40 Works

Permasense

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Ambient vibration data from seismic stations on the summit and ridge of one of the tallest freestanding mountains in the Swiss Alps – the Matterhorn – as from a nearby local reference seismic station

Data from: Adaptive reduction of male gamete number in the selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana

Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Hiroyuki Kakui, Misako Yamazaki, Cindy Marona, Hiroki Tsutsui, Afif Hedhly, Dazhe Meng, Yutaka Sato, Thomas Städler, Ueli Grossniklaus, Masahiro Kanaoka, Michael Lenhard, Magnus Nordborg & Kentaro Shimizu
The number of male gametes is critical for reproductive success and varies between and within species. The evolutionary reduction of the number of pollen grains encompassing the male gametes is widespread in selfing plants. Here, we employ genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify underlying loci and to assess the molecular signatures of selection on pollen number-associated loci in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Regions of strong association with pollen number are enriched for signatures...

Metal ions confinement defines the architecture of G-quartet, G-quadruplex fibrils and their assembly into nematic tactoids

Xiaoyang Li, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Massimo Bagnani, Jozef Adamcik, Paride Azzari, Jingcheng Hao, Hongguo Liu, Aixin Song & Raffaele Mezzenga
G-quadruplex, assembled from a square of guanine (G) molecules, is an important structure with crucial biological roles in vivo but also a vesitile template for ordered functional material. Although the understanding of G-quadruplex structures is the focus of numerous studies, little is known regarding the control of G-quartet stacking modes and the spontaneous orientation of G-quadruplex fibrils. Here, the effects of different metal ions and their concentrations on stacking modes of G-quartets are elucidated. Monovalent...

Allopatric divergence limits cheating range and alters genetic requirements for a cooperative trait

Kaitlin A. Schaal, Yuen-Tsu Nicco Yu, Marie Vasse & Gregory J. Velicer
Social and genomic context may constrain the fates of mutations in cooperation genes. While some mechanisms limiting cheaters evolve in the presence of cheating, here we ask whether cheater resistance can evolve latently even in environments where cooperation is not expressed and cheaters are absent. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus undergoes cooperative multicellular development upon starvation, but developmentally defective cheaters can outcompete cooperators within mixed groups. Using natural isolates and an obligate cheater disrupted at the...

Data from: Mate availability determines use of alternative reproductive phenotypes in hermaphrodites

Anja Felmy, Nora Weissert & Jukka Jokela
In many species individuals can employ alternative reproductive phenotypes, with profound consequences for individual fitness and population dynamics. This is particularly relevant for self-compatible hermaphrodites, which have exceptionally many reproductive options. Here we investigated the occurrence of reproductive phenotypes in the simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail Radix balthica under experimentally simulated conditions of low vs. moderate population density. We captured all mating behavior on camera and measured individual female lifetime reproductive success. We found every possible...

Data from: Foundation species promote local adaptation and fine-scale distribution of herbaceous plants

Michael O'Brien, Elisa Carbonell, Gianalberto Losapio, Philipp Schlüter & Christian Schöb
1) Interactions among neighbors can alter demography and traits of commingled species via adaptation or plasticity in phenotypic expression and understanding these two mechanisms in diverse communities is important for determining the ecological and evolutionary consequences of plant–plant interactions. 2) We reciprocally transplanted perennial species (Arenaria armerina and Festuca indigesta) among patches of two foundation shrub species and open ground to assess whether origin microsite (defined as the spatially distinct abiotic and biotic conditions associated...

Data from: The size, symmetry, and color saturation of a male guppy’s ornaments forecast his resistance to parasites

Jessica Stephenson, Martin Stevens, Jolyon Troscianko & Jukka Jokela
Sexually selected ornaments range from highly dynamic traits to those that are fixed during development and relatively static throughout sexual maturity. Ornaments along this continuum differ in the information they provide about the qualities of potential mates, such as their parasite resistance. Dynamic ornaments enable real-time assessment of the bearer’s condition: they can reflect an individual’s current infection status, or resistance to recent infections. Static ornaments, however, are not affected by recent infection but may...

Midsea - Mantle Investigation of the Deep Suture between Eurasia and Africa

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Four institutions decided to populate the Mediterranean region with more BB instruments in the same time period and call our collective experiments MIDSEA. ETH put out 12 stations in 5 countries, UNSA/CNRS put 6 stations in France and italy, CIW put 5 stations in the Azores, and INGV put 2 stations in Italy. Two of the ETH stations are available at Geofon (MELI) and Inst. of Catalan Studies (POBL, autodrm) data centers, respectively. The other...

