63 Works

Data from: Temperature variation, bacterial diversity, and fungal infection dynamics in the amphibian skin

Ana V. Longo & Kelly R. Zamudio
Host-associated bacterial communities on the skin act as the first line of defence against invading pathogens. Yet, for most natural systems, we lack a clear understanding of how temperature variability affects structure and composition of skin bacterial communities and, in turn, promotes or limits the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. Here, we examine how natural temperature fluctuations might be related to changes in skin bacterial diversity over time in three amphibian populations infected by the pathogenic...

Data from: Leaf herbivory imposes fitness costs mediated by hummingbird and insect pollinators

Alexander Chautá, Susan Whithehead, Marisol Amaya-Márquez, Katja Poveda & Susan Whitehead
Plant responses induced by herbivore damage can provide fitness benefits, but can also have important costs due to altered interactions with mutualist pollinators. We examined the effects of plant responses to herbivory in a hummingbird-pollinated distylous shrub, Palicourea angustifolia. Through a series of field experiments we investigated whether damage from foliar herbivores leads to a reduction in fruit set, influences floral visitation, or alters floral traits that may influence pollinator preference or pollinator efficiency. Foliar...

Data from: Plant defences limit herbivore population growth by changing predator–prey interactions

Mônica F. Kersch-Becker, André Kessler & Jennifer S. Thaler
Plant quality and predators are important factors affecting herbivore population growth, but how they interact to regulate herbivore populations is not well understood. We manipulated jasmonate-induced plant resistance, exposure to the natural predator community and herbivore density to test how these factors jointly and independently affect herbivore population growth. On low-resistance plants, the predator community was diverse and abundant, promoting high predator consumption rates. On high-resistance plants, the predator community was less diverse and abundant,...

Data from: The more the merrier: conspecific density improves performance of gregarious larvae and reduces susceptibility to a pupal parasitoid

Elena Rosa, Saskya Van Nouhuys & Marjo Saastamoinen
Aggregation can confer advantages in animal foraging, defense and thermoregulation. There is a tight connection between the evolution of insect sociality and a highly effective immune system, presumably to inhibit rapid disease spread in a crowded environment. This connection is less evident for animals that spend only part of their life-cycle in a social environment, such as non-eusocial gregarious insects. Our aim was to elucidate the effects of group living by the gregarious larvae of...

Data from: Habitat suitability and the constraints of migration in New World warblers

David P. L. Toews
Identifying the factors that influence geographic range limits can illustrate the various ecological, physiological, and evolutionary constraints imposed on a species. The range limits of migratory birds are particularly challenging to study as they occur in disjunct regions at different times of the year, which can impose different constraints. Travel between breeding and wintering regions poses a significant energetic and navigational challenge to birds, although it is not clear how these movements influence breeding dispersal...

Data from: Imperfect pathogen detection from non-invasive skin swabs biases disease inference

Graziella V. DiRenzo, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Ana V. Longo, Christian Che-Castaldo, Kelly R. Zamudio & Karen R. Lips
1. Conservation managers rely on accurate estimates of disease parameters, such as pathogen prevalence and infection intensity, to assess disease status of a host population. However, these disease metrics may be biased if low-level infection intensities are missed by sampling methods or laboratory diagnostic tests. These false negatives underestimate pathogen prevalence and overestimate mean infection intensity of infected individuals. 2. Our objectives were two-fold. First, we quantified false negative error rates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on...

Data from: Elevational replacement of two Himalayan titmice: interspecific competition or habitat preference?

Sahas Barve & André A. Dhondt
Elevational species replacement is a widely documented pattern in montane species. Although interspecific competition has been shown to be important in setting species elevational limits in tropical habitats, its effect in species of temperate regions is poorly studied. We tested the role of interspecific competition for space in the breeding season and for food in the non-breeding season in mediating the distribution of two resident titmice species in the Himalayas. We show that high elevation...

