343 Works

Mating patterns influence vulnerability to the extinction vortex

Joanne Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin & Matthew J. G. Gage
Earth’s biodiversity is undergoing mass extinction due to anthropogenic compounding of environmental, demographic and genetic stresses. These different stresses can trap populations within a reinforcing feedback loop known as the extinction vortex, in which synergistic pressures build upon one another through time, driving down population viability. Sexual selection, the widespread evolutionary force arising from competition, choice and reproductive variance within animal mating patterns, could have vital consequences for population viability and the extinction vortex: 1)...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Extreme environments filter functionally rich communities of Atlantic Forest treefrogs along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients

Andrea Paz
Understanding how environmental filtering and biotic interactions structure communities across elevational and latitudinal gradients is still a matter of debate. To provide insight into their relative importance, we explore the mismatch between three dimensions of biodiversity (taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic), and compare their patterns to null models of random community assembly. We focus on a highly diverse tropical group: the tree frogs (hylids) of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. For that, we combined geographic distribution...

Combined Fluorescence Imaging and LA-ICP-MS Trace Element Mapping ofStalagmites: Microfabric identification and interpretation

Jakub Sliwinski & Heather Stoll
Here, we map a series of stalagmites from Asturias, Spain, by laser ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry and confocal laser scanning (fluorescence) microscopy and discuss the origins of trace element and fluorescence variations. Seasonal banding is evident with both methods and may be attributed to lignins/humic acids based on fluorescence absorption and emission characteristics. Some lateral variations in fluorescence present as saw-tooth “spires” and demonstrate disruptions of seasonal banding, corroborated by trace element variations (most prominently...

Community composition of bacteria isolated from Swiss banknotes varies depending on collection environment

Anna Bischofberger & Alex Hall
Humans interact constantly with surfaces and associated microbial communities in the environment. The factors shaping the composition of these communities are poorly understood: some proposed explanations emphasize the influence of local habitat conditions (niche-based explanations), while others point to geographic structure and the distance among sampled locations (dispersal-based explanations). However, the relative roles of these different drivers for microbial community assembly on human-associated surfaces are not clear. Here, we used a combination of sampling, sequencing...

FGF-2-dependent signaling activated in aged human skeletal muscle promotes intramuscular adipogenesis

Sebastian Mathes, Alexandra Fahrner, Umesh Ghoshdastider, Hannes A. Rüdiger, Michael Leunig, Christian Wolfrum & Jan Krützfeldt
Aged skeletal muscle is markedly affected by fatty muscle infiltration and strategies to reduce the occurrence of intramuscular adipocytes are urgently needed. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) not only stimulates muscle growth, but also promotes intramuscular adipogenesis. Using multiple screening assays upstream and downstream of microRNA (miR)-29a signaling, we located the secreted protein and adipogenic inhibitor SPARC to an FGF-2 signaling pathway that is conserved between skeletal muscle cells from mice and...

Dataset of nanoplastic transport in soil via bioturbation by Lumbricus terrestris

Wiebke Mareile Heinze, Denise M. Mitrano, Elma Lahive, John Koestel & Geert Cornelis
The dataset comprises data acquired in laboratory-based process-studies with microcosms on the transport of nanoplastics (polystyrene, 256 nm diameter) in an agricultural soil via bioturbation over the course of 4 weeks. Transport of nanoplastics was monitored through the use of palladium (Pd)-doped nanoplastics (0.24 % w/w) by analyzing soil samples at specific depths (0-2 cm, 2-6 cm, 6-15 cm, 15-29 cm) after defined experimental times (7, 14, 21, 28 days). Microcosms consisted of 30 cm...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

DRIAMS: Database of Resistance Information on Antimicrobials and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra

Caroline Weis, Aline Cuénod, Bastian Rieck, Karsten Borgwardt & Adrian Egli
Early administration of effective antimicrobial treatments is critical for the outcome of infections and the prevention of treatment resistance. Antimicrobial resistance testing enables the selection of optimal antibiotic treatments, but current culture-based techniques can take up to 72 hours to generate results. We have developed a novel machine learning approach to predict antimicrobial resistance directly from MALDI-TOF mass spectra profiles of clinical samples. We trained calibrated classifiers on a newly-created publicly available database of mass...

