338 Works

Data from: Are Bitcoin bubbles predictable? Combining a generalized Metcalfe's law and the LPPLS model

Spencer Wheatley, Didier Sornette, Tobias Huber, Max Reppen & Robert Gantner
We develop a strong diagnostic for bubbles and crashes in Bitcoin, by analyzing the coincidence (and its absence) of fundamental and technical indicators. Using a generalized Metcalfe's law based on network properties, a fundamental value is quantified and shown to be heavily exceeded, on at least four occasions, by bubbles that grow and burst. In these bubbles, we detect a universal super-exponential unsustainable growth. We model this universal pattern with the Log-Periodic Power Law Singularity...

Data from: Yield of temperate forage grassland species is either largely resistant or resilient to experimental summer drought

Daniel Hofer, Matthias Suter, Eamon Haughey, John A. Finn, Nyncke J. Hoekstra, Nina Buchmann & Andreas Lüscher
Due to climate change, an increasing frequency and severity of drought events are expected to impair grassland productivity, particularly of intensively managed temperate grasslands. To assess drought impacts, a common field experiment to manipulate precipitation was set up at three sites (two Swiss and one Irish) using monocultures and mixtures with two and four key forage species. Species differed in their functional traits: a shallow-rooted non-legume (Lolium perenne L.), a deep-rooted non-legume (Cichorium intybus L.),...

Data from: Rapid evolution of symbiont-mediated resistance compromises biological control of aphids by parasitoids

Heidi Kaech, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice Dennis, Christoph Vorburger & Alice B. Dennis
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change...

Data from: Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT)

Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Jaakko Heikkilä, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Glyn Jones, Reuben Keller, Marc Kenis, Christoph Kueffer, Angeliki F. Martinou, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, David M. Richardson, Helen E. Roy, Wolf-Christian Saul, Riccardo Scalera, Montserrat Vila, John R. U. Wilson, Sabina Kumschick & Sabrina Kumschick
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...

Data from: Cheaper isn’t always worse: more protective isolates of a defensive symbiont are less costly to the aphid host

Luis Cayetano, Lukas Rothacher, Jean-Christophe Simon, Christoph Vorburger & J.-C. Simon
Defences against parasites are typically associated with costs to the host that contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance. This also applies to the defence provided by the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, which protects its aphid hosts against parasitoid wasps while imposing life-history costs. To investigate the cost–benefit relationship within protected hosts, we introduced multiple isolates of H. defensa to the same genetic backgrounds of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and we quantified...

Data from: Back from the brink: potential for genetic rescue in a critically endangered tree

Aline Finger, Chris J Kettle, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Terence Valentin, Denis Matatiken, Damien Dudee & Jaboury Ghazoul
Rare plant species are vulnerable to genetic erosion and inbreeding associated with small population size and isolation due to increasing fragmentation, though the degree to which these problems undermine population viability remains debated. We explore genetic and reproductive processes in the critically endangered long-lived tropical tree Medusagyne oppositifolia, an endemic to the Seychelles with a naturally patchy distribution. This species is failing to recruit in three of its four populations. We evaluate whether recruitment failure...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Dynamic NF-κB and E2F interactions control the priority and timing of inflammatory signalling and cell proliferation

John M. Ankers, Raheela Awais, Nicholas A. Jones, James Boyd, Sheila Ryan, Anotony D. Adamson, Claire V. Harper, Lloyd Bridge, David G. Spiller, Dean A. Jackson, Pawel Paszek, Violaine Sée & Micheal R. H. White
Dynamic cellular systems reprogram gene expression to ensure appropriate cellular fate responses to specific extracellular cues. Here we demonstrate that the dynamics of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling and the cell cycle are prioritised differently depending on the timing of an inflammatory signal. Using iterative experimental and computational analyses, we show physical and functional interactions between NF-κB and the E2 Factor 1 (E2F-1) and E2 Factor 4 (E2F-4) cell cycle regulators. These interactions modulate...