Data from: Female remating decisions and a shorter inter-mating interval diminish last-male sperm precedence

Kristin A. Hook
Highly variable within and across species, patterns of sperm use not only are often driven by post-copulatory sexual selection but can also be impacted by experimental design. In investigations of paternity bias using competitive double matings, the inter-mating interval is a temporal factor that can affect sperm use patterns if the first male’s sperm is used or lost at an appreciable rate between matings or if its viability or relative competitiveness is influenced by the...

Data from: Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants

David A. Moeller, Ryan D. Briscoe Runquist, Annika M. Moe, Monica A. Geber, Carol Goodwillie, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G. Eckert, Elizabeth Elle, Mark O. Johnston, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, Risa D. Sargent, Mario Vallejo-Marin & Alice A. Winn
Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant–pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We...

Data from: An alternative pathway to eusociality: exploring the molecular and functional basis of fortress defense

Sarah P. Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail L. Lind, Andrew W. Legan, Jessica N. Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot & Leah T. Sigle
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the...

Data from: Novel loci underlie natural variation in vitamin E levels in maize grain

Christine H. Diepenbrock, Catherine B. Kandianis, Alexander E. Lipka, Maria Magallanes-Lundback, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Elsa Góngora-Castillo, Jason G. Wallace, Jason Cepela, Alex Mesberg, Peter J. Bradbury, Daniel C. Ilut, Maria Mateos-Hernandez, John Hamilton, Brenda F. Owens, Tyler Tiede, Edward S. Buckler, Rocheford Torbert, C. Robin Buell, Michael A. Gore & Dean DellaPenna
Tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanols (collectively termed tocochromanols) are lipid-soluble antioxidants synthesized by all plants. Their dietary intake, primarily from seed oils, provides vitamin E and other health benefits. Tocochromanol biosynthesis has been dissected in the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, which has green, photosynthetic seeds, but our understanding of tocochromanol accumulation in major crops, whose seeds are non-photosynthetic, remains limited. To understand the genetic control of tocochromanols in grain, we conducted a joint linkage and genome-wide association...

Data from: Rapid phenotypic change in a native bird population following conversion of the Colorado Desert to agriculture

Nicholas A. Mason & Philip Unitt
Humans are modifying our planet’s ecosystems with increasing frequency and intensity. Exploring population responses to anthropogenic modifications of natural habitat provides insights into how species persist in the Anthropocene. Here, we leverage natural history collections to document rapid phenotypic change within a native bird population following 80 years of agriculture in the Colorado Desert of southeastern California. By comparing spectrophotometric measurements of Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) specimens collected in the Imperial Valley from 1918 to...

Data from: Programmed and flexible: long-term Zugunruhe data highlight the many axes of variation in avian migratory behaviour

Benjamin M. Van Doren, Miriam Liedvogel & Barbara Helm
Studies of Zugunruhe – the ‘migratory restlessness’ behaviour of captive birds – have been integral to our understanding of animal migration, revealing an inherited propensity to migrate and an endogenous timing and navigation system. However, differences between Zugunruhe in captivity and migration in the wild call for more data, in particular on variation within and among taxa with diverse migration strategies. Here, we characterise Zugunruhe in a long-term dataset of activity profiles from stonechats (genus...

Data from: Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area

Jessica E. Wingfield, Michael O'Brien, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, Jason J. Roberts, Patrick N. Halpin, Aaron N. Rice, Helen Bailey & Michael O’Brien
Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of...

Data from: Landscape simplification reduces classical biological control and crop yield

Heather Grab, Bryan Danforth, Katja Poveda, Gregory Loeb & Greg Loeb
Agricultural intensification resulting in the simplification of agricultural landscapes is known to negatively impact the delivery of key ecosystem services such as the biological control of crop pests. Both conservation and classical biological control may be influenced by the landscape context in which they are deployed; yet studies examining the role of landscape structure in the establishment and success of introduced natural enemies and their interactions with native communities are lacking. In this study, we...

