313 Works

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in local adaptation of a specialist insect herbivore to its long-lived host plant

Aino Kalske, Roosa Leimu, J.F. Scheepens, Pia Mutikainen & J. F. Scheepens
Local adaptation of interacting species to one another indicates geographically variable reciprocal selection. This process of adaptation is central in the organization and maintenance of genetic variation across populations. Given that the strength of selection and responses to it often vary in time and space, the strength of local adaptation should in theory vary between generations and among populations. However, such spatiotemporal variation has rarely been explicitly demonstrated in nature and local adaptation is commonly...

Data from: Evolution during population spread affects plant performance in stressful environments

Nicky Lustenhouwer, Jennifer L. Williams & Jonathan M. Levine
1. Reliable predictions of population spread rates are essential to forecast biological invasions. Recent studies have shown that populations spreading through favourable habitat can rapidly evolve higher dispersal and reproductive rates at the expansion front, which accelerates spread velocity. However, spreading populations are likely to eventually encounter stressful conditions in the expanded range. How evolution during spread in favourable environments affects subsequent population growth in harsher environments is currently unknown. 2. We examined evolutionary change...

Data from: Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes

Jennifer L. Williams, Bruce E. Kendall & Jonathan M. Levine
Predicting the speed of biological invasions and native species migrations requires an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of spreading populations. Theory predicts that evolution can accelerate species’ spread velocity, but how landscape patchiness—an important control over traits under selection—influences this process is unknown. We manipulated the response to selection in populations of a model plant species spreading through replicated experimental landscapes of varying patchiness. After six generations of change, evolving populations spread 11%...

Data from: Below-ground resource partitioning alone cannot explain the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship: a field test using multiple tracers

Annette Jesch, Kathryn E. Barry, Janneke M. Ravenek, Dörte Bachmann, Tanja Strecker, Alexandra Weigelt, Nina Buchmann, Hans De Kroon, Arthur Gessler, Liesje Mommer, Christiane Roscher & Michael Scherer-Lorenzen
1. Belowground resource partitioning is among the most prominent hypotheses for driving the positive biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship. However, experimental tests of this hypothesis in biodiversity experiments are scarce, and the available evidence is not consistent. 2. We tested the hypothesis that resource partitioning in space, in time, or in both space and time combined drives the positive effect of diversity on both plant productivity and community resource uptake. At the community level, we predicted that...

Data from: Increase in multiple paternity across the reproductive lifespan in a sperm-storing, hermaphroditic freshwater snail

Anja Buerkli & Jukka Jokela
Polyandry is a common phenomenon and challenges the traditional view of stronger sexual selection in males than in females. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, the physical proximity of both sex functions was long thought to preclude the operation of sexual selection. Laboratory studies suggest that multiple mating and polyandry in hermaphrodites may actually be common, but data from natural populations are sparse. We therefore estimated the rate of multiple paternity and its seasonal variability in the annual,...

Data from: Forest fragmentation genetics in a formerly widespread island endemic tree: Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae)

Aline Finger, Chris J. Kettle, Christopher N. Kaiser-Bunbury, Terence Valentin, James Mougal & Jaboury Ghazoul
Habitat fragmentation and changed land use have seriously reduced population size in many tropical forest tree species. Formerly widespread species with limited gene flow may be particularly vulnerable to the negative genetic effects of forest fragmentation and small population size. Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) is a formerly widespread canopy tree of the Seychelles, but is now reduced to 132 adult individuals distributed in eleven sites. Using ten microsatellite loci, a genetic inventory of all adult trees...

Data from: Molecular phenotyping of maternally mediated parallel adaptive divergence within Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria

Longfei Shu, Anssi Laurila, Marc J.-F. Suter & Katja Räsänen
When similar selection acts on the same traits in multiple species or populations, parallel evolution can result in similar phenotypic changes, yet the underlying molecular architecture of parallel phenotypic divergence can be variable. Maternal effects can influence evolution at ecological timescales and facilitate local adaptation, but their contribution to parallel adaptive divergence is unclear. In this study, we (i) tested for variation in embryonic acid tolerance in a common garden experiment and (ii) used molecular...

Data from: Lineages evolved under stronger sexual selection show superior ability to invade conspecific competitor populations

Joanne L. Godwin, Lewis G. Spurgin, L. Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J.G. Gage
Despite limitations on offspring production, almost all multicellular species use sex to reproduce. Sex gives rise to sexual selection, a widespread force operating through competition and choice within reproduction, however, it remains unclear whether sexual selection is beneficial for total lineage fitness, or if it acts as a constraint. Sexual selection could be a positive force because of selection on improved individual condition and purging of mutation load, summing into lineages with superior fitness. On...

