289 Works

Ecological patterns of root nodule diversity in cultivated and wild rooibos populations: a community prediction approach

Josep Ramoneda, Jaco Le Roux, Emmanuel Frossard, Beat Frey & Hannes Andres Gamper
There is interest in understanding the factors behind the biogeography of root-associated bacteria due to the joint effects that plant host, climate, and soil conditions can have on bacterial diversity. For legume crops with remaining wild populations, this is of even more importance, because the effects of cropping on undisturbed root-associated bacterial communities can be addressed. Here, we used a community prediction approach to describe the diversity of the root nodule bacterial communities of rooibos...

Data from: A de novo chromosome-level genome assembly of Coregonus sp. “Balchen”: one representative of the Swiss Alpine whitefish radiation

Philine Feulner, Rishi De-Kayne & Stefan Zoller
Salmonids are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their incredible diversity of life-history strategies and the speed at which many salmonid species have diversified. In Switzerland alone, over 30 species of Alpine whitefish from the subfamily Coregoninae have evolved since the last glacial maximum, with species exhibiting a diverse range of morphological and behavioural phenotypes. This, combined with the whole genome duplication which occurred in the ancestor of all salmonids, makes the Alpine...

Data from: Bumble bees damage plant leaves and accelerate flower production when pollen is scarce

Foteini Pashalidou, Harriet Lambert, Thomas Peybernes, Mark Mescher & Consuelo De Moraes
Maintaining phenological synchrony with flowers is a key ecological challenge for pollinators that may be exacerbated by ongoing environmental change. Here, we show that bumble bee workers facing pollen scarcity damage leaves of flowerless plants and thereby accelerate flower production. Laboratory studies revealed that leaf-damaging behavior is strongly influenced by pollen availability and that bee-damaged plants flower significantly earlier than undamaged or mechanically damaged controls. Subsequent outdoor experiments showed that the intensity of damage inflicted...

Data from: Resident microbial communities inhibit growth and antibiotic resistance evolution of Escherichia coli in human gut microbiome samples

Michael Baumgartner
Countering the rise of antibiotic resistant pathogens requires improved understanding of how resistance emerges and spreads in individual species, which are often embedded in complex microbial communities such as the human gut microbiome. Interactions with other microorganisms in such communities might suppress growth and resistance evolution of individual species (e.g. via resource competition), but could also potentially accelerate resistance evolution via horizontal transfer of resistance genes. It remains unclear how these different effects balance out,...

Data from: Phenological plasticity is a poor predictor of subalpine plant population performance following experimental climate change

Sebastian Block, Jake Alexander & Jonathan Levine
Phenological shifts, changes in the seasonal timing of life cycle events, are among the best documented responses of species to climate change. However, the consequences of these phenological shifts for population dynamics remain unclear. Population growth could be enhanced if species that advance their phenology benefit from longer growing seasons and gain a pre-emptive advantage in resource competition. However, it might also be reduced if phenological advances increase exposure to stresses, such as herbivores and,...

Leaf-out in northern ecotypes of wide-ranging trees requires less spring warming, enhancing the risk of spring frost damage at cold range limits

Constantin Zohner, Lidong Mo, Veronica Sebald & Susanne S Renner
Aim. Trees need to avoid frost damage to their young leaves by leafing out after the occurrence of the last frost, yet they also need to start photosynthesis early in the season to achieve sufficient growth. This trade-off leads to the hypothesis that ‘safety margins’ against spring frost should become shorter, the longer the winter duration, perhaps reaching an asymptotic limit where frost damage would occur in most years. Physiologically, shorter safety margins in high-latitude...

Data from: The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana

Yonghai Luo, Alex Widmer & Sophie Karrenberg
Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and...

Data from: Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant

Jake M. Alexander
A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its...

Data from: Are aphid parasitoids locally adapted to the prevalence of defensive symbionts in their hosts?

Christoph Vorburger & Romain Rouchet
Background: Insect parasitoids are under strong selection to overcome their hosts’ defences. In aphids, resistance to parasitoids is largely determined by the presence or absence of protective endosymbionts such as Hamiltonella defensa. Hence, parasitoids may become locally adapted to the prevalence of this endosymbiont in their host populations. To address this, we collected isofemale lines of the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum from 17 sites in Switzerland and France, at which we also estimated the frequency...

