Data from: Rapid evolution of symbiont-mediated resistance compromises biological control of aphids by parasitoidsHeidi Kaech, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice Dennis, Christoph Vorburger & Alice B. Dennis
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change...
Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnoverPatrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...
Ecological drift causes species abundances to fluctuate randomly, lowering diversity within communities and increasing differences among otherwise equivalent communities. Despite broad interest in ecological drift, ecologists have little experimental evidence of its consequences in nature, where competitive forces modulate species abundances. We manipulated drift by imposing 40-fold variation in the size of experimentally assembled annual plant communities and holding their edge-to-interior ratios comparable. Drift over three generations was greater than predicted by neutral models, causing...
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...
Data from: Spontaneous nongenetic variation of group size creates cheater-free groups of social microbesMichaela Amherd, Gregory J. Velicer & Olaya Rendueles
In social organisms, cheaters that gain a fitness advantage by defecting from the costs of cooperation reduce the average level of cooperation in a population. Such “cheating load” can be severe enough to cause local extinction events when cooperation is necessary for survival, but can also mediate group-level selection against cheaters across spatially structured groups that vary in cheater frequency. In cheater-laden populations, such variation could be generated by the formation of new homogeneous groups...
Although observations of species-rich communities have long served as a primary motivation for research on the coexistence of competitors, the majority of our empirical and theoretical understanding comes from two-species systems. How much of the coexistence observed in species rich communities results from indirect effects among competitors that only emerge in diverse systems remains poorly understood. Resolving this issue requires simple, scalable, and intuitive metrics for quantifying the conditions for coexistence in multispecies systems, and...
Data from: How do leaf trait values change spatially and temporally with light availability in a grassland diversity experiment?Dörte Bachmann, Christiane Roscher & Nina Buchmann
Complementarity in light use might increase light exploitation and could be an important mechanism explaining the coexistence of multiple species in plant communities of increasing diversity. We measured vertical light profiles and leaf traits related to light acquisition and light use in 40 mixtures of varying species richness (SR, 2, 4, 8 and 16) and functional group richness (FR, 1-4) in a large grassland biodiversity experiment at five different times during the growing season. Light...
Data from: Aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitatChristoph Vorburger, Jenny Herzog & Romain Rouchet
Specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. Work on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation, and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. Populations specialized on different secondary host plants during the parthenogenetic summer generations are also described for the black bean aphid (Aphis...
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich33
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology7
University of Vermont2
Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries2
University of Fribourg2
University of Zurich2
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
University of Bern2
University of Potsdam2
Freie Universität Berlin2