Data from: The value of biodiversity for the functioning of tropical forests: insurance effects during the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment

Sean L. Tuck, Michael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Philippe Saner, Matteo Tanadini, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, H. Charles J. Godfray, Elia Godoong, Reuben Nilus, Robert C. Ong, Bernhard Schmid, Waidi Sinun, Jake L. Snaddon, Martijn Snoep, Hamzah Tangki, John Tay, Philip Ulok, Yap Sau Wai, Maja Weilenmann, Glen Reynolds & Andy Hector
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the ‘insurance hypothesis’ predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in...

Data from: Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivore

Aino Kalske, Anne Muola, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred...

Data from: Combined effects of mutualistic rhizobacteria counteract virus-induced suppression of indirect plant defenses in soybean

Hannier Pullido, Kerry E. Mauck, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
It is increasingly clear that microbial plant symbionts can influence interactions between their plant hosts and other organisms. Yet, such effects remain poorly understood, particularly under ecologically realistic conditions where plants simultaneously interact with diverse mutualists and antagonists. Here we examine how the effects of a plant virus on indirect plant defenses against its insect vector are influenced by co-occurrence of other microbial plant symbionts. Using a multi-factorial design, we manipulated colonization of soybean using...

Data from: Dissimilarity of individual microsatellite profiles under different mutation models: empirical approach

Evsey Kosman & Jukka Jokela
Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) still remain popular molecular markers for studying neutral genetic variation. Two alternative models outline how new microsatellite alleles evolve. Infinite alleles model (IAM) assumes that all possible alleles are equally likely to result from a mutation, while stepwise mutation model (SMM) describes microsatellite evolution as stepwise adding or subtracting single repeat units. Genetic relationships between individuals can be analyzed in higher precision when assuming the SMM scenario with allele size...

Data from: Social genes are selection hotspots in kin groups of a soil microbe

Sébastien Wielgoss, Rebekka Wolfensberger, Lei Sun, Francesca Fiegna & Gregory J. Velicer
The composition of cooperative systems, including animal societies, organismal bodies, and microbial groups, reflects their past and shapes their future evolution. However, genomic diversity within many multiunit systems remains uncharacterized, limiting our ability to understand and compare their evolutionary character. We have analyzed genomic and social-phenotype variation among 120 natural isolates of the cooperative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus derived from six multicellular fruiting bodies. Each fruiting body was composed of multiple lineages radiating from a unique...

Data from: Fossils and a large molecular phylogeny show that the evolution of species richness, generic diversity and turnover rates are disconnected

Yaowu Xing, Renske E. Onstein, Richard J. Carter, Tanja Stadler & H. Peter Linder
The magnitude and extent of global change during the Cenozoic are remarkable, yet the impacts of these changes on biodiversity and the evolutionary dynamics of species diversification remain poorly understood. To investigate this question we combine palaeontological and neontological data for the angiosperm order Fagales, an ecologically important clade of c. 1370 species of trees with an exceptional fossil record. We show differences in patterns of accumulation of generic diversity, species richness, and turnover rates...

Data from: Local adaptation at range edges: comparing elevation and latitudinal gradients

Aud H. Halbritter, Regula Billeter, Peter J. Edwards & Jake M. Alexander
Local adaptation at range edges influences species’ distributions and how they respond to environmental change. However, the factors that affect adaptation, including gene flow and local selection pressures, are likely to vary across different types of range edge. We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate local adaptation in populations of Plantago lanceolata and P. major from central locations in their European range and from their latitudinal and elevation range edges (in northern Scandinavia and...

Data from: Unstable infiltration experiments in dry porous media

C. J. M. Cremer, C. Schuetz, I. Neuweiler, P. Lehmann & E. H. Lehmann
Prediction of infiltration in porous media is challenged by finger formation and unstable displacement of the wetting front. We present a systematic experimental study on the effect of packings and infiltration rates on unstable flow into initially dry porous media. We conducted small two- and three-dimensional experiments where water contents were measured with neutron radiography and larger two-dimensional experiments, which we evaluated by obtaining commonly used finger properties such as width and velocity from image...

