270 Works

Data from: Facilitation and biodiversity jointly drive mutualistic networks

Gianalberto Losapio, Elizabeth Norton Hasday, Xavier Espadaler, Christoph Germann, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian Pont, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
1. Facilitation by nurse plants increases understorey diversity and supports ecological communities. In turn, biodiversity shapes ecological networks and enhances ecosystem functioning. However, whether and how facilitation and increased biodiversity jointly influence community structure and ecosystem functioning remains unclear. 2. We performed a field experiment disentangling the relative contribution of nurse plants and increasing understorey plant diversity in driving pollination interactions. Both the presence of nurse shrubs as well as increased understorey plant diversity increased...

ISIMIP3 land-sea masks

Stefan Lange & Matthias Büchner
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3b N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

ISIMIP3 geographical lakes input data

Inne Vanderkelen & Jacob Schewe
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3a population input data

Stefan Lange & Tobias Geiger
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

DATASET: Forecast made on January 11, 2021 for the second Covid-19 wave based on the improved SIR model with a constant ratio of recovery to infection rate

Martin Kröger & Reinhard Schlickeiser
The temporal evolution of second and subsequent waves of the Covid-19 pandemic is investigated. Analytic expressions for the peak time and asymptotic behaviors, early doubling time, late half decay time, and a half-early peak law, characterizing the dynamical evolution of number of cases and fatalities are derived, where the pandemic evolution exhibiting multiple waves is described by the semi-time SIR model. The asymmetry of the epidemic wave and its exponential tail are affected by the...

Data from: Identifying extracellular vesicles from single cells

Petra Dittrich, Jonas Nikoloff, André Kling & Mario Saucedo-Espinosa
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are constantly secreted from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. EVs, including those referred to as exosomes, may have an impact on cell signaling and an incidence in diseased cells. In this manuscript, a platform to capture, quantify, and phenotypically classify the EVs secreted from single cells is introduced. Microfluidic chambers of about 300 pL are employed to trap and isolate individual cells. The EVs secreted within these chambers are then captured by...

Novel integrative modeling of molecules and morphology across evolutionary timescales

Huw A. Ogilvie, Fábio K. Mendes, Timothy G. Vaughan, Nicholas J. Matzke, Tanja Stadler, David Welch & Alexei J. Drummond
Evolutionary models account for either population or species-level processes, but usually not both. We introduce a new model, the FBD-MSC, which makes it possible for the first time to integrate both the genealogical and fossilization phenomena, by means of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) and the fossilized birth-death (FBD) processes. Using this model, we reconstruct the phylogeny representing all extant and many fossil Caninae, recovering both the relative and absolute time of speciation events. We quantify...

Midsea - Mantle Investigation of the Deep Suture between Eurasia and Africa

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Four institutions decided to populate the Mediterranean region with more BB instruments in the same time period and call our collective experiments MIDSEA. ETH put out 12 stations in 5 countries, UNSA/CNRS put 6 stations in France and italy, CIW put 5 stations in the Azores, and INGV put 2 stations in Italy. Two of the ETH stations are available at Geofon (MELI) and Inst. of Catalan Studies (POBL, autodrm) data centers, respectively. The other...

Faculae, spots, flares. Solar research at ETH Zurich

Data from: Genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping between Misty Lake and inlet stickleback

Andrew P Hendry, K Hudson, J A Walker, K Räsänen & L J Chapman
Different environments should select for different aspects of organismal performance, which should lead to correlated divergence in morphological traits that influence performance. The result should be genetic divergence in aspects of performance, morphology, and associations (“maps”) between morphology and performance. Testing this hypothesis requires quantifying performance and morphology in multiple populations after controlling for environmental differences, but this is rarely done. We used a common-garden experiment to examine morphology and several aspects of swimming performance...

Data from: Spatial variation in throughfall, soil, and plant water isotopes in a temperate forest

Gregory R. Goldsmith, Scott T. Allen, Sabine Braun, Nadine Engbersen, Clara Romero González-Quijano, James W. Kirchner & Rolf T.W. Siegwolf
Studies of stable isotopes of water in the environment have been fundamental to advancing our understanding of how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum; however, much of this research focuses on how water isotopes vary in time, rather than in space. We examined the spatial variation in the δ18O and δ2H of throughfall and bulk soil water, as well as branch xylem and bulk leaf water of Picea abies (Norway Spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (Beech),...

Data from: The effects of rainforest fragment area on the strength of plant-pathogen interactions

Ashwin Viswanathan, Jaboury Ghazoul, Ganesh Honwad, N. Arun Kumar & Robert Bagchi
Pathogenic interactions between fungi and plants facilitate plant species coexistence and tropical rainforest diversity. Such interactions, however, may be affected by forest fragmentation as fungi are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance. To examine how fragmentation affects fungus-induced seed and seedling mortality, we sowed seeds of six plant species in soils collected from 21 forest fragments. We compared seedling establishment in unmanipulated soils to soils treated with fungicides. Fungicides increased germination of Toona ciliata seeds and decreased...

Data from: Ecological divergence plays an important role in strong but complex reproductive isolation in campions (Silene)

Sophie Karrenberg, Xiaodong Liu, Emelie Hallander, Adrien Favre, Joelle Herforth Rahmé & Alex Widmer
New species arise through the evolution of reproductive barriers between formerly interbreeding lineages. Yet, comprehensive assessments of potential reproductive barriers, which are needed to make inferences on processes driving speciation, are only available for a limited number of systems. In this study, we estimated individual and cumulative strengths of seven prezygotic and six postzygotic reproductive barriers between the recently diverged taxa Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia Poiret using both published and new data....

