522 Works

Data from: Examining disease prevalence for species of conservation concern using non-invasive spatial capture-recapture techniques

Arthur B. Muneza, Daniel W. Linden, Robert A. Montgomery, Amy J. Dickman, Gary J. Roloff, David W. Macdonald & Julian T. Fennessy
1. Non-invasive techniques have long been used to estimate wildlife population abundance and density. However, recent technological breakthroughs have facilitated non-invasive estimation of the proportion of animal populations with certain diseases. Giraffes Giraffa camelopardalisare increasingly becoming recognized as a species of conservation concern with decreasing population trajectories across their range in Africa. 2. Diseases may be an important component impacting giraffe population declines, and the emerging ‘Giraffe Skin Disease’ (GSD), characterized by the appearance of...

Data from: Working with what you've got: unattractive males show greater mate-guarding effort in a duetting songbird

Jenélle Dowling & Michael S. Webster
When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear...

Data from: Climate variability predicts thermal limits of aquatic insects across elevation and latitude

Alisha A. Shah, Brian A. Gill, Andrea C. Encalada, Alexander S. Flecker, W. Chris Funk, Juan M. Guayasamin, Boris C. Kondratieff, N. LeRoy Poff, Steven A. Thomas, Kelly R. Zamudio & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Janzen's extension of the climate variability hypothesis posits that increased seasonal variation at high latitudes should result in greater temperature overlap across elevations, and favor wider thermal breadths in temperate organisms compared to their tropical counterparts. We tested these predictions by measuring stream temperatures and thermal breadths (i.e. the difference between the critical thermal maximum and minimum) of 62 aquatic insect species from temperate (Colorado, USA) and tropical (Papallacta, Ecuador) streams spanning an elevation gradient...

Data from: Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitat

Andrew M. Kramer, Gust Annis, Marion E. Wittmann, William L. Chadderton, Edward S. Rutherford, David M. Lodge, Lacey Mason, Dmitry Beletsky, Catherine Riseng & John M. Drake
Efficient management and prevention of species invasions requires accurate prediction of where species of concern can arrive and persist. Species distribution models provide one way to identify potentially suitable habitat by developing the relationship between climate variables and species occurrence data. However, these models when applied to freshwater invasions are complicated by two factors. The first is that the range expansions that typically occur as part of the invasion process violate standard species distribution model...

Data from: Walking like an ant: a quantitative and experimental approach to understanding locomotor mimicry in the jumping spider Myrmarachne formicaria

Paul S. Shamble, Ron R. Hoy, Itai Cohen & Tsevi Beatus
Protective mimicry, in which a palatable species avoids predation by being mistaken for an unpalatable model, is a remarkable example of adaptive evolution. These complex interactions between mimics, models and predators can explain similarities between organisms beyond the often-mechanistic constraints typically invoked in studies of convergent evolution. However, quantitative studies of protective mimicry typically focus on static traits (e.g. colour and shape) rather than on dynamic traits like locomotion. Here, we use high-speed cameras and...

Data from: Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-PG Extinction

Jacob S. Berv & Daniel J. Field
Survivorship following major mass extinctions may be associated with a decrease in body size—a phenomenon called the Lilliput Effect. Body size is a strong predictor of many life history traits (LHTs), and is known to influence demography and intrinsic biological processes. Pronounced changes in organismal size throughout Earth history are therefore likely to be associated with concomitant genome-wide changes in evolutionary rates. Here, we report pronounced heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (varying up to...

Data from: Mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide

Najla Al-Sweel, Vandana Raghavan, Abhishek Dutta, V. P. Ajith, Luigi Di Vietro, Nabila Khondakar, Carol Manhart, Jennifer Surtees, K. T. Nishant, Eric Alani, Carol M. Manhart & Jennifer A. Surtees
Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR). To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32) specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover-) and Mlh1-mlh3-45...

Data from: The jujube genome provides insights into genome evolution and the domestication of sweetness/acidity taste in fruit trees

Jian Huang, Chunmei Zhang, Xing Zhao, Zhangjun Fei, KangKang Wan, Zhong Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Xiao Yin, Yang Bai, Xiaoqing Sun, Lizhi Gao, Ruiqiang Li, Jinbo Zhang & Xingang Li
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to...

Data from: Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming

Frank A. La Sorte & Daniel Fink
A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950–2015) to...

