58 Works

Data from: Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

Angela K. Fuller, Chris S. Sutherland, J. Andrew Royle & Matthew P. Hare
Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using...

Data from: Fatal diseases and parasitoids: from competition to facilitation in a shared host.

Ann E. Hajek & Saskya Van Nouhuys
Diverse parasite taxa share hosts both at the population level and within individual hosts and their interactions, ranging from competitive exclusion to facilitation, can drive community structure and dynamics. Emergent pathogens have the potential to greatly alter community interactions. We found that an emergent fungal entomopathogen dominated pre-existing lethal parasites in populations of the forest defoliating gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The parasite community was composed of the fungus and four parasitoid species that only develop...

Data from: Empirical demonstration of hybrid chromosomal races in house mice

Mabel D. Giménez, Thadsin Panithanarak, Heidi C. Hauffe & Jeremy B. Searle
Western house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) are important models for study of chromosomal speciation. Both had ancestral karyotypes consisting of telocentric chromosomes, and each is subdivided into numerous chromosomal races many of which have resulted from fixation of new mutations (Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations). However, some chromosomal races in both species may alternatively have originated through hybridization, with particular homozygous recombinant products reaching fixation. Here, we demonstrate the...

Data from: Genome editing in butterflies reveals that spalt promotes and Distal-less represses eyespot colour patterns

Linlin Zhang & Robert D. Reed
Butterfly eyespot colour patterns are a key example of how a novel trait can appear in association with the co-option of developmental patterning genes. Little is known, however, about how, or even whether, co-opted genes function in eyespot development. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to determine the roles of two co-opted transcription factors that are expressed during early eyespot determination. We found that deletions in a single gene, spalt, are sufficient to reduce or...

Data from: Trade-offs and tritrophic consequences of host shifts in specialized root herbivores

Jared G. Ali & Anurag A. Agrawal
Trade-offs in an herbivore's ability to feed, avoid predation and succeed on alternative hosts are thought to be major driving factors in host specialization. In this study, we compared how two closely related milkweed beetles (Tetraopes spp.) that have specialized on separate Asclepias species respond to host switching to alternative milkweed plants. By additionally examining effects on the beetles’ entomopathogenic natural enemies, we test whether host plant specialization is driven by plant–herbivore interactions alone or...

Data from: Do the antipredator strategies of shared prey mediate intraguild predation and mesopredator suppression?

John D. J. Clare, Daniel W. Linden, Eric M. Anderson & David M. MacFarland
Understanding the conditions that facilitate top predator effects upon mesopredators and prey is critical for predicting where these effects will be significant. Intraguild predation (IGP) and the ecology of fear are hypotheses used to describe the effects of top predators upon mesopredators and prey species, but make different assumptions about organismal space use. The IGP hypothesis predicts that mesopredator resource acquisition and risk are positively correlated, creating a fitness deficit. But if shared prey also...

Data from: Field performance of Bt eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) in the Philippines: Cry1Ac expression and control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée)

Desiree M. Hautea, Lourdes D. Taylo, Anna Pauleen L. Masanga, Maria Luz J. Sison, Josefina O. Narciso, Reynaldo B. Quilloy, Randy A. Hautea, Frank A. Shotkoski & Anthony M. Shelton
Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to...

Data from: Ecological mismatches are moderated by local conditions in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird

Nathan Senner, Maria Stager, Brett K. Sandercock & Nathan R. Senner
Ecological mismatches between reproductive events and seasonal resource peaks are frequently proposed to be a key driver of population dynamics resulting from global climate change. Many local populations are experiencing reduced reproductive success as a consequence of mismatches, but few mismatches have led to species-level population declines. To better understand this apparent paradox, we investigated the breeding phenology and chick survival of two disjunct populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica breeding at Churchill, Manitoba and...

Data from: Plumage genes and little else distinguish the genomes of hybridizing warblers

David P. L. Toews, Scott A. Taylor, Rachel Vallender, Alan Brelsford, Bronwyn G. Butcher, Philipp W. Messer & Irby J. Lovette
When related taxa hybridize extensively, their genomes may become increasingly homogenized over time. This mixing via hybridization creates conservation challenges when it reduces genetic or phenotypic diversity and when it endangers previously distinct species via genetic swamping [ 1 ]. However, hybridization also facilitates admixture mapping of traits that distinguish each species and the associated genes that maintain distinctiveness despite ongoing gene flow [ 2 ]. We address these dual aspects of hybridization in the...

