42 Works

Data from: Static antennae act as locomotory guides that compensate for visual motion blur in a diurnal, keen-eyed predator

Daniel B. Zurek, Cole Gilbert, C. Gilbert & D. B. Zurek
High visual acuity allows parallel processing of distant environmental features, but only when photons are abundant enough. Diurnal tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) have acute vision for insects and visually pursue prey in open, flat habitats. Their fast running speed causes motion blur that degrades visual contrast, forces stop-and-go pursuit, and potentially impairs obstacle detection. We demonstrate here that vision is insufficient for obstacle detection during running, and show instead, that antennal touch is both necessary...

Data from: Population size-structure dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies

Ronald D. Bassar, , Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker, David N. Reznick & Thomas Heatherly
1. Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that evolutionary, population, community and ecosystem properties are the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The vast majority of theory and empirical research on these eco-evolutionary feedbacks has focused on interactions among population size and mean traits of populations. 2. However, numbers and mean traits represent only a fraction of the possible feedback dimensions. Populations of many organisms consist of different size classes...

Data from: Partitioning the net effect of host diversity on an emerging amphibian pathogen

C. Guilherme Becker, David Rodriguez, Luís Felipe Toledo, Ana V. Longo, Carolina Lambertini, Décio T. Corrêa, Domingos S. Leite, Célio F. B. Haddad, Kelly R. Zamudio, C. G. Becker, A. V. Longo, K. R. Zamudio, D. T. Correa, C. Lambertini, D. S. Leite, L. F. Toledo, D. Rodriguez & C. F. B. Haddad
The ‘dilution effect’ (DE) hypothesis predicts that diverse host communities will show reduced disease. The underlying causes of pathogen dilution are complex, because they involve non-additive (driven by host interactions and differential habitat use) and additive (controlled by host species composition) mechanisms. Here, we used measures of complementarity and selection traditionally employed in the field of biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) to quantify the net effect of host diversity on disease dynamics of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium...

Data from: Delayed transmission selects for increased survival of vesicular stomatitis virus

Brian R. Wasik, Ambika Bhushan, C. Brandon Ogbunugafor & Paul E. Turner
Life-history theory predicts that traits for survival and reproduction cannot be simultaneous maximized in evolving populations. For this reason, in obligate parasites such as infectious viruses, selection for improved between-host survival during transmission may lead to evolution of decreased within-host reproduction. We tested this idea using experimental evolution of RNA virus populations, passaged under differing transmission times in the laboratory. A single ancestral genotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative-sense RNA Rhabdovirus, was used...

Data from: Dynamic visual cues induce jaw opening and closing by tiger beetles during pursuit of prey

Daniel B. Zurek, Madeleine Q. Perkins, Cole Gilbert, C. Gilbert, M. Q. Perkins & D. B. Zurek
In dynamic locomotory contexts, visual cues often trigger adaptive behaviour by the viewer, yet studies investigating how animals determine impending collisions typically employ either stationary viewers or objects. Here, we describe a dynamic situation of visually guided prey pursuit in which both impending prey contact and escape elicit observable adaptive behaviours in the pursuer, a predatory beetle. We investigated which visual cues may independently control opening and closing of the beetle's jaws during chases of...

Data from: A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus

John M. Zaborske, Vanessa L. Bauer-DuMont, Edward W. J. Wallace, Tao Pan, Charles F. Aquadro, David Allan Drummond, D. Allan Drummond & Vanessa L. Bauer DuMont
Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine...

Data from: Extensive transcriptional response associated with seasonal plasticity of butterfly wing patterns

Emily V. Daniels, Rabi Murad, Ali Mortazavi & Robert D. Reed
In the eastern United States the buckeye butterfly, Junonia coenia, shows seasonal wing color plasticity where adults emerging in the spring are tan, while those emerging in the autumn are dark red. This variation can be artificially induced in laboratory colonies, thus making J. coenia a useful model system to examine the mechanistic basis of plasticity. To better understand the developmental basis of seasonal plasticity we used RNA-seq to quantify transcription profiles associated with development...

Data from: Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands environmental gradient

Miranda M. Gray, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sara G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson & Matthew B. Galliart
Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study the nature of population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation-by-distance (IBD)...

