277 Works

Data from: Simplification of shade tree diversity reduces nutrient cycling resilience in coffee agroforestry

Maike Nesper, Christoph Kueffer, Smitha Krishnan, Cheppudira G. Kushalappa & Jaboury Ghazoul
1. Agroforestry systems are refuges for biodiversity and provide multiple ecosystem functions and services. Diverse multispecies shade tree canopies are increasingly replaced by monospecific shade, often dominated by non-native tree species. The loss of tree diversity and the nature of the dominating tree can have strong implications for ecosystem functions, e.g. nutrient cycling ultimately reducing crop production. 2. To understand direct and indirect impacts of shade trees on nutrient cycling and crop production, we studied...

Data from: Worldwide population genetic structure of the oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), a globally invasive pest

Heather Kirk, Silvia Dorn & Dominique Mazzi
Background: Invasive pest species have large impacts on agricultural crop yields, and understanding their population dynamics is important for ensuring food security. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a cosmopolitan pest of stone and pome fruit species including peach and apple, and historical records indicate that it has invaded North and South America, Europe, Australia and Africa from its putative native range in Asia over the past century. Results: We used 13 microsatellite loci,...

Data from: Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline

Deborah A. Jenkins, Nicolas Lecomte, James A. Schaefer, Steffen M. Olsen, Didier Swingedouw, Steeve D. Côté, Loïc Pellissier & Glenn Yannic
Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both...

Data from: Cross-scale interactions among bark beetles, climate change and wind disturbances a landscape modeling approach

Christian Temperli, Harald K. M. Bugmann, Ché Elkin & Harald Bugmann
Bark beetles are a key forest disturbance agent worldwide, with their impact shaped by climate, forest susceptibility, and interactions with other disturbances such as windthrow and fire. There is ample evidence on the interactions among these factors at small spatial and temporal scales, but projecting their long-term and landscape-scale impacts remains a challenge. We developed a spatially explicit model of European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) dynamics that incorporates beetle phenology and forest susceptibility, and...

Data from: An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria

R. Fredrik Inglis, Stuart West & Angus Buckling
Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that...

Data from: Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant

Jake M. Alexander
A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its...

Data from: Measurement of infection efficiency of a major wheat pathogen using time-resolved imaging of disease progress

Petteri Karisto, Susanne Dora & Alexey Mikaberidze
Infection efficiency is a key epidemiological parameter that determines the proportion of pathogen spores able to infect and cause lesions once they have landed on a susceptible plant tissue. In this study, we present an improved method to measure infection efficiency of Zymoseptoria tritici using a replicated greenhouse experiment. Z. tritici is a fungal pathogen that infects wheat leaves and causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), a major disease of wheat worldwide. We devised an original...

Data from: The balance of canopy and soil effects determines intraspecific differences in foundation species’ effects on associated plants

Nuria Pistón, Richard Michalet, Christian Schöb, Petr Macek, Cris Armas & Francisco I. Pugnaire
1. The impact of plant-plant interactions on species diversity patterns has been broadly addressed in stressful environments, such as alpine ecosystems, where foundation species promote species richness by creating habitat for other species. However, foundation species with contrasting phenotypes might modify the microhabitat differently, which would alter the subordinate community composition, and coincide with distinct feedback effects of those subordinate species on the foundation species. However, the precise interaction mechanisms that facilitate species are not...

Data from: Genetic factors affecting food-plant specialization of an oligophagous seed predator

Liisa Laukkanen, Roosa Leimu, Anne Muola, Marianna Lilley & Pia Mutikainen
Several ecological and genetic factors affect the diet specialization of insect herbivores. The evolution of specialization may be constrained by lack of genetic variation in herbivore performance on different food plant species. By traditional view, trade-offs, i.e., negative genetic correlations between the performance of the herbivores on different food-plant species favour the evolution of specialization. To investigate whether there is genetic variation or trade-offs in herbivore performance between different food plants that may influence specialization...

Data from: Phenological plasticity is a poor predictor of subalpine plant population performance following experimental climate change

Sebastian Block, Jake Alexander & Jonathan Levine
Phenological shifts, changes in the seasonal timing of life cycle events, are among the best documented responses of species to climate change. However, the consequences of these phenological shifts for population dynamics remain unclear. Population growth could be enhanced if species that advance their phenology benefit from longer growing seasons and gain a pre-emptive advantage in resource competition. However, it might also be reduced if phenological advances increase exposure to stresses, such as herbivores and,...