Data from: Modelling tooth–prey interactions in sharks: the importance of dynamic testing

Katherine A. Corn, Stacy C. Farina, Jeffrey Brash & Adam P. Summers
The shape of shark teeth varies among species, but traditional testing protocols have revealed no predictive relationship between shark tooth morphology and performance. We developed a dynamic testing device to quantify cutting performance of teeth. We mimicked head-shaking behaviour in feeding large sharks by attaching teeth to the blade of a reciprocating power saw fixed in a custom-built frame. We tested three tooth types at biologically relevant speeds and found differences in tooth cutting ability...

Data from: Sequencing improves our ability to study threatened migratory species: genetic population assignment in California's Central Valley Chinook salmon

Mariah H. Meek, Melinda R. Baerwald, Molly R. Stephens, Alisha Goodbla, Michael R. Miller, Katharine M. H. Tomalty & Bernie May
Effective conservation and management of migratory species requires accurate identification of unique populations, even as they mix along their migratory corridors. While telemetry has historically been used to study migratory animal movement and habitat use patterns, genomic tools are emerging as a superior alternative in many ways, allowing large-scale application at reduced costs. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of genomic resources for identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that allow fast and accurate identification of the imperiled...

Data from: Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire

Morgan W. Tingley, Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez, Robert L. Wilkerson, Christine A. Howell & Rodney B. Siegel
An emerging hypothesis in fire ecology is that pyrodiversity increases species diversity. We test whether pyrodiversity—defined as the standard deviation of fire severity—increases avian biodiversity at two spatial scales, and whether and how this relationship may change in the decade following fire. We use a dynamic Bayesian community model applied to a multi-year dataset of bird surveys at 1106 points sampled across 97 fires in montane California. Our results provide strong support for a positive...

Data from: Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

W. Chris Funk, Robert E. Lovich, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Courtney A. Hofman, Scott A. Morrison, T. Scott Sillett, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesús E. Maldonado, Torben C. Rick, Mitch D. Day, Nicholas R. Polato, Sarah W. Fizpatrick, Timothy J. Coonan, Kevin R. Crooks, Adam Dillon, David K. Garcelon, Julie L. King, Christina L. Boser, Nicholas Gould, William F. Andelt & Sarah W. Fitzpatrick
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each...

Data from: Towards the automatic classification of avian flight calls for bioacoustic monitoring

Justin Salamon, Juan Pablo Bello, Andrew Farnsworth, Matt Robbins, Sara Keen, Holger Klinck & Steve Kelling
Automatic classification of animal vocalizations has great potential to enhance the monitoring of species movements and behaviors. This is particularly true for monitoring nocturnal bird migration, where automated classification of migrants’ flight calls could yield new biological insights and conservation applications for birds that vocalize during migration. In this paper we investigate the automatic classification of bird species from flight calls, and in particular the relationship between two different problem formulations commonly found in the...

Data from: Geohistorical records indicate no impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on oyster body size

Gregory P. Dietl & Stephen R. Durham
Documentation of the near- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, one of the largest environmental disasters in US history, is still ongoing. We used a novel before-after-control-impact analysis to test the hypothesis that average body size of intertidal populations of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting impacted areas in Louisiana decreased due to increased stress/mortality related to the oil spill. Time-averaged death assemblages of oysters were used to establish a pre-spill...

Data from: Asymmetric energetic costs in reciprocal-cross hybrids between carnivorous mice (Onychomys)

J. Ryan Shipley, Polly Campbell, Jeremy B. Searle & Bret Pasch
Aerobic respiration is a fundamental physiological trait dependent on coordinated interactions between gene products of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Mitonuclear mismatch in interspecific hybrids may contribute to reproductive isolation by inducing reduced viability (or even complete inviability) due to increased metabolic costs. However, few studies have tested for effects of mitonuclear mismatch on respiration at the whole organism level. We explored how hybridization affects metabolic rates in closely related species of grasshopper mice (genus...

Data from: Genotypic diversity mitigates negative effects of density on plant performance: a field experiment and life-cycle analysis of common evening primrose Oenothera biennis

Susan C. Cook-Patton, Amy P. Hastings & Anurag A. Agrawal
1.Genotypic diversity in plant populations is known to enhance plant performance and ecosystem function. Nonetheless, the effect of genotypic diversity has rarely been examined across a population's lifecycle despite the expectation that changing conditions, such as population density, will alter the benefits of diversity. 2.We simultaneously manipulated a component of genotypic diversity (richness, the number of genotypes) and density of common evening primrose Oenothera biennis to address the consequences for herbivory and lifetime fitness in...