Data from: Quantifying age-dependent extinction from species phylogenies

Helen K. Alexander, Amaury Lambert & Tanja Stadler
Several ecological factors that could play into species extinction are expected to correlate with species age, i.e., time elapsed since the species arose by speciation. To date, however, statistical tools to incorporate species age into likelihood-based phylogenetic inference have been lacking. We present here a computational framework to quantify age-dependent extinction through maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on phylogenetic trees, assuming species lifetimes are gamma distributed. Testing on simulated trees shows that neglecting age dependence...

Data from: Age-dependent speciation can explain the shape of empirical phylogenies

Oskar Hagen, Klaas Hartmann, Mike Steel & Tanja Stadler
Tens of thousands of phylogenetic trees, describing the evolutionary relationships between hundreds of thousands of taxa, are readily obtainable from various databases. From such trees inferences can be made about the underlying macroevolutionary processes, yet remarkably these processes are still poorly understood. Simple and widely used evolutionary null models are problematic: empirical trees show very different imbalance between the sizes of the daughter clades of ancestral taxa compared to what models predict. Obtaining a simple...

Data from: Local human pressures influence gene flow in a hybridizing Daphnia species complex

Benjamin Alric, Markus Möst, Isabelle Domaizon, Cecile Pignol, Piet Spaak & Marie-Elodie Perga
Anthropogenic environmental changes are considered critical drivers of the genetic structure of populations and communities through, for example, the facilitation of introgressive hybridization between syntopic species. However, the mechanisms by which environmental perturbations trigger changes in the genetic structure of populations and communities, such as the processes that determine the directionality of hybridization and patterns of mitochondrial introgression over many generations, remain largely unexplored. In this study, the changes in genetic structure of hybridizing members...

Geothermal Reservoir Characterisation and Probability Analysis of Fractured Media at Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

Selvican Türkdogan & Peter Achtziger
Exploitation of deep geothermal energy is considered as one of the most efficient renewable energy applications. In this sense, reservoir stimulation is established to extract geothermal energy from EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) which is highly dependent on its in-situ structural properties: damage/shear zones, faults, fractures, its statistics and characteristics. In more detail, damage zones may behave like a conduit providing preferential pathways for fluid flow in otherwise impermeable rock such as granite or gneiss. To...

Aboveground carbon density plots from a logged forest, Danum Valley, Borneo, 1992-2016

M.E.J. Cutler, C.D. Philipson, D.F.R.P. Burslem, G.M. Foody, P. Lincoln, M.A. Pinard, M. Snoep, C.E. Wheeler, H. Tangki & Y.S. Wai
Data are presented for Above ground Carbon Density (ACD) estimated from a series of forest census surveys which took place from 1992 – 2016 in a mixture of logged and unlogged tropical lowland dipterocarp forest in the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve (USFR) and Danum Valley Conservation Area (DVCA), Sabah, Malaysia. Additional data on logging method, coupe and year of logging is also presented. The USFR comprises of forested land divided into coupes that were each...

Interdependenz und die Grenzen rüstungsindustrieller Arbeitsteilung

Amos Dossi

Leben totgesagte länger? Auf den Spuren von als ausgestorben vermuteten Wasserinsekten

Greff MIchael, Sandra Flatt & Verena Lubini

SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC) 1000-1899

Massimiliano Stucchi, Andrea Rovida, Augusto Antonio Gómez Capera, Pierre Alexandre, Thierry Camelbeeck, Mine Betül Demircioglu, Paolo Gasperini, Vasiliki Kouskouna, Roger M.W. Musson, Mircea Radulian, Karin Sesetyan, Susana Pires Vilanova, David Baumont, Hilmar Bungum, Donat Fäh, Wolfgang Lenhardt, Konstantinos Makropoulos, José Manuel Martínez Solares, Oona Scotti, Mladen Živčić, Paola Albini, Josep Batlló, Christos A. Papaioannou, Ruben Tatevossian, Mario Locati … & Domenico Giardini
The SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC) 1000-1899 has been compiled in the frame of the EC project "SHARE" (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe; 2009-2012).nIt relies on the experience of the EC I3 project "Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology" (NERIES; 2006-2010), a module of which was dedicated to create the Europeann"Archive of Historical Earthquake Data" (AHEAD) and to establish methodologies to homogenously derive earthquake parameters from macroseismic data.nAHEAD has supplied the final earthquake list,...