Data from: Seascape continuity plays an important role in determining patterns of spatial genetic structure in a coral reef fish

Cassidy C. D'Aloia, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Richard G. Harrison, Peter M. Buston, C. C. D'Aloia, P. M. Buston, S. M. Bogdanowicz & R. G. Harrison
Detecting patterns of spatial genetic structure (SGS) can help identify intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to gene flow within metapopulations. For marine organisms such as coral reef fishes, identifying these barriers is critical to predicting evolutionary dynamics and demarcating evolutionarily significant units for conservation. In this study, we adopted an alternative hypothesis-testing framework to identify the patterns and predictors of SGS in the Caribbean reef fish Elacatinus lori. First, genetic structure was estimated using nuclear microsatellites...

Data from: Genetic structure of populations of whale sharks among ocean basins and evidence for their historic rise and recent decline

Thomas M. Vignaud, Jeffrey A. Maynard, Raphael Leblois, Mark G. Meekan, Ricardo Vázquez-Juárez, Dení Ramírez-Macías, Simon J. Pierce, David Rowat, Michael L. Berumen, Champak Beeravolu, Sandra Baksay & Serge Planes
This study presents genetic evidence that whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are comprised of at least two populations that rarely mix and is the first to document a population expansion. Relatively high genetic structure is found when comparing sharks from the Gulf of Mexico with sharks from the Indo-Pacific. If mixing occurs between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, it is not sufficient to counter genetic drift. This suggests whale sharks are not all part of a...

Data from: Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

Kathleen L. Prudic, Andrew M. Stoehr, Bethany R. Wasik, Antónia Monteiro, K. L. Prudic, B. R. Wasik, A. Monteiro & A. M. Stoehr
Some eyespots are thought to deflect attack away from the vulnerable body, yet there is limited empirical evidence for this function and its adaptive advantage. Here, we demonstrate the conspicuous ventral hindwing eyespots found on Bicyclus anynana butterflies protect against invertebrate predators, specifically praying mantids. Wet season (WS) butterflies with larger, brighter eyespots were easier for mantids to detect, but more difficult to capture compared to dry season (DS) butterflies with small, dull eyespots. Mantids...

Data from: Warning signals are seductive: relative contributions of color and pattern to predator avoidance and mate attraction in Heliconius butterflies

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Adriana D. Briscoe & Robert D. Reed
Visual signaling in animals can serve many uses, including predator deterrence and mate attraction. In many cases, signals used to advertise unprofitability to predators are also used for intraspecific communication. Although aposematism and mate choice are significant forces driving the evolution of many animal phenotypes, the interplay between relevant visual signals remains little explored. Here, we address this question in the aposematic passion-vine butterfly Heliconius erato by using color- and pattern-manipulated models to test the...

Data from: Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

Marjorie G. Weber & Anurag A. Agrawal
The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in...

Data from: The role of cis regulatory evolution in maize domestication

Zachary H. Lemmon, Robert Bukowski, Qi Sun & John F. Doebley
Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ~17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However,...

Data from: Context-dependent reproductive isolation mediated by floral scent and color

Mascha Bischoff, Robert A. Raguso, Andreas Jürgens & Diane R. Campbell
Reproductive isolation due to pollinator behavior is considered a key mode of speciation in flowering plants. Although floral scent is thought to mediate pollinator behavior, little is known about its effects on pollinator attraction and floral visitation in the wild. We used field experiments with wild hawkmoths and laboratory experiments with naïve hawkmoths to investigate attraction to and probing of flowers in response to indole, a volatile emitted by Ipomopsis tenuituba but not its close...

Data from: Historically browsed jewelweed populations exhibit greater tolerance to deer herbivory than historically protected populations

Laura J. Martin, Anurag A. Agrawal & Clifford E. Kraft
Browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has altered ecological relationships in forest communities across eastern North America. Recent but limited work suggests that deer browsing also selects for particular plant defensive traits. We hypothesized that browsing by deer has imposed selection on defensive traits in an annual native wildflower, orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). To test this hypothesis, we collected individuals from 26 natural populations across a 5000 km2 area in New York State, USA....

Data from: Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Michael Reinhart, Tara Carney, Andrew G. Clark & Anthony C. Fiumera
Drosophila melanogaster females commonly mate with multiple males establishing the opportunity for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Traits impacting sexual selection can be affected by a complex interplay of the genotypes of the competing males, the genotype of the female, and compatibilities between the males and females. We scored males from 96 2nd and 94 3rd chromosome substitution lines for traits affecting reproductive success when mated with females from 3 different genetic backgrounds. The traits...

