24 Works

Number of growth days and not length of the growth period determines radial stem growth of temperate trees

Sophia Etzold, Frank Sterck, Arun Bose, Sabine Braun, Nina Buchmann, Werner Eugster, Arthur Gessler, Ansgar Kahmen, Richard Peters, Lorenz Walthert, Yann Vitasse, Kasia Zieminska, Haeni Matthias, Micah Wilhelm, Volodymyr Trotsiuk & Zweifel Roman
Radial stem growth dynamics at seasonal resolution are essential to understand how forests respond to climate change. We studied daily radial growth of 160 individuals of seven temperate tree species at 47 sites across Switzerland over eight years. Growth of all species peaked in the early part of the growth season and commenced shortly before the summer solstice, but with species-specific seasonal patterns. Day length set a window of opportunity for radial growth. Within this...

Strategies to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions by Ruminants

C. Arndt, A.N. Hristov, W.J. Price, S.C. McClelland, A.M. Pelaez, A.R. Bayat, L.A. Crompton, J. Dijkstra, M.A. Eugène, D. Enahoro, E. Kebreab, M. Kreuzer, M. McGee, C. Martin, C.J. Newbold, C.K. Reynolds, A. Schwarm, K.J. Shingfield, J.B. Veneman, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz & Z. Yu
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...

Scent of a killer: How could killer yeast boost its dispersal?

Claudia Buser, Jukka Jokela & Oliver Martin
Vector-borne parasites often manipulate hosts to attract uninfected vectors. For example, parasites causing malaria alter host odor to attract mosquitoes. Here we discuss the ecology and evolution of fruit-colonizing yeast in a tripartite symbiosis – the so-called “killer yeast” system. “Killer yeast” consists of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast hosting two double stranded RNA viruses (M satellite dsRNAs, L-A dsRNA helper virus). When both dsRNA viruses occur in a yeast cell, the yeast converts to lethal toxin‑producing...

Taxonomic studies on Malagasy Dalbergia (Fabaceae). III. Two new species from Southeastern Madagascar and an emended description of the rosewood species D. maritima

Simon Crameri, Peter B. Phillipson, Nivohenintsoa Rakotonirina, Nicholas Wilding, Roger Lala Andriamiarisoa, & Alex Widmer
The Malagasy rosewood species Dalbergia maritima has a long history of unsustainable exploitation for its beautiful, burgundy-colored heartwood. As currently circumscribed, D. maritima has a wide geographic distribution in eastern Madagascar and exhibits significant morphological, ecological, and genetic variation, suggesting it may comprise more than a single entity. Multivariate analyses of leaf, flower, and inflorescence characters as well as eco-geographic features reveal several morphologically well delimited entities with distinct habitat preferences and/or geographic ranges, which...

Data from: Conjugative plasmid transfer is limited by prophages but can be overcome by high conjugation rates

Carolin Wendling, Lukas Schwyter, Daniel Gehrig & Claudia Igler
Antibiotic resistance spread via plasmids is a serious threat to successfully fight infections and makes understanding plasmid transfer in nature crucial to prevent the rise of antibiotic resistance. Studies addressing the dynamics of plasmid conjugation have yet neglected one omnipresent factor: prophages (viruses integrated into bacterial genomes), whose activation can kill host and surrounding bacterial cells. To investigate the impact of prophages on conjugation, we combined experiments and mathematical modelling. Using E. coli, prophage lambda...

Recent case studies and advances of the magnetotelluric method in geothermal exploration

Friedemann Samrock
The magnetotelluric (MT) method is a well-established tool in geothermal exploration. Case studies from all over the world and from different geothermal settings have proven its effectiveness, when it comes to subsurface reservoir characterization and the successful siting of geothermal wells. A reason for MT being a popular tool in geothermal exploration is that the bulk electrical conductivity of the subsurface, as recovered by MT, can be used as a proxy for key geothermal parameters....