Data from: Microbiome interactions shape host fitness

Alison L. Gould, Vivian Zhang, Lisa Lamberti, Eric W. Jones, Benjamin Obadia, Nikolaos Korasidis, Alex Gavryushkin, Jean M. Carlson, Niko Beerenwinkel & William B. Ludington
Gut bacteria can affect key aspects of host fitness, such as development, fecundity, and lifespan, while the host, in turn, shapes the gut microbiome. However, it is unclear to what extent individual species versus community interactions within the microbiome are linked to host fitness. Here, we combinatorially dissect the natural microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster and reveal that interactions between bacteria shape host fitness through life history tradeoffs. Empirically, we made germ-free flies colonized with each...

Data from: Interactions between C:N:P stoichiometry and soil macrofauna control dung decomposition of savanna herbivores

Judith Sitters, Marc-Jacques Maechler, Peter J. Edwards, Werner Suter & Harry Olde Venterink
1. Although dung of mammalian herbivores is an important pathway for nutrient return in savanna ecosystems, differences in dung decomposition rates among species have been little studied. 2. We measured rates of dung deposition and decomposition for various herbivores in a moist Tanzanian savanna, and related differences among species to nutrient concentrations and the activities of soil macrofauna (e.g., different mesh sizes of decomposition bags, or presence and absence of dung beetles). 3. Dung C:N:P...

Data from: Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

Tryggvi S. Stefansson, Bruce A. McDonald & Yvonne Willi
To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen’s evolutionary potential and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation...

Data from: Genetic constraints underlying human reproductive timing in a premodern Swiss village

Anja Bürkli & Erik Postma
The trade-off between reproductive investment in early versus late life is central to life-history theory. Despite abundant empirical evidence supporting different versions of this trade-off, the specific trade-off between age at first reproduction (AFR) and age at last reproduction (ALR) has received little attention, especially in long-lived species with a pronounced reproductive senescence such as humans. Using genealogical data for a 19th-century Swiss village, we (i) quantify natural selection acting on reproductive timing, (ii) estimate...

Data from: The role of bacteriocins as selfish genetic elements

R. Fredrik Inglis, Bihter Bayramoglu, Osnat Gillor & Martin Ackermann
Bacteria produce a wide arsenal of toxic compounds in order to kill competing species. Bacteriocins, protein-based toxins produced by nearly all bacteria, have generally been considered a ubiquitous anti-competitor strategy, used to kill competing bacterial strains. Some of these bacteriocins are encoded on plasmids, which also code for closely linked immunity compounds (thereby rendering toxin producing cells immune to their own toxin). However, the production of bacteriocins can also be interpreted as a means to...

Data from: Does long distance pollen dispersal preclude inbreeding in tropical trees? Fragmentation genetics of Dysoxylum malabaricum in an agro-forest landscape

Sascha A. Ismail, Jaboury Ghazoul, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker, Chris J. Kettle & C. G. Kushalappa
Tropical trees often display long distance pollen dispersal, even in highly fragmented landscapes. Understanding how patterns of spatial isolation influence gene flow and interact with background patterns of fine scale spatial genetic structure are critical for evaluating the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation. In the endangered tropical timber tree Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) we apply eleven microsatellite markers with paternity and parentage analysis to directly estimate contemporary gene flow across a large area (216 km2) in...

Data from: Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae

Christoph Sandrock, Jabraeil Razmjou & Christoph Vorburger
Aphid species commonly have different reproductive modes ranging from cyclical to obligate parthenogenesis. The distribution of life cycle variation in aphids is generally determined by ecological forces, mainly climate, because only sexually produced diapausing eggs can survive harsh winters. Aphids are thus interesting models to investigate intrinsic and environmental factors shaping the competition among sexual and asexual lineages. We conducted a Europe-wide sampling of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and combined population genetic analyses based...

Data from: Efficient detection of novel nuclear markers for Brassicaceae by transcriptome sequencing

Reinhold Stockenhuber, Stefan Zoller, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Felix Gugerli, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Alex Widmer & Martin C. Fischer
The lack of DNA sequence information for most non-model organisms impairs the design of primers that are universally applicable for the study of molecular polymorphisms in nuclear markers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques nowadays provide a powerful approach to overcome this limitation. We present a flexible and inexpensive method to identify large numbers of nuclear primer pairs that amplify in most Brassicaceae species. We first obtained and mapped NGS transcriptome sequencing reads from two of the...

Data from: Microhabitat partitioning in seagrass mesograzers is driven by consistent species choices across multiple predator and competitor contexts

Moritz D. Lürig, Rebecca J. Best & John J. Stachowicz
Explanations for the coexistence of multiple species from the same functional group or taxonomic clade frequently include fine-scale resource partitioning. However, despite the hypothesized importance of niche partitioning, we know relatively little about the underlying mechanisms. For example, differences in resource use may be fixed consequences of organism traits, or they may be achieved via context-dependent behaviors. In this study we investigated mechanisms of microhabitat partitioning using eight species of marine mesograzers inhabiting seagrass and...

Data from: Parasite genetic distance and local adaptation in coevolving bacteria-bacteriophage populations

Pauline D. Scanlan, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can lead to local adaptation (LA), such that parasite fitness is greatest in sympatric hosts (or vice versa). The magnitude of LA typically increases with geographic distance, which is assumed to be because genetic (and hence phenotypic) distance increases with geographic distance. Here we explicitly test the relationships between parasite genetic and phenotypic distance and LA using isolates of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage ϕ2) and the host bacterium...

Data from: Restoration and management for plant diversity enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery

Ryan P. Klopf, Sara G. Baer, Elizabeth M. Bach & Johan Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20)...

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