Faculae, spots, flares. Solar research at ETH Zurich

Simulations of planetary-scale collisions between rotating, differentiated bodies

Miles Timpe, Maria Han Veiga, Mischa Knabenhans, Joachim Stadel & Stefano Marelli
In the late stages of terrestrial planet formation, pairwise collisions between planetary-sized bodies act as the fundamental agent of planet growth. These collisions can lead to either growth or disruption of the bodies involved and are largely responsible for shaping the final characteristics of planets. Despite their critical role in planet formation, an accurate treatment of collisions has yet to be realized. Therefore, we simulated a new set of 10,700 smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of...

Data and R code for: An experimental approach to assessing the impact of ecosystem engineers on biodiversity and ecosystem functions

Gianalberto Losapio, Bernhard Schmid, Jordi Bascompte, Richard Michalet, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Rainer Neumeyer, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants acting as ecosystem engineers create habitats and facilitate biodiversity maintenance within plant communities. Furthermore, biodiversity research has demonstrated that plant diversity enhances the productivity and functioning of ecosystems. However, these two fields of research developed in parallel and independent from one another, with the consequence that little is known about the role of ecosystem engineers in the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across trophic levels. Here, we present an experimental framework to study...

Hybridization and transgressive exploration of colour pattern and wing morphology in Heliconius butterflies

Claire Mérot, Vincent Debat, Yann Le Poul, Richard M Merrill, Russell E Naisbit, Adélie Tholance, Chris Jiggins & Mathieu Joron
Hybridization can generate novel phenotypes distinct from those of parental lineages, a phenomenon known as transgressive trait variation. Transgressive phenotypes might negatively or positively affect hybrid fitness, and increase available variation. Closely related species of Heliconius butterflies regularly produce hybrids in nature and hybridization is thought to play a role in the diversification of novel wing colour patterns despite strong stabilizing selection due to interspecific mimicry. Here, we studied wing phenotypes in first and second...

Decomposition disentangled: a test of the multiple mechanisms by which nitrogen enrichment alters litter decomposition

Eric Allan, Noémie Pichon, Seraina Cappelli, Santiago Soliveres, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus & Till Kleinebecker
Nitrogen (N) enrichment has direct effects on ecosystem functioning by altering soil abiotic conditions and indirect effects by reducing plant diversity and shifting plant functional composition from dominance by slow to fast growing species. Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem function and is affected by N enrichment either by a change in litter quality (the recalcitrance of the plant material) or through a change in soil quality (the abiotic and biotic components of the soil...

Associations between sensitivity to antibiotics, disinfectants, and heavy metals in natural, clinical and laboratory isolates of Escherichia coli

Anna Bischofberger, Michael Baumgartner, Katia Pfrunder Cardozo, Richard C. Allen & Alex R. Hall
Bacteria in nature often encounter non‐antibiotic antibacterials (NAAs), such as disinfectants and heavy metals, and they can evolve resistance via mechanisms that are also involved in antibiotic resistance. Understanding whether susceptibility to different types of antibacterials is non‐randomly associated across natural and clinical bacteria is therefore important for predicting the spread of resistance, yet there is no consensus about the extent of such associations or underlying mechanisms. We tested for associations between susceptibility phenotypes of...

A major combustion aerosol event had a negligible impact on the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle population

Michael Adams, Mark Tarn, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Grace Porter, Daniel O'Sullivan, Alexander Harrison, Zhiqiang Cui, Jesús Vergara Temprado, Federico Carotenuto, Mark Holden, Martin Daily, Thomas Whale, Sebastien Sikora, Ian Burke, Jung-uk Shim, Jim McQuaid & Benjamin Murray
Clouds containing supercooled water are important for both climate and weather, but our knowledge of which aerosol particle types nucleate ice in these clouds is far from complete. Combustion aerosols have strong anthropogenic sources and if these aerosol types were to nucleate ice in clouds they might exert a climate forcing. Here, we quantified the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations during the UK’s annual Bonfire Night celebrations, which are characterised by strong anthropogenic emissions of...

Ecological patterns of root nodule diversity in cultivated and wild rooibos populations: a community prediction approach

Josep Ramoneda, Jaco Le Roux, Emmanuel Frossard, Beat Frey & Hannes Andres Gamper
There is interest in understanding the factors behind the biogeography of root-associated bacteria due to the joint effects that plant host, climate, and soil conditions can have on bacterial diversity. For legume crops with remaining wild populations, this is of even more importance, because the effects of cropping on undisturbed root-associated bacterial communities can be addressed. Here, we used a community prediction approach to describe the diversity of the root nodule bacterial communities of rooibos...