Data from: Population genetics and adaptation along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis

Emily V. Moran, Andrea Reid & Jonathan M. Levine
Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to...

Data from: Towards a common methodology for developing logistic tree mortality models based on ring-width data

Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, J. Julio Camarero, Katarina Cufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth Robert, María-Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti & Jordi Martinez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth–mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations),...

Data from: Measurement of infection efficiency of a major wheat pathogen using time-resolved imaging of disease progress

Petteri Karisto, Susanne Dora & Alexey Mikaberidze
Infection efficiency is a key epidemiological parameter that determines the proportion of pathogen spores able to infect and cause lesions once they have landed on a susceptible plant tissue. In this study, we present an improved method to measure infection efficiency of Zymoseptoria tritici using a replicated greenhouse experiment. Z. tritici is a fungal pathogen that infects wheat leaves and causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), a major disease of wheat worldwide. We devised an original...

Data from: The balance of canopy and soil effects determines intraspecific differences in foundation species’ effects on associated plants

Nuria Pistón, Richard Michalet, Christian Schöb, Petr Macek, Cris Armas & Francisco I. Pugnaire
1. The impact of plant-plant interactions on species diversity patterns has been broadly addressed in stressful environments, such as alpine ecosystems, where foundation species promote species richness by creating habitat for other species. However, foundation species with contrasting phenotypes might modify the microhabitat differently, which would alter the subordinate community composition, and coincide with distinct feedback effects of those subordinate species on the foundation species. However, the precise interaction mechanisms that facilitate species are not...

Data from: The predictability of a lake phytoplankton community, over time-scales of hours to years

Mridul K. Thomas, Simone Fontana, Marta Reyes, Michael Kehoe & Francesco Pomati
Forecasting changes to ecological communities is one of the central challenges in ecology. However, nonlinear dependencies, biotic interactions and data limitations have limited our ability to assess how predictable communities are. We used a machine learning approach and environmental monitoring data (biological, physical and chemical) to assess the predictability of phytoplankton cell density in one lake across an unprecedented range of time scales. Communities were highly predictable over hours to months: model R2 decreased from...

Data from: Nesting sites of giant honey bees modulated by landscape patterns

Charlotte Pavageau, Cédric Gaucherel, Claude Garcia & Jaboury Ghazoul
1. The composition of agro-ecological landscapes is thought to have important implications for the production of major crops through its effects on pollinator abundance and behaviour. 2. We explored the roles of land cover and land cover heterogeneity on bee nest distribution for Apis dorsata, a key species for coffee pollination, in a complex agroforest landscape. We emphasized scaling and non-uniform effects by combining two different approaches of spatial analysis, the point-pattern analysis and surface-pattern...

Data from: Classification of cryptocurrency coins and tokens by the dynamics of their market capitalisations

Ke Wu, Spencer Wheatley & Didier Sornette
We empirically verify that the market capitalisations of coins and tokens in the cryptocurrency universe follow power-law distributions with significantly different values, with the tail exponent falling between 0.5 and 0.7 for coins, and between 1.0 and 1.3 for tokens. We provide a rationale for this, based on a simple proportional growth with birth & death model previously employed to describe the size distribution of firms, cities, webpages, etc. We empirically validate the model and...

Data from: Cross-scale interactions among bark beetles, climate change and wind disturbances a landscape modeling approach

Christian Temperli, Harald K. M. Bugmann, Ché Elkin & Harald Bugmann
Bark beetles are a key forest disturbance agent worldwide, with their impact shaped by climate, forest susceptibility, and interactions with other disturbances such as windthrow and fire. There is ample evidence on the interactions among these factors at small spatial and temporal scales, but projecting their long-term and landscape-scale impacts remains a challenge. We developed a spatially explicit model of European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) dynamics that incorporates beetle phenology and forest susceptibility, and...