ISFM/SOM long-term trials soil data

bernard vanlauwe, Johan Six, Moritz Laub, Samuel Mathu & Daniel Mugendi
Collecting long-term data from ISFM maize trials and modelling them with the DayCent model

ISIpedia country masks

Mahé Perrette
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

Data from: Effective polyploidy causes phenotypic delay and influences bacterial evolvability

Lei Sun, Helen K. Alexander, Balazs Bogos, Daniel J. Kiviet, Martin Ackermann & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Whether mutations in bacteria exhibit a noticeable delay before expressing their corresponding mutant phenotype was discussed intensively in the 1940s to 1950s, but the discussion eventually waned for lack of supportive evidence and perceived incompatibility with observed mutant distributions in fluctuation tests. Phenotypic delay in bacteria is widely assumed to be negligible, despite the lack of direct evidence. Here, we revisited the question using recombineering to introduce antibiotic resistance mutations into E. coli at defined...

Data from: Horizontal gene acquisitions, mobile element proliferation, and genome decay in the host - restricted plant pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila

Lori R. Shapiro, Erin D. Scully, Timothy J. Straub, Jihye Park, Andrew G. Stephenson, Gwyn A. Beattie, Mark L. Gleason, Roberto Kolter, Miguel C. Coelho, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Mark C. Mescher & Olga Zhaxybayeva
Modern industrial agriculture depends on high density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared to ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and...

Data from: Transmission risk predicts avoidance of infected conspecifics in Trinidadian guppies

Jessica F. Stephenson, Sarah E. Perkins & Joanne Cable
1.Associating with conspecifics afflicted with infectious diseases increases the risk of becoming infected, but engaging in avoidance behaviour incurs the cost of lost social benefits. Across systems, infected individuals vary in the transmission risk they pose, so natural selection should favour risk‐sensitive avoidance behaviour that optimally balances the costs and benefits of sociality. 2.Here we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata‐Gyrodactylus turnbulli host‐parasite system to test the prediction that individuals avoid infected conspecifics in proportion to...

Data from: Fish population genetic structure shaped by hydroelectric power plants in the upper Rhine catchment

Alexandre Gouskov, Marta Reyes, Lisa Wirthner-Bitterlin & Christoph Vorburger
The Rhine catchment in Switzerland has been transformed by a chain of hydroelectric power stations. We addressed the impact of fragmentation on the genetic structure of fish populations by focusing on the European chub (Squalius cephalus). This fish species is not stocked and copes well with altered habitats, enabling an assessment of the effects of fragmentation per se. Using microsatellites, we genotyped 2133 chub from 47 sites within the catchment fragmented by 37 hydroelectric power...

Data from: Plasmids and evolutionary rescue by drug resistance

Samuel J. Tazzyman & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Antibiotic resistance provides evolutionary rescue for bacterial populations under the threat of extinction through antibiotics. It can arise de novo through mutation in the population, or be obtained from other bacterial populations via the transfer of a resistance-conferring plasmid. We use stochastic modelling methods to establish whether the most likely source of rescue is via a plasmid or via the chromosome, and show that contrary to what is assumed plasmids are not necessarily beneficial locations...

Data from: Population structure of the invasive forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus

Andrin Gross, Tsuyoshi Hosoya & Valentin Queloz
Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of invasive pathogens in source and introduced areas is crucial to reveal hidden biological aspects of an organism, to reconstruct the course of invasions and to establish effective control measures. Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph: Chalara fraxinea) is an invasive and highly destructive fungal pathogen on common ash Fraxinus excelsior in Europe and occurs natively in east Asia. To get insights into the dispersal mechanism and the history of invasion, we...

Data from: Altruism can evolve when relatedness is low: evidence from bacteria committing suicide upon phage infection

Dominik Refardt, Tobias Bergmiller & Rolf Kümmerli
High relatedness among interacting individuals has generally been considered a precondition for the evolution of altruism. However, kin-selection theory also predicts the evolution of altruism when relatedness is low, as long as the cost of the altruistic act is minor compared to its benefit. Here, we demonstrate evidence for a low-cost altruistic act in bacteria. We investigated Escherichia coli responding to the attack of an obligately lytic phage by committing suicide in order to prevent...

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