Data from: Digest: trait variation in Mimulus provides new evidence for the joint action of ecological sorting and character displacement

Katherine Elizabeth Eisen
Understanding how closely related species coexist in communities is one of the oldest goals of ecology and evolutionary biology. One long-standing hypothesis is that the evolution of key differences in species’ niches or ecological requirements (a process known as niche differentiation) can minimize competition and promote coexistence.

Data from: Risk-aware multi-armed bandit problem with application to portfolio selection

Xiaoguang Huo & Feng Fu
Sequential portfolio selection has attracted increasing interests in the machine learning and quantitative finance communities in recent years. As a mathematical framework for reinforcement learning policies, the stochastic multi-armed bandit problem addresses the primary difficulty in sequential decision making under uncertainty, namely the exploration versus exploitation dilemma, and therefore provides a natural connection to portfolio selection. In this paper, we incorporate risk-awareness into the classic multi-armed bandit setting and introduce an algorithm to construct portfolio....

Data from: Cover crop root contributions to soil carbon in a no-till corn bioenergy cropping system

Emily E. Austin, Kyle Wickings, Marshall D. McDaniel, G. Philip Robertson & A. Stuart Grandy
Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may reduce soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass, mitigating the negative effects of residue removal by adding to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern US Corn Belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace plant C from a winter rye (Secale cereale) cover crop into different...

Data from: A global analysis of plant recovery performance from water stress

Jingjing Yin & Taryn L. Bauerle
Plant post-drought recovery performance is essential to predict shifts in ecosystem dynamics and production during frequent climate change-driven drought events. Yet, it is not clear how post-drought recovery is related to evolutionary and geographic variations in plants. In this study, we generated a global data set of post-drought recovery performance in 140 plant species from published studies. We quantified the plant post-drought recovery performance by calculating a recovery index for multiple plant physiological and hydraulic...

Data from: A point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding

Mathias Franz, Laura B. Goodman, Gerlinde R. Van De Walle, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D. Greenwood, Laura Goodman, Gerlinde Van De Walle & Alex Greenwood
A point mutation in the DNA polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. Three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. These results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and therefore appeared to be inconsistent with a...

Data from: A novel iterative mixed model to remap three complex orthopedic traits in dogs

Meng Huang, Jessica J. Hayward, Elizabeth Corey, Susan J. Garrison, Gabriela R. Wagner, Ursula Krotscheck, Kei Hayashi, Peter A. Schweitzer, George Lust, Adam R. Boyko & Rory J. Todhunter
Hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), and rupture of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament (RCCL) are the most common complex orthopedic traits of dogs and all result in debilitating osteoarthritis. Herein we reanalyzed previously reported data: the Norberg angle (a quantitative measure of HD) in 921 dogs, ED in 113 cases and 633 controls, and RCCL in 271 cases and 399 controls and their genotypes at ~185,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. A novel fixed and random...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Joint analysis of cortical area and thickness as a replacement for the analysis of the volume of the cerebral cortex

Anderson M. Winkler, Douglas N. Greve, Knut J. Bjuland, Thomas E. Nichols, Mert R. Sabuncu, Asta K. Håberg, Jon Skranes & Lars M. Rimol
Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed....

Data from: Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets

Mary E. Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Heidi Eager, Laurent Frantz, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Verena J. Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Richard M. Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark C. Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright … & Mark Horton
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological...

Data from: Caching reduces kleptoparasitism in a solitary, large felid

Guy Balme, Jennifer R. B. Miller, Ross T. Pitman, Luke T. B. Hunter & Guy A. Balme
Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    63

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    63

Affiliations

  • Cornell University
    63
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • Sao Paulo State University
    3
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    3
  • University of New Hampshire
    3
  • University of Cape Town
    3
  • Hasanuddin University
    2
  • University of the Western Cape
    2
  • Panthera Corporation
    2
  • University of Connecticut
    2