Avifauna occurrence data from a longitudinal experiment in human-modified Amazonian forests affected by the 2015-16 El Niño drought and associated fires

A. Lees, N. Moura, F.M. Franca, J.N. Ferreira, T. Gardner, E. Berenguer, L. Chesini, C. Andertti & J. Barlow
This data set includes longitudinal occurrence of bird species at 36 forest plots – half of which burned during the 2015-16 El Niño drought – distributed across a gradient of prior human disturbance in the Brazilian Amazon. Data was collected in 2010 and 2016 (around 6 years before, and one year after the 2015-16 El Niño, respectively) as part of the projects ‘Assessing ENSO-induced Fire Impacts in tropical Rainforest Ecosystems’ (AFIRE) and ‘Biodiversity and Ecosystem...

Data from: Genetic basis of amphibian larval development along a latitudinal gradient: gene diversity, selection and links with phenotypic variation in transcription factor C/EBP-1

Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Emilien Luquet, Frida Johannesdottir, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Maria Quintela, Alex Richter-Boix, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
Ectotherm development rates often show adaptive divergence along climatic gradients, but the genetic basis for this variation is rarely studied. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for phenotypic variation in larval development in the moor frog Rana arvalis from five regions along a latitudinal gradient from Germany to northern Sweden. We focused on the C/EBP-1 gene, a transcription factor associated with larval development time. Allele frequencies at C/EBP-1 varied strongly among geographic regions. Overall, the...

Data from: Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Clutch size and reproductive success decline seasonally in a wide range of temperate avian taxa. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain such declines: the “timing” hypothesis, which states that conditions affecting reproduction decline intrinsically with date, and the “quality” hypothesis, which proposes that high-quality individuals or individuals in high-quality situations breed earlier. We contrasted the relative importance of these two hypotheses using a long-term dataset of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in...

Data from: Risk taking of educated nematodes

Denis S. Willett, Hans T. Alborn, Lukasz L. Stelinski & David I. Shapiro-Ilan
Nematode parasites rely on successful host infection to perpetuate their species. Infection by individual nematode parasites can be risky, however; any one individual could be killed by the host's immune response. Here we use a model system to show that environmental cues and parasite past experience can be used by entomopathogenic nematodes to reduce individual risk of infection. Past parasite experience can more than double the infective virulence (number of host invaders) of a given...

Data from: The devil you know: self-esteem and switching responses to poor service

Irene Consiglio, Stijn M. J. Van Osselaer & Stijn M J Van Osselaer
We investigate a psychological factor regulating consumers’ switching in response to poor service quality: chronic global self-esteem. Whereas high self-esteem consumers tend to switch to other providers in response to poor service quality, low self-esteem consumers often do not. This happens because low self-esteem consumers who experience poor service become risk-averse, and therefore reluctant to engage in new committed service relationships. Indeed, low self-esteem consumers’ likelihood to switch to an alternative provider in response to...

Data from: White shark genome reveals ancient elasmobranch adaptations associated with wound healing and the maintenance of genome stability

Nicholas J. Marra, Michael J. Stanhope, Nathaniel K. Jue, Minghui Wang, Qi Sun, Paulina P. Bitar, Vincent P. Richards, Aleksey Komissarov, Mike Rayko, Sergey Kliver, Bryce J. Stanhope, Chuck Winkler, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes, Salvador J. Jorgensen & Mahmood S. Shivji
The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias; Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) is one of the most publicly recognized marine animals. Here we report the genome sequence of the white shark and comparative evolutionary genomic analyses to the chondrichthyans, whale shark (Elasmobranchii) and elephant shark (Holocephali), as well as various vertebrates. The 4.63-Gbp white shark genome contains 24,520 predicted genes, and has a repeat content of 58.5%. We provide evidence for a history of positive selection and gene-content enrichments regarding...

Data from: A split sex ratio in solitary and social nests of a facultatively social bee

Adam R. Smith, Karen M. Kapheim, Callum J. Kingwell & William T. Wcislo
A classic prediction of kin selection theory is that a mixed population of social and solitary nests of haplodiploid insects should exhibit a split sex ratio among offspring: female biased in social nests, male biased in solitary nests. Here we provide the first evidence of a solitary-social split sex ratio, using the sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Data from 2502 offspring collected from naturally occurring nests across six years spanning the range of the M....

Data from: Constitutive and herbivore-induced plant defenses regulate herbivore population growth

Monica F. Kersch-Becker & Jennifer S. Thaler
1. Induced plant defenses regulated by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid are predicted to influence herbivore population dynamics, in part because they can operate in a density-dependent manner. While there is ample evidence that induced plant responses affect individual performance and growth of herbivores, whether they scale-up to regulate herbivore population dynamics is still unclear. 2. We evaluated the consequences of variation in plant defenses and herbivore density on herbivore development, reproduction and...

Data from: Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulate field fitness

Rachel Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Jason Corwin, Matthew Rubin, Catherine Lin, Alise Muok, Brandon Larson, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Marta Francisco, Daniel Copeland, Cynthia Weinig, Daniel J. Kliebenstein & Daniel J Kliebenstein
Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific...