Data from: Earthworm invasion, white-tailed deer and seedling establishment in deciduous forests of northeastern North America

Bernd Blossey & Annise Dobson
1. Earthworm invasions and high deer populations are among many stressors threatening long-term population viability of forest understorey plants in northeastern North America. Stressor effects are typically tested one at a time, however, stressors often co-occur, and plants respond to effects of multiple stressors simultaneously. 2. We used a factorial design to test independent and combined effects of non-native earthworms and native white-tailed deer on survival of seedling transplants of 15 native understorey plants in...

Data from: Landscape diversity moderates the effects of bee visitation frequency to flowers on crop production.

Jessica D. Petersen & Brian A. Nault
1.Reductions in natural habitat are implicated in declining honey bee Apis mellifera L. and wild bee populations, thereby threatening crop production. This concern has stimulated interest in identifying landscape-level impacts on bee-mediated pollination services, but previous studies have only inferred connections between landscape, bees and yield through generalized linear regressions. 2. We examined landscape impacts on bee-mediated crop yield using both a traditional linear regression approach and conditional process modelling, which combined landscape features, bee...

Data from: Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening

Cuong V. Nguyen, Julia T. Vrebalov, Nigel E. Gapper, Yi Zheng, Silin Zhong, Zhangjun Fei & James J. Giovannoni
Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and...

Data from: Aboveground herbivory by red milkweed beetles facilitates above- and below-ground conspecific insects and reduces fruit production in common milkweed

Alexis C. Erwin, Tobias Züst, Jared G. Ali & Anurag A. Agrawal
1. Initial herbivory and induced plant responses can influence subsequent above- and belowground herbivore attack. When two life stages of the same herbivore damage different plant parts sequentially, there is strong potential for plants to respond with induced plant defense against the later attacker. Alternatively, the earlier attacker could manipulate the host plant to facilitate the later-feeding life stage. 2. We studied herbivory by foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae of the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes...

Data from: Blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus, have high genetic structure and varying demographic histories in their Indo-Pacific range

Thomas M. Vignaud, Johann Mourier, Jeffrey A. Maynard, Raphael Leblois, Julia L. Y. Spaet, Eric Clua, Valentina Neglia, Serge Planes & Julia L.Y. Spaet
For free-swimming marine species like sharks, only population genetics and demographic history analyses can be used to assess population health/status as baseline population numbers are usually unknown. We investigated the population genetics of blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus; one of the most abundant reef-associated sharks and the apex predator of many shallow water reefs of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Our sampling includes 4 widely separated locations in the Indo-Pacific and 11 islands in French...

Data from: Barriers, rather than refugia, underlie the origin of diversity in toads endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Maria Tereza C. Thomé, Kelly R. Zamudio, Célio F. B. Haddad & João Alexandrino
In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of geographic barriers and Pleistocene refuges in the diversification of the Rhinella crucifer species complex, a group of endemic toads with a widespread distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF). We used intensive sampling and multilocus DNA sequence data to compare nucleotide diversity between refuge and nonrefuge areas, investigate regional demographic patterns, estimate demographic parameters related to genetic breaks and test refuge versus barrier scenarios of diversification...

Data from: Transcriptomic characterization of the immunogenetic repertoires of heteromyid rodents

Nicholas J. Marra & J. Andrew DeWoody
Background: When populations evolve under disparate environmental conditions, they experience different selective pressures that shape patterns of sequence evolution and gene expression. These may be manifested in genetic and phenotypic differences such as a diverse immunogenetic repertoire in species from tropical latitudes that have greater and/or different parasite burdens than more temperate species. To test this idea, we compared the transcriptomes of one tropical species (Heteromys desmarestianus) and two species from temperate latitudes (Dipodomys spectabilis...

Data from: Climate, physiological tolerance, and sex-biased dispersal shape genetic structure of Neotropical orchid bees

Margarita M. Lopez-Uribe, Kelly R. Zamudio, Carolina F. Cardoso & Bryan N. Danforth
Understanding the impact of past climatic events on the demographic history of extant species is critical for predicting species’ responses to future climate change. Paleoclimatic instability is a major mechanism of lineage diversification in taxa with low dispersal and small geographic ranges in tropical ecosystems. However, the impact of these climatic events remains questionable for the diversification of species with high levels of gene flow and large geographic distributions. In this study, we investigate the...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • Harvard University
  • University of California, Irvine
  • Sao Paulo State University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of California System
  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Chicago
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research