiang coast in the East China Sea. Results show that the upwelling uplifted bottom water to 5–10 m below the surface. In the upwelling region, phytoplankton blooms (Chl a = 10.9 μg L−1) occurred and hypoxia or low-oxygen appeared below the surface water. High concentrations of nitrate and phosphate were regenerated in the hypoxic regions, corresponding...

Seasonal rainfall in subtropical montane cloud forests drives demographic fluctuations in a Green-backed Tit population

Ming-Tang Shiao, Mei-Chen Chuang, Hsiao-Wei Yuan & Ying Wang
Montane birds are vulnerable to climate change. However, the mechanisms by which weather drives demographic processes in montane birds have seldom been investigated. We conducted a long-term study (2009–2019) on the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus), an insectivorous passerine, in the montane cloud forest of subtropical Taiwan. We explored the effects of weather variability on the productivity and survival of adult Green-backed Tits. Nest survival was negatively associated with seasonal rainfall during the breeding season (April–July)...

Plankton community respiration and POC in the Kuroshio east of Taiwan

Chung-Chi Chen
This dataset contains data collected from six shipboard measurements taken from the R/V Ocean Researcher I between April 2014 and November 2015, which covered the entire season: April, July, September, and November 2014 and March, June, September, and November 2015 in the Kuroshio, east of Taiwan described in the paper: “Chung-Chi Chen, Pei-Ji Meng, Chih-hao Hsieh, Sen Jan (2022). Plankton community respiration and particulate organic carbon in the Kuroshio, east of Taiwan. Plants“. The main...

Additional file 1 of Oral presentation assessment and image reading behaviour on brain computed tomography reading in novice clinical learners: an eye-tracking study

Chi-Hung Liu, June Hung, Chun-Wei Chang, John J. H. Lin, Elaine Shinwei Huang, Shu-Ling Wang, Li-Ang Lee, Cheng-Ting Hsiao, Pi-Shan Sung, Yi-Ping Chao & Yeu-Jhy Chang
Supplementary Material 1

Riding an escalator: upward range shift and patterns of genetic response to climate change in Acer caudatifolium

Min-Wei Chai, Yi-Ting Tseng, Hsin-Pei Lu, Min-Xin Luo, Jui-Tse Chang & Pei-Chun Liao
Aim Rapid global warming is threatening global biodiversity, and it will likely lead to varying degrees of local adaptation, particularly among plant species. Besides, rising temperatures frequently result in upslope distribution shifts towards climatic optima (i.e., the escalator effect) within a limited dispersal space, such as in insular environments. Here, we integrated ecological and genetic approaches to investigate how climate change will impact the genetic compositions and spatial distributions of Taiwan endemic maple Acer caudatifolium....

Additional file 2 of Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium solani species complex reveal degrees of compartmentalization

Daphne Z. Hoh, Hsin-Han Lee, Naohisa Wada, Wei-An Liu, Min R. Lu, Cheng-Kuo Lai, Huei-Mien Ke, Pei-Feng Sun, Sen-Lin Tang, Wen-Hsin Chung, Ying-Lien Chen, Chia-Lin Chung & Isheng Jason Tsai
Additional file 2: Fig. S1. Genome features in FSSC assemblies. Fig. S2. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) phylogeny tree of FSSC. Fig. S3. Genome phylogeny of Fusarium species. Fig. S4. Orthologue sharing amongst Fusarium chromosome. Fig. S5. FSSC genome synteny. Fig. S6. Synteny between F. vanettenii Fs6 and FVANE. Fig. S7. Location of FSSC-specific genes across genomes. Fig. S8. Selection level in FSSC chromosomes. Fig. S9. Orthogroup number comparison between F. falciforme Fu3 and F. oxysporum...

Additional file 2 of Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium solani species complex reveal degrees of compartmentalization

Daphne Z. Hoh, Hsin-Han Lee, Naohisa Wada, Wei-An Liu, Min R. Lu, Cheng-Kuo Lai, Huei-Mien Ke, Pei-Feng Sun, Sen-Lin Tang, Wen-Hsin Chung, Ying-Lien Chen, Chia-Lin Chung & Isheng Jason Tsai
Additional file 2: Fig. S1. Genome features in FSSC assemblies. Fig. S2. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) phylogeny tree of FSSC. Fig. S3. Genome phylogeny of Fusarium species. Fig. S4. Orthologue sharing amongst Fusarium chromosome. Fig. S5. FSSC genome synteny. Fig. S6. Synteny between F. vanettenii Fs6 and FVANE. Fig. S7. Location of FSSC-specific genes across genomes. Fig. S8. Selection level in FSSC chromosomes. Fig. S9. Orthogroup number comparison between F. falciforme Fu3 and F. oxysporum...

The role of a synanthropic bird in the nest niche expansion of a secondary cavity-nester to man-made structures

Jing-Chia Guo, Jo-Szu Tsai, Jhih-Syuan Wang, Ya-Wen Lin, Pei-Jen Shaner & Chih-Ming Hung
Species with similar ecological characters often compete with each other; however, a species may also facilitate the survival or reproduction of another ecologically similar species although such interaction is rarely documented in birds. Here we reported a facilitative species interaction between Asian house martins (Delichon dasypus) and russet sparrows (Passer cinnamomeus), both passerines using closed nests, in a montane farming area of Taiwan. We found that Asian house martins constructed dome-shaped nests in human houses...

Data from: Divergent selection and local adaptation in disjunct populations of an endangered conifer, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Pinaceae)

Jing-Yu Fang, Jeng-Der Chung, Yu-Chung Chiang, Chung-Te Chang, Chia-Ying Chen & Shih-Ying Hwang
The present study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure, FST outliers, and extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium in five populations of Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, which is listed as a critically endangered species by the Council of Agriculture, Taiwan. Twelve amplified fragment length polymorphism primer pairs generated a total of 465 markers, of which 83.74% on average were polymorphic across populations, with a mean Nei’s genetic diversity of 0.233 and a low level of...

Data from: Population genetic structure, local adaptation, and conservation genetics of Kandelia obovata

Yu Ruan, Bing-Hong Huang, Shih-Jie Lai, Yu-Ting Wan, Jun-Qing Li, Shong Huang & Pei-Chun Liao
Topographic changes during the Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles affected the distribution of coastline mangroves and influenced their population genetic structure. The submergence of the continental shelf off southeast China during the postglacial age caused coastline expansions and resulted in the colonization of mangroves. Here, we performed multilocus genome scans using amplified fragment-length polymorphisms to explore the effects of topography and natural selection in structuring Kandelia obovata populations. Long-term isolation by the Taiwan Strait since the end...

Data from: Community structure influences species’ abundance along environmental gradients

Antti P. Eloranta, Ingeborg P. Helland, Odd Terje Sandlund, Trygve Hesthagen, Ola Ugedal & Anders G. Finstad
Species response to abiotic environmental variation can be influenced by local community structure and interspecific interactions, particularly in restricted habitats such as islands and lakes. In temperate lakes, future increase in water temperature and runoff of terrestrial (allochthonous) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are predicted to alter community composition and the overall ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about how the present community structure and abiotic environmental variation interact to affect the abundance of native fish...

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