Data from: A de novo chromosome-level genome assembly of Coregonus sp. “Balchen”: one representative of the Swiss Alpine whitefish radiation

Philine Feulner, Rishi De-Kayne & Stefan Zoller
Salmonids are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their incredible diversity of life-history strategies and the speed at which many salmonid species have diversified. In Switzerland alone, over 30 species of Alpine whitefish from the subfamily Coregoninae have evolved since the last glacial maximum, with species exhibiting a diverse range of morphological and behavioural phenotypes. This, combined with the whole genome duplication which occurred in the ancestor of all salmonids, makes the Alpine...

Data from: Bumble bees damage plant leaves and accelerate flower production when pollen is scarce

Foteini Pashalidou, Harriet Lambert, Thomas Peybernes, Mark Mescher & Consuelo De Moraes
Maintaining phenological synchrony with flowers is a key ecological challenge for pollinators that may be exacerbated by ongoing environmental change. Here, we show that bumble bee workers facing pollen scarcity damage leaves of flowerless plants and thereby accelerate flower production. Laboratory studies revealed that leaf-damaging behavior is strongly influenced by pollen availability and that bee-damaged plants flower significantly earlier than undamaged or mechanically damaged controls. Subsequent outdoor experiments showed that the intensity of damage inflicted...

Data from: Resident microbial communities inhibit growth and antibiotic resistance evolution of Escherichia coli in human gut microbiome samples

Michael Baumgartner
Countering the rise of antibiotic resistant pathogens requires improved understanding of how resistance emerges and spreads in individual species, which are often embedded in complex microbial communities such as the human gut microbiome. Interactions with other microorganisms in such communities might suppress growth and resistance evolution of individual species (e.g. via resource competition), but could also potentially accelerate resistance evolution via horizontal transfer of resistance genes. It remains unclear how these different effects balance out,...

Leaf-out in northern ecotypes of wide-ranging trees requires less spring warming, enhancing the risk of spring frost damage at cold range limits

Constantin Zohner, Lidong Mo, Veronica Sebald & Susanne S Renner
Aim. Trees need to avoid frost damage to their young leaves by leafing out after the occurrence of the last frost, yet they also need to start photosynthesis early in the season to achieve sufficient growth. This trade-off leads to the hypothesis that ‘safety margins’ against spring frost should become shorter, the longer the winter duration, perhaps reaching an asymptotic limit where frost damage would occur in most years. Physiologically, shorter safety margins in high-latitude...

The response of the ozone layer to quadrupled CO2 concentrations: implications for climate

Gabriel Chiodo & Lorenzo M. Polvani
The quantification of the climate impacts exerted by stratospheric ozone changes in abrupt 4 × CO2 forcing experiments is an important step in assessing the role of the ozone layer in the climate system. Here, we build on our previous work on the change of the ozone layer under 4 × CO2 and examine the effects of ozone changes on the climate response to 4 × CO2, using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. We...

Exploring the role of genetic diversity and relatedness in tree seedling growth and mortality: a multi‐species study in a Bornean rain forest

Chris Kettle, Claire Tito De Morais, C.D. Philipson, C.R. Maycock, D.F.R.P Burslem, E. Khoo & J. Ghazoul
Where conspecific seedlings occur at high densities, density dependent processes tend to depress their performance and survival relative to co‐occurring heterospecifics. We extend this observation to within‐species genetic diversity and relatedness. We posit that seedling growth and survival increase where there is higher genetic diversity, and lower relatedness, among seedling populations, under the expectation that increased genetic dissimilarity among conspecific seedlings affords greater resistance to pathogens. We used estimates of individual seedling genetic diversity (multilocus...

Aboveground carbon density plots from a logged forest, Danum Valley, Borneo, 1992-2016

M.E.J. Cutler, C.D. Philipson, D.F.R.P. Burslem, G.M. Foody, P. Lincoln, M.A. Pinard, M. Snoep, C.E. Wheeler, H. Tangki & Y.S. Wai
Data are presented for Above ground Carbon Density (ACD) estimated from a series of forest census surveys which took place from 1992 – 2016 in a mixture of logged and unlogged tropical lowland dipterocarp forest in the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve (USFR) and Danum Valley Conservation Area (DVCA), Sabah, Malaysia. Additional data on logging method, coupe and year of logging is also presented. The USFR comprises of forested land divided into coupes that were each...

Prior adaptation of parasitoids improves biological control of symbiont-protected pests

Christoph Vorburger & Silvan Rossbacher
There is increasing demand for sustainable pest management to reduce harmful effects of pesticides on the environment and human health. For pest aphids, biological control with parasitoid wasps provides a welcome alternative, particularly in greenhouses. However, aphids are frequently infected with the heritable bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, which increases resistance to parasitoids and thereby hampers biological control. Using the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and its main parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum, we tested whether prior adaptation...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    33
  • University of Zurich
    5
  • ETH Zurich
    5
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    4
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    3
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    2
  • Iowa State University
    2
  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
    2
  • ETHZ (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich Switzerland)
    2