Exploring the role of genetic diversity and relatedness in tree seedling growth and mortality: a multi‐species study in a Bornean rain forest

Chris Kettle, Claire Tito De Morais, C.D. Philipson, C.R. Maycock, D.F.R.P Burslem, E. Khoo & J. Ghazoul
Where conspecific seedlings occur at high densities, density dependent processes tend to depress their performance and survival relative to co‐occurring heterospecifics. We extend this observation to within‐species genetic diversity and relatedness. We posit that seedling growth and survival increase where there is higher genetic diversity, and lower relatedness, among seedling populations, under the expectation that increased genetic dissimilarity among conspecific seedlings affords greater resistance to pathogens. We used estimates of individual seedling genetic diversity (multilocus...

Ecological patterns of root nodule diversity in cultivated and wild rooibos populations: a community prediction approach

Josep Ramoneda, Jaco Le Roux, Emmanuel Frossard, Beat Frey & Hannes Andres Gamper
There is interest in understanding the factors behind the biogeography of root-associated bacteria due to the joint effects that plant host, climate, and soil conditions can have on bacterial diversity. For legume crops with remaining wild populations, this is of even more importance, because the effects of cropping on undisturbed root-associated bacterial communities can be addressed. Here, we used a community prediction approach to describe the diversity of the root nodule bacterial communities of rooibos...

Data from: Nesting sites of giant honey bees modulated by landscape patterns

Charlotte Pavageau, Cédric Gaucherel, Claude Garcia & Jaboury Ghazoul
1. The composition of agro-ecological landscapes is thought to have important implications for the production of major crops through its effects on pollinator abundance and behaviour. 2. We explored the roles of land cover and land cover heterogeneity on bee nest distribution for Apis dorsata, a key species for coffee pollination, in a complex agroforest landscape. We emphasized scaling and non-uniform effects by combining two different approaches of spatial analysis, the point-pattern analysis and surface-pattern...

Data from: Cryptic lineages of a common alpine mayfly show strong life-history divergence

Marie Leys, Irene Keller, Christopher T. Robinson & Katja Räsänen
Understanding ecological divergence of morphologically similar but genetically distinct species – previously considered as a single morphospecies – is of key importance in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Despite their morphological similarity, cryptic species may have evolved distinct adaptations. If such ecological divergence is unaccounted for, any predictions about their responses to environmental change and biodiversity loss may be biased. We used spatio-temporally replicated field surveys of larval cohort structure and population genetic analyses (using...

Data from: Classification of cryptocurrency coins and tokens by the dynamics of their market capitalisations

Ke Wu, Spencer Wheatley & Didier Sornette
We empirically verify that the market capitalisations of coins and tokens in the cryptocurrency universe follow power-law distributions with significantly different values, with the tail exponent falling between 0.5 and 0.7 for coins, and between 1.0 and 1.3 for tokens. We provide a rationale for this, based on a simple proportional growth with birth & death model previously employed to describe the size distribution of firms, cities, webpages, etc. We empirically validate the model and...

Data from: The predictability of a lake phytoplankton community, over time-scales of hours to years

Mridul K. Thomas, Simone Fontana, Marta Reyes, Michael Kehoe & Francesco Pomati
Forecasting changes to ecological communities is one of the central challenges in ecology. However, nonlinear dependencies, biotic interactions and data limitations have limited our ability to assess how predictable communities are. We used a machine learning approach and environmental monitoring data (biological, physical and chemical) to assess the predictability of phytoplankton cell density in one lake across an unprecedented range of time scales. Communities were highly predictable over hours to months: model R2 decreased from...

Data from: Manipulation of light spectral quality disrupts host location and attachment by parasitic plants in the genus Cuscuta

Beth I. Johnson, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
Parasitic plants in the genus Cuscuta (dodders) make their living by extracting resources from other plants. While relatively few dodder species are agricultural pests, those that are can be challenging to control, in part due to their intimate physical and physiological association with host plants. Consequently, dodders remain pervasive and economically damaging pests in a variety of crop systems. The development of improved management strategies would be facilitated by greater understanding of the ecological and...