Data from: Predation risk shaped by habitat and landscape complexity in urban environments

David Frey, Kevin Vega, Florian Zellweger, Jaboury Ghazoul, Dennis Hansen & Marco Moretti
1. Habitat loss and modification are hallmarks of anthropogenic ecosystems, but the consequences for ecosystem functions and services often remain unclear. Understanding these links in cities is complicated by strong but fine-scale differences in habitat structure among green space patches, and a high variance in habitat amount across urban landscapes. 2. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to disentangle the effects of 3D woody habitat heterogeneity of urban home gardens, and woody habitat amount...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus associated with its rodent host, Myodes glareolus

Vanessa Weber De Melo, Hanan Sheik Ali, Jona Freise, Denise Kühnert, Sandra Essbauer, Marc Mertens, Konrad M. Wanka, Stephan Drewes, Rainer G. Ulrich, Gerald Heckel & Hanan Sheikh Ali
Many viruses significantly impact human and animal health. Understanding the population dynamics of these viruses and their hosts can provide important insights for epidemiology and virus evolution. Puumala virus (PUUV) is a European hantavirus that may cause regional outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of PUUV circulating in local populations of its rodent reservoir host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during eight years. Phylogenetic and population...

Data from: Robustness of the outcome of adult bumblebee infection with a trypanosome parasite after varied parasite exposures during larval development

Gabriel Cisarovsky, Paul Schmid-Hempel & Ben M. Sadd
The outcome of defence by the invertebrate immunity has recently been shown to be more complex than previously thought. In particular, the outcome is affected by biotic and abiotic environmental variation, host genotype, parasite genotype, and their interaction. Knowledge of conditions under which environmental variation affects the outcome of an infection is one important question that relates to this complexity. We here use the model system of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris infected by the trypanosome,...

Data from: How random is social behaviour? Disentangling social complexity through the study of a wild house mouse population

Nicolas Perony, Claudio J. Tessone, Barbara König & Frank Schweitzer
Out of all the complex phenomena displayed in the behaviour of animal groups, many are thought to be emergent properties of rather simple decisions at the individual level. Some of these phenomena may also be explained by random processes only. Here we investigate to what extent the interaction dynamics of a population of wild house mice (Mus domesticus) in their natural environment can be explained by a simple stochastic model. We first introduce the notion...

Data from: Current methods for automated filtering of multiple sequence alignments frequently worsen single-gene phylogenetic inference

Ge Tan, Matthieu Muffato, Christian Ledergerber, Javier Herrero, Nick Goldman, Manuel Gil & Christophe Dessimoz
Phylogenetic inference is generally performed on the basis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA). Because errors in an alignment can lead to errors in tree estimation, there is a strong interest in identifying and removing unreliable parts of the alignment. In recent years several automated filtering approaches have been proposed, but despite their popularity, a systematic and comprehensive comparison of different alignment filtering methods on real data has been lacking. Here, we extend and apply recently...

Data from: Genetic factors affecting food-plant specialization of an oligophagous seed predator

Liisa Laukkanen, Roosa Leimu, Anne Muola, Marianna Lilley & Pia Mutikainen
Several ecological and genetic factors affect the diet specialization of insect herbivores. The evolution of specialization may be constrained by lack of genetic variation in herbivore performance on different food plant species. By traditional view, trade-offs, i.e., negative genetic correlations between the performance of the herbivores on different food-plant species favour the evolution of specialization. To investigate whether there is genetic variation or trade-offs in herbivore performance between different food plants that may influence specialization...

Data from: Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline

Deborah A. Jenkins, Nicolas Lecomte, James A. Schaefer, Steffen M. Olsen, Didier Swingedouw, Steeve D. Côté, Loïc Pellissier & Glenn Yannic
Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both...

Data from: Silica Particles with Encapsulated DNA as trophic tracers

Carlos Andrea Mora, Daniela Paunescu, Robert Nikolaus Grass & Wendelin Jan Stark
Ecological networks such as food webs are extremely complex and can provide important information about the robustness and productivity of an ecosystem. In most cases it is not feasible to observe trophic interactions between predators and prey directly and with the available methods it is difficult to quantify the connections between them. Here we show that submicron-sized Silica Particles (100 – 150 nm) with Encapsulated DNA (SPED) enable accurate food and organism labeling and quantification...

Registration Year

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    2
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    67
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    40
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    23
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    25
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    33
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    30
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    17
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    25
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    12

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    268
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    15
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    3
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  • Image
    1

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    255
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    30
  • University of Zurich
    30
  • ETH Zurich
    30
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    22
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    13
  • University of Oxford
    8
  • Columbia University
    7
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    7
  • Spanish National Research Council
    7