Infection by dsRNA viruses is associated with enhanced sporulation efficiency in Saccharoymces cerevisiae

Thomas Travers Cook, Christina Skirgaila, Oliver Martin & Claudia Buser
Upon starvation, diploid cells of the facultative sexual yeast Saccharoymces cerevisiae undergo sporulation, forming four metabolically quiescent and robust haploid spores encased in a degradable ascus. All endosymbionts, whether they provide net benefits or costs, utilise host resources; in yeast, this should induce an earlier onset of sporulation. Here, we tested whether the presence of endosymbiotic dsRNA viruses (M satellite and L-A helper) correspond with higher sporulation rate of their host, S. cerevisiae. We find...

Pivotal role of O-antigenic polysaccharide display in the sensitivity against phage tail-like particles in environmental Pseudomonas kin competition

Clara Heiman, Monika Maurhofer, Sandra Calderon, Mélanie Dupasquier, Julien Marquis, Christoph Keel & Jordan Vacheron
Environmental pseudomonads colonize various niches including insect and plant environments. When invading these environments, bacteria are confronted with the resident microbiota. To cope with closely related strains they deploy narrow-spectrum weaponry such as tailocins, i.e phage tail-like particles. Little is known about the receptors for these tailocins especially among phylogenetically closely related species. Here, we studied the interaction between an R-tailocin from Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 and a targeted kin, Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. Using genome-wide transposon...

ISFM/SOM long-term trials maize

bernard vanlauwe, Johan Six, Moritz Laub, Samuel Mathu & Daniel Mugendi
Collecting long-term data from ISFM maize trials and modelling them with the DayCent model

Integration of socio-technological transition constraints into energy demand and systems models. Deliverable 2.5. Sustainable Energy Transitions Laboratory (SENTINEL) project

Diana Süsser, Bryn Pickering, Souran Chatterjee, Gabriel Oreggioni, Vassilis Stavrakas & Johan Lilliestam
The decarbonisation of the European energy system is a large-scale transformation, which demands not only for a techno-economic feasibility analysis, but also for an assessment of the social and political feasibility and environmental impacts. However, most energy models are not able to fully represent the social and political developments and dynamics of the energy transition, such as preferences, acceptance and behavioural changes of citizens and decision-makers. To address this shortcoming, we developed QTDIAN (Quantification of...

MeadoWatch: a long-term community-science database of wildflower phenology in Mount Rainier National Park

Janneke HilleRisLambers, Ruben Manzanedo, Elli Theobald, Berry Brosi, Joshua Jenkins, Ava Kloss-Schmidt, Emilia Lia, Annie Schiffer, Jordana Sevigny, Anna Wilson, Yonit Yogev & Aji John
We present a long-term and high-resolution phenological dataset from 17 wildflower species collected in Mt. Rainier National Park, as part of the MeadoWatch (MW) community science project. Since 2013, 500+ unique volunteers and scientists have gathered data on the timing of four key reproductive phenophases (budding, flowering, fruiting, and seeding) in 28 plots over two elevational gradients alongside popular park trails. Trained volunteers (87.2%) and UW scientists (12.8%) collected data 3-9 times/week during the growing...

Mutation of rpoB shifts the nutrient threshold triggering Myxococcus multicellular development

Sabrina A. Eisner, Gregory J. Velicer & Yuen-Tsu N. Yu
The ability to perceive and respond to environmental change is essential to all organisms. In response to nutrient depletion, cells of the soil-dwelling δ-proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus undergo collective morphogenesis into multicellular fruiting bodies and transform into stress-resistant spores. This process is strictly regulated by gene networks that incorporate both inter- and intracellular signals. While commonly studied M. xanthus reference strains and some natural isolates undergo development only in nutrient-poor conditions, some lab mutants and other...

ISIMIP3a N-fertilizer input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISIMIP3a landuse input data

Jan Volkholz & Sebastian Ostberg
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

ISFM/SOM long-term trials soil data

bernard vanlauwe, Johan Six, Moritz Laub, Samuel Mathu & Daniel Mugendi
Collecting long-term data from ISFM maize trials and modelling them with the DayCent model

Exposure to lysed bacteria can promote or inhibit growth of neighboring live bacteria depending on local abiotic conditions

Fokko Smakman & Alex R Hall
Abstract Microbial death is extremely common in nature, yet the ecological role of dead bacteria is unclear. Dead cells are assumed to provide nutrients to surrounding microbes, but may also affect them in other ways. We found that adding lysate prepared from dead bacteria to cultures of Escherichia coli in nutrient-rich conditions suppressed their final population density. This is in stark contrast with the notion that the primary role of dead cells is nutritional, although...