Data from: Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context

Mia G. Park, Eleanor J. Blitzer, Jason Gibbs, John E. Losey, Bryan N. Danforth & E. J. Blitzer
Wild bee communities provide underappreciated but critical agricultural pollination services. Given predicted global shortages in pollination services, managing agroecosystems to support thriving wild bee communities is, therefore, central to ensuring sustainable food production. Benefits of natural (including semi-natural) habitat for wild bee abundance and diversity on farms are well documented. By contrast, few studies have examined toxicity of pesticides on wild bees, let alone effects of farm-level pesticide exposure on entire bee communities. Whether beneficial...

Data from: Double-digest RAD sequencing outperforms microsatellite loci at assigning paternity and estimating relatedness: a proof of concept in a highly promiscuous bird

Derrick J. Thrasher, Bronwyn G. Butcher, Leonardo Campagna, Michael S. Webster & Irby J. Lovette
Information on genetic relationships among individuals is essential to many studies of the behavior and ecology of wild organisms. Parentage and relatedness assays based on large numbers of SNP loci hold substantial advantages over the microsatellite markers traditionally used for these purposes. We present a double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) analysis pipeline that, as such, simultaneously achieves the SNP discovery and genotyping steps and which is optimized to return a statistically powerful set of...

Data from: What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger: the burdens and benefits of toxin sequestration in a milkweed aphid

Tobias Züst, Sophie Mou & Anurag A. Agrawal
1. Specialized insect herbivores commonly co-opt plant defences for protection against predators, but the costs, benefits, and mechanisms of sequestration are poorly understood. 2. We quantified sequestration of toxic cardenolides by the specialist aphid Aphis nerii when reared on four closely related milkweed (Asclepias) species with >20-fold variation in cardenolide content, and in the presence or absence of ladybug predators. 3. Increasing concentrations of apolar plant cardenolides increased sequestered amounts in aphids. High concentrations in...

Data from: Dispersing hydrophobic natural colorant β-carotene in shellac particles for enhanced stability and tunable color

Dong Chen, Chun-Xia Zhao, Camille Lagoin, Mingtan Hai, Laura R. Arriaga, Stephan Koehler, Alireza Abbaspourrad & David A. Weitz
Color is one of the most important visual attributes of food and is directly related to the perception of food quality. The interest in natural colorants, especially β-carotene that not only imparts color but also has well-documented health benefits, has triggered the research and development of different protocols designed to entrap these hydrophobic natural molecules to improve their stability against oxidation. Here, we report a versatile microfluidic approach that utilizes single emulsion droplets as templates...

Data from: Draft assembly of elite inbred line PH207 provides insights into genomic and transcriptome diversity in maize

Candice N. Hirsch, Cory D. Hirsch, Alex B. Brohammer, Megan J. Bowman, Ilya Soifer, Omer Barad, Doron Sehm-Tov, Kobi Baruch, Fei Lu, Alvaro G. Hernandez, Christopher J. Fields, Chris L. Wright, Klaus Koehler, Nathan M. Springer, Edward S. Buckler, C. Robin Buell, Natalia De Leon, Shawn M. Kaeppler, Kevin Childs & Mark A. Mikel
Intense artificial selection over the last 100 years has produced elite maize (Zea mays) inbred lines that combine to produce high-yielding hybrids. To further our understanding of how genome and transcriptome variation contribute to the production of high-yielding hybrids, we generated a draft genome assembly of the inbred line PH207 to complement and compare with the existing B73 reference sequence. B73 is a founder of the Stiff Stalk germplasm pool, while PH207 is a founder...

Data from: Local context drives infection of grasses by vector-borne generalist viruses

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Charles E. Mitchell & Alison G. Power
Host characteristics commonly determine infection risk, but infection can also be mediated by regional- or local-scale variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. Experiments can clarify the relative importance of these factors. We quantified drivers of infection by barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV), a group of generalist, vector-borne grass pathogens, at hierarchically nested spatial scales (105–1 m) by planting individuals of six common grass species into five Pacific Coast grassland sites spanning 7°...

Data from: Linking the wintering and breeding grounds of warblers along the Pacific Flyway

David P. L. Toews, Julian Heavyside & Darren E. Irwin
Long-distance migration is a behavior that is exhibited by many animal groups. The evolution of novel migration routes can play an important role in range expansions, ecological interactions, and speciation. New migration routes may evolve in response to selection in favor of reducing distance between breeding and wintering areas, or avoiding navigational barriers. Many migratory changes are likely to evolve gradually and are therefore difficult to study. Here, we attempt to connect breeding and wintering...

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