ISIMIP3a N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3a N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
Nitrogen deposition data was interpolated to 0.5° by 0.5° by the nearest grid. Data from 2015 to 2021 are taken from 2014 as it is assumed to be same (Tian et al. 2018).

ISIMIP3a landuse input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

Behavioral interactions between bacterivorous nematodes and predatory bacteria in a synthetic community

Nicola Mayrhofer, Gregory J. Velicer, Kaitlin A. Schaal & Marie Vasse
Theory and empirical studies in metazoans predict that apex predators should shape the behavior and ecology of mesopredators and prey at lower trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of microbial communities, few studies of predatory microbes examine such behavioral res-ponses and the multiplicity of trophic interactions. Here, we sought to assemble a three-level microbial food chain and to test for behavioral interactions between the predatory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus...

Data from: Is floral divergence sufficient to maintain species boundaries upon secondary contact in Mediterranean food-deceptive orchids?

Giovanni Scopece, Anis Zitari, Ahmed N. Helal, Alex Widmer, Salvatore Cozzolino, A Widmer & A N Helal
Analysing the processes that determine whether species boundaries are maintained upon secondary contact may shed light on the early phase of speciation. In Anacamptis morio and A. longicornu, two Mediterranean orchid sister-species, we used molecular and morphological analyses, together with estimates of pollination success and experimental crosses, to assess whether floral isolation can shelter the species' genomes from genetic admixture upon secondary contact. We found substantial genetic and morphological homogenization in sympatric populations in combination...

Data from: Genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping between Misty Lake and inlet stickleback

Andrew P Hendry, K Hudson, J A Walker, K Räsänen & L J Chapman
Different environments should select for different aspects of organismal performance, which should lead to correlated divergence in morphological traits that influence performance. The result should be genetic divergence in aspects of performance, morphology, and associations (“maps”) between morphology and performance. Testing this hypothesis requires quantifying performance and morphology in multiple populations after controlling for environmental differences, but this is rarely done. We used a common-garden experiment to examine morphology and several aspects of swimming performance...

Data from: Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae

Christoph Sandrock, Jabraeil Razmjou & Christoph Vorburger
Aphid species commonly have different reproductive modes ranging from cyclical to obligate parthenogenesis. The distribution of life cycle variation in aphids is generally determined by ecological forces, mainly climate, because only sexually produced diapausing eggs can survive harsh winters. Aphids are thus interesting models to investigate intrinsic and environmental factors shaping the competition among sexual and asexual lineages. We conducted a Europe-wide sampling of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and combined population genetic analyses based...

Data from: Only helpful when required: a longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts

Christoph Vorburger & Alexandre Gouskov
Maternally transmitted symbionts can spread in host populations if they provide a fitness benefit to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa, a bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, protects hosts against parasitoids but only occurs at moderate frequencies in most aphid populations. This suggests that harbouring this symbiont is also associated with costs, yet the nature of these costs has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate an important and clearly defined cost: reduced longevity. Experimental infections with six different isolates...

Data from: Back from the brink: potential for genetic rescue in a critically endangered tree

Aline Finger, Chris J Kettle, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Terence Valentin, Denis Matatiken, Damien Dudee & Jaboury Ghazoul
Rare plant species are vulnerable to genetic erosion and inbreeding associated with small population size and isolation due to increasing fragmentation, though the degree to which these problems undermine population viability remains debated. We explore genetic and reproductive processes in the critically endangered long-lived tropical tree Medusagyne oppositifolia, an endemic to the Seychelles with a naturally patchy distribution. This species is failing to recruit in three of its four populations. We evaluate whether recruitment failure...

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