Data from: Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds

Nicholas A. Mason, Kevin J. Burns, Joseph A. Tobias, Santiago Claramunt, Nathalie Seddon & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traitsࣧincluding vocal signalsࣧare rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral...

Public COAPI Toolkit of Open Access Policy Resources

Judy Anderson, Jordan Andrade, Virginia Barbour, Jeff Belliston, Marilyn Billings, Michael Boock, Mark Christel, Amy Coughenour, Eva Cunningham, Barbara DeFelice, Kimberly Douglas, Ada Emmett, Ellen Finnie, Stephen Flynn, Bryn Geffert, Chloe Georas, Dan Heuer, Erin Jerome, Timothy Jewell, Brian Kern, Shannon Kipphut-Smith, Farley Laine, Anne Langley, Ruth Lewis, Camilla MacKay … & John Martin
The Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI, https://sparcopen.org/coapi ) is committed to sharing information and resources to assist in the development and implementation of institutional Open Access (OA) policies. The COAPI Toolkit includes a diverse collection of resources that COAPI members have developed in the course of their OA policy initiatives. These resources are openly accessible and published here under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licenses, unless otherwise noted on the resources themselves.

Data from: Herbivore release drives parallel patterns of evolutionary divergence in invasive plant phenotypes

Akane Uesugi & André Kessler
1. Herbivory can drive rapid evolution of plant chemical traits mediating defensive and competitive ability. At a geographic scale, plant populations that escape selection from their ancestral herbivores may evolve decreased defense and increased competitiveness. While contrasts between native and invasive populations of plants lend support to this hypothesis, such experiments cannot establish causal links between herbivory and evolved invasive phenotypes. 2. Here, we conducted geographic contrasts, and coupled these with long-term selection experiments that...

Data from: Experimental tests of the function and flexibility of song consistency in a wild bird

Conor C. Taff & Corey R. Freeman-Gallant
Measures of bird song that capture aspects of motor performance, such as consistency, have become a major focus in understanding sexual selection on song. Despite accumulating evidence that consistency is related to reproductive success in many species, the relative importance of male–male interactions and female–male interactions is still unclear. We studied the function and flexibility of song consistency and song rate in common yellowthroat warblers (Geothlypis trichas). A previous study of this population found that...

Data from: Assessing potential impact of Bt eggplants on non-target arthropods in the Philippines

Mario V. Navasero, Randolph N. Candano, Desiree M. Hautea, Randy A. Hautea, Frank A. Shotkoski & Anthony M. Shelton
Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field...

Data from: Crop-dominated landscapes have higher vector-borne plant virus prevalence

Suzi B. Claflin, Laura E. Jones, Jennifer S. Thaler & Alison G. Power
Landscape composition affects local arthropod biodiversity, including herbivorous insects and their predators, yet to date landscape effects on insect-vectored plant diseases have received little attention. Here, we examine how landscape composition affects the prevalence of a viral pathogen in host plants, and the role the arthropod vector assemblage plays in mediating landscape effects. We measured the effect of landscape composition (measured as percentage of cropland and unmanaged land) on the plant virus Potato virus Y...

Data from: Testosterone activates sexual dimorphism including male-typical carotenoid but not melanin plumage pigmentation in a female bird

Willow R. Lindsay, Douglas G. Barron, Michael S. Webster & Hubert Schwabl
In males it is frequently testosterone (T) that activates the expression of sexually selected morphological and behavioral displays, but the role of T in regulating similar traits in females is less clear. Here we combine correlational data with results from T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) manipulations in both sexes to assess the role of T in mediating sexually dimorphic coloration and morphology in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We show that (1) natural variation in...

Data from: Understanding spatial distributions: negative density-dependence in prey causes predators to trade-off prey quantity with quality

Allert I. Bijleveld, Robert B. MacCurdy, Ying-Chi Chan, Emma Penning, Richard M Gabrielson, John Cluderay, Eric L. Spaulding, Anne Dekinga, Sander Holthuijsen, Job Ten Horn, Maarten Brugge, Jan A. Van Gils, David W. Winkler, Theunis Piersma & Rich M. Gabrielson
Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The ‘functional response’ couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases asymptotically with prey density; this predicts the highest predator densities at the highest prey densities. In one of the most stringent tests of this generality to date, we measured density and quality of bivalve...

Registration Year

  • 2016
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Affiliations

  • Cornell University
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  • University of California System
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Colorado Boulder
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  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
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  • University of Montana
    2
  • University of Georgia
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  • United States Department of Agriculture
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  • Universidad San Francisco de Quito
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  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
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