ISIpedia country masks

Mahé Perrette
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

Similar cost of Hamiltonella defensa in experimental and natural aphid-endosymbiont associations

Heidi Kaech, Christoph Vorburger & Stephanie Jud
Endosymbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids is common in aphids, but comes at a cost to the host in the absence of parasitoids. In black bean aphids (Aphis fabae), costs in terms of reduced lifespan and lifetime reproduction were demonstrated by introducing eleven isolates of the protective symbiont Hamiltonella defensa into previously uninfected aphid clones. Transfection of H. defensa isolates into a common genetic background allows to compare the costs of different endosymbiont isolates unconfounded by host...

ISIMIP3a N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3a part of the third simulation round is dedicated to i) impact model evaluation and improvement and ii) detection and attribution of observed impacts according to the framework of IPCC AR5 Working...

Skyline fossilized birth-death priors resolve deep root attraction in total-evidence dating

Chi Zhang, Fredrik Ronquist & Tanja Stadler
Several total-evidence dating studies under the fossilized birth-death (FBD) prior produced very old age estimates which are not supported by the fossil record, and this phenomenon has been termed "deep root attraction'' (DRA). For the Hymenoptera and Eutheria data, utilizing diversified extant sampling in the FBD process has been shown to greatly reduce the DRA effect. However, it is unclear how to proceed in data analyses where typically both the random and diversified samplings are...

Quantifying carbonate denudation from cosmogenic 36Cl and climatic and tectonic controls on carbonate landscape evolution

Richard F Ott , Sean F Gallen & David Helman
Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland(1);Earth Surface Geochemistry, German Centre for Geoscience Research, Potsdam, Germany(2);Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, US(3);Department of Soil and Water Sciences, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel(4);Advanced School for Environmental Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel(5);Quantifying carbonate denudation and the partitioning between chemical and mechanical surface lowering in karstic areas is challenging. Here...

Community composition of bacteria isolated from Swiss banknotes varies depending on collection environment

Anna Bischofberger & Alex Hall
Humans interact constantly with surfaces and associated microbial communities in the environment. The factors shaping the composition of these communities are poorly understood: some proposed explanations emphasize the influence of local habitat conditions (niche-based explanations), while others point to geographic structure and the distance among sampled locations (dispersal-based explanations). However, the relative roles of these different drivers for microbial community assembly on human-associated surfaces are not clear. Here, we used a combination of sampling, sequencing...

Extreme environments filter functionally rich communities of Atlantic Forest treefrogs along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients

Andrea Paz
Understanding how environmental filtering and biotic interactions structure communities across elevational and latitudinal gradients is still a matter of debate. To provide insight into their relative importance, we explore the mismatch between three dimensions of biodiversity (taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic), and compare their patterns to null models of random community assembly. We focus on a highly diverse tropical group: the tree frogs (hylids) of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. For that, we combined geographic distribution...

Numerical Modeling to Study the Impact of Pore Characteristics on the Electric Breakdown of Rock for Plasma Pulse Geo Drilling (PPGD)

Mohamed Ezzat , Daniel Vogler , Benjamin M. Adams & Martin O. Saar
Reducing the cost of drilling is crucial to economically extract deep geothermal energy as drilling costs can reach up to 70% of the total investment budget (Tester et al. 2006). Unfortunately, traditional mechanical rotary drilling is often far too expensive to enable economical geothermal energy extraction from many deep geologic settings due to the amount of energy rotary drilling requires and due to its significant drill bit wear, causing long, unproductive tripping times to exchange...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    24

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20
  • Text
    4

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    13
  • ETH Zurich
    12
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    4
  • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
    2
  • Colorado State University
    2
  • Wageningen University & Research
    2
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
    1
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Estación Experimental del Zaidín
    1