Data from: Robustness of the outcome of adult bumblebee infection with a trypanosome parasite after varied parasite exposures during larval development

Gabriel Cisarovsky, Paul Schmid-Hempel & Ben M. Sadd
The outcome of defence by the invertebrate immunity has recently been shown to be more complex than previously thought. In particular, the outcome is affected by biotic and abiotic environmental variation, host genotype, parasite genotype, and their interaction. Knowledge of conditions under which environmental variation affects the outcome of an infection is one important question that relates to this complexity. We here use the model system of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris infected by the trypanosome,...

Data from: Do soil biota influence the outcome of novel interactions between plant competitors?

Aline Cardinaux, Simon Hart, Jake Alexander, Jake M. Alexander & Simon P. Hart
1. Species are shifting their ranges, for example to higher elevations, in response to climate change. Different plant species and soil microbiota will likely shift their ranges at different rates, giving rise to novel communities of plants and soil organisms. However, the ecological consequences of such novel plant-soil interactions are poorly understood. We experimentally simulated scenarios for novel interactions arising between high- and low elevation plants and soil biota following asynchronous climate change range shifts,...

Data from: Natural selection on immune defense: a field experiment

Laura Langeloh, Jasminca Maria Behrmann-Godel, Otto Seppälä & Jasminca Behrmann-Godel
Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that...

Data from: Isolation-by-distance in landscapes: considerations for landscape genetics

Maarten J. Van Strien, Rolf Holderegger & Henrikus J. Van Heck
In landscape genetics, isolation-by-distance (IBD) is regarded as a baseline pattern that is obtained without additional effects of landscape elements on gene flow. However, the configuration of suitable habitat patches determines deme topology, which in turn should affect rates of gene flow. IBD patterns can be characterized either by monotonically increasing pairwise genetic differentiation (for example, FST) with increasing interdeme geographic distance (case-I pattern) or by monotonically increasing pairwise genetic differentiation up to a certain...

Data from: An SNP-based second-generation genetic map of Daphnia magna and its application to QTL analysis of phenotypic traits

Jarkko Routtu, Matthew D. Hall, Brian Albere, Christian Beisel, R. Daniel Bergeron, Anurag Chaturvedi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, John Colbourne, Luc De Meester, Melissa T. Stephens, Claus-Peter Stelzer, Eleanne Solorzano, W. Kelley Thomas, Michael E. Pfrender & Dieter Ebert
Background: Although Daphnia is increasingly recognized as a model for ecological genomics and biomedical research, there is, as of yet, no high-resolution genetic map for the genus. Such a map would provide an important tool for mapping phenotypes and assembling the genome. Here we estimate the genome size of Daphnia magna and describe the construction of an SNP array based linkage map. We then test the suitability of the map for life history and behavioural...

Data from: Large-scale proteomics of the cassava storage root and identification of a target gene to reduce post-harvest deterioration

Hervé Vanderschuren, Evans Nyaboga, Jacquelyne S. Poon, Katja Baerenfaller, Jonas Grossmann, Matthias Hirsch-Hoffmann, Norbert Kirchgessner, Paolo Nanni & Wilhelm Gruissem
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified...

Data from: Ranking quantitative resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in elite wheat cultivars using automated image analysis

Petteri Karisto, Andreas Hund, Kang Yu, Jonas Anderegg, Achim Walter, Fabio Mascher, Bruce A. McDonald & Alexey Mikaberidze
Quantitative resistance is likely to be more durable than major gene resistance for controlling Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on wheat. Earlier studies hypothesized that resistance affecting the degree of host damage, as measured by the percentage of leaf area covered by STB lesions, is distinct from resistance that affects pathogen reproduction, as measured by the density of pycnidia produced within lesions. We tested this hypothesis using a collection of 335 elite European winter wheat cultivars...

Data from: Payoff-based learning explains the decline in cooperation in public goods games

Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Heinrich H. Nax & Stuart A. West
Economic games such as the public goods game are increasingly being used to measure social behaviours in humans and non-human primates. The results of such games have been used to argue that people are pro-social, and that humans are uniquely altruistic, willingly sacrificing their own welfare in order to benefit others. However, an alternative explanation for the empirical observations is that individuals are mistaken, but learn, during the game, how to improve their personal payoff....

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