Data from: Adaptation to local climate in a multi-trait space: evidence from silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations across a heterogeneous environment

Katalin Csilléry, Otso Ovaskainen, Christoph Sperisen, Nina Buchmann, Alex Widmer & Felix Gugerli
Heterogeneous environments, such as mountainous landscapes, create spatially varying selection pressure that potentially affects several traits simultaneously across different life stages, yet little is known about the general patterns and drivers of adaptation in such complex settings. We studied silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations across Switzerland and characterized their mountainous landscape using downscaled historical climate data. We sampled 387 trees from 19 populations and genotyped them at 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate their...

Data from: Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

Oscar Venter, Eric W. Sanderson, Ainhoa Magrach, James R. Allan, Jutta Beher, Kendall R. Jones, Hugh P. Possingham, William F. Laurance, Peter Wood, Balázs M. Fekete, Marc A. Levy & James E.M. Watson
Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and...

Data from: Kin discrimination and outer membrane exchange in Myxococcus xanthus: a comparative analysis among natural isolates

Sébastien Wielgoss, Francesca Fiegna, Olaya Rendueles, Yuen-Tsu N. Yu & Gregory J. Velicer
Genetically similar cells of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus cooperate at multiple social behaviours, including motility and multicellular development. Another social interaction in this species is outer-membrane exchange (OME), a behaviour of unknown primary benefit in which cells displaying closely related variants of the outer-membrane protein TraA transiently fuse and exchange membrane contents. Functionally incompatible TraA variants do not mediate OME, which led to the proposal that TraA incompatibilities determine patterns of intercellular cooperation in...

Data from: Lytic phages obscure the cost of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli

Samuel J. Tazzyman & Alex R. Hall
The long-term persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria depends on their fitness relative to other genotypes in the absence of drugs. Outside the laboratory, viruses that parasitize bacteria (phages) are ubiquitous, but costs of antibiotic resistance are typically studied in phage-free experimental conditions. We used a mathematical model and experiments with Escherichia coli to show that lytic phages strongly affect the incidence of antibiotic resistance in drug-free conditions. Under phage parasitism, the likelihood that antibiotic-resistant genetic backgrounds...

Data from: Simultaneous exposure to a pulsed and a prolonged anthropogenic stressor can alter consumer multifunctionality

Tiina Salo, Katja Rasanen, Christian Stamm, Francis J. Burdon & Otto Seppala
Ecosystems face multiple anthropogenic threats globally, and the effects of these environmental stressors range from individual-level organismal responses to altered system functioning. Understanding the combined effects of stressors on process rates mediated by individuals in ecosystems would greatly improve our ability to predict organismal multifunctionality (e.g. multiple consumer-mediated functions). We conducted a laboratory experiment to test direct and indirect, as well as immediate and delayed effects of a heat wave (pulsed stress) and micropollutants (MPs)...

Data from: Rapid evolutionary loss of metal resistance revealed by hatching decades-old eggs

Patrick William Turko, Laura Sigg, Juliane Hollender, Piet Spaak & Patrick Turko
We investigated the evolutionary response of an ecologically important freshwater crustacean, Daphnia, to a rapidly changing toxin environment. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the use of leaded gasoline caused the aquatic concentration of Pb to increase at least 5-fold, presumably exerting rapid selective pressure on organisms for resistance. We predicted that Daphnia from this time of intense pollution would display greater resistance than those hatched from times of lower pollution. This question was addressed...

Data from: Relative importance of chemical attractiveness to parasites for susceptibility to trematode infection

Laura Langeloh & Otto Seppälä
While the host immune system is often considered the most important physiological mechanism against parasites, pre-contact mechanisms determining exposure to parasites may also affect infection dynamics. For instance, chemical cues released by hosts can attract parasite transmission stages. We used the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and its trematode parasite Echinoparyphium aconiatum to examine the role of host chemical attractiveness, physiological condition and immune function in determining its susceptibility to infection. We assessed host attractiveness through...

Data from: The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Edward C. Holmes, Udayan Joseph, Mathieu Fourment, Yvonne C. F. Su, Rebecca Halpin, Raphael T. C. Lee, Yi-Mo Deng, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Xudong Lin, Tim Stockwell, Nadia B. Fedorova, Bin Zhou, Natalie Spirason, Denise K. Kühnert, Veronika Bošková, Tanja Stadler, Anna-Maria Costa, Dominic E. Dwyer, Q. Sue Huang, Lance C. Jennings, William Rawlinson, Sheena G. Sullivan, Aeron C. Hurt, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh … & Raphael TC Lee
A complex interplay of viral, host and ecological factors shape the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from...

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

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  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • ETH Zurich
  • University of Zurich
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
  • University of Oxford
  • Columbia University
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Spanish National Research Council