87 Works

Data from: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen

Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, Paul D. Williams, André A. Dhondt, Andrew P. Dobson, Wesley A. Hochachka, Ariel E. Leon, David H. Ley, Erik E. Osnas & Dana M. Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection might inadvertently select for more harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of varying virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains, and thus excluded less virulent strains...

Data from: Contrasting effects of landscape composition on crop yield mediated by specialist herbivores

Ricardo Perez-Alvarez, Brian A. Nault & Katja Poveda
Landscape composition not only affects a variety of arthropod-mediated ecosystem services, but also disservices, such as herbivory by insect pests that may have negative effects on crop yield. Yet, little is known about how different habitats influence the dynamics of multiple herbivore species, and ultimately their collective impact on crop production. Using cabbage as a model system, we examined how landscape composition influenced the incidence of three specialist cruciferous pests (aphids, flea beetles and leaf-feeding...

Data from: When domes are spandrels: on septation in turritellids (Cerithioidea) and other gastropods

Brendan M. Anderson & Warren D. Allmon
Although generally considered rare in gastropods, septation has long been noted in turritellids, but functional hypotheses do not survive strong scrutiny. Here we outline a methodology for testing spandrel hypotheses, and apply it to the problem of turritellid septa. We follow Gould in using “spandrel” as a term for all features which are non-adaptive sequelae of adaptive features of organisms, including those which are structurally necessary, those that are developmentally correlated, and non-deterministic byproducts which...

Data from: Rapid seasonal evolution in innate immunity of wild Drosophila melanogaster

Emily L. Behrman, Virginia M. Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Brian P. Lazzaro & Paul S. Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural...

Data from: The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas

Máire Ní Leathlobhair, Angela R. Perri, Evan K. Irving-Pease, Kelsey E. Witt, Anna Linderholm, James Haile, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Carly Ameen, Jeffrey Blick, Adam R. Boyko, Selina Brace, Yahaira Nunes Cortes, Susan J. Crockford, Alison Devault, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Morley Eldridge, Jacob Enk, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Kevin Gori, Vaughan Grimes, Eric Guiry, Anders J. Hansen, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, John Johnson, Andrew Kitchen … & Laurent A. F. Frantz
Dogs were present in the Americas prior to the arrival of European colonists, but the origin and fate of these pre-contact dogs are largely unknown. We sequenced 71 mitochondrial and seven nuclear genomes from ancient North American and Siberian dogs spanning ~9,000 years. Our analysis indicates that American dogs were not domesticated from North American wolves. Instead, American dogs form a monophyletic lineage that likely originated in Siberia and dispersed into the Americas alongside people....

Data from: The lingering impact of stress: brief acute glucocorticoid exposure has sustained, dose-dependent effects on reproduction

Maren N. Vitousek, Conor C. Taff, Daniel R. Ardia, Jocelyn M. Stedman, Cedric Zimmer, Timothy C. Salzman & David W. Winkler
Acutely stressful experiences can have profound and persistent effects on phenotype. Across taxa, individuals differ remarkably in their susceptibility to stress. However, the mechanistic causes of enduring stress effects, and of individual differences in stress susceptibility, are poorly understood. Here we tested whether brief, acute increases in glucocorticoid hormones have persistent effects on phenotype, and whether effects differ according to the magnitude or duration of elevation. We used a novel method to non-invasively manipulate hormone...

Data from: Order-level fern plastome phylogenomics: new insights from Hymenophyllales

Li-Yaung Kuo, Xinping Qi, Hong Ma & Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Filmy ferns (Hymenophyllales) are a highly specialized lineage, having mesophyll one cell layer thick and inhabiting particularly shaded and humid environments. The phylogenetic placement of Hymenophyllales has been inconclusive, and while over 87 whole fern plastomes have been published, none was from Hymenophyllales. To better understand the evolutionary history of filmy ferns, we sequenced the first complete plastome for this order. METHODS: We compiled a plastome phylogenomic dataset encompassing all eleven...

Data from: Effects of mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) on California oaks

Walter D. Koenig, Johannes M.H. Knops, William J. Carmen, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Janis L. Dickinson & Johannes M. H. Knops
Mistletoes are a widespread group of plants often considered to be hemiparasitic, having detrimental effects on growth and survival of their hosts. We studied the effects of the Pacific mistletoe Phoradendron villosum, a member of a largely autotrophic genus, on three species of deciduous California oaks. We found no effects of mistletoe presence on radial growth or survivorship and detected a significant positive relationship between mistletoe and acorn production. This latter result is potentially explained...

Data from: Field validation of radar systems for monitoring bird migration

Cecilia Nilsson, Adriaan M. Dokter, Baptiste Schmid, Martina Scacco, Liesbeth Verlinden, Johan Bäckman, Günther Haase, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Jason W. Chapman, Hidde Leijnse & Felix Liechti
1. Advances in information technology are increasing the use of radar as a tool to investigate and monitor bird migration movements. We set up a field campaign to compare and validate outputs from different radar systems. 2. Here we compare the pattern of nocturnal bird migration movements recorded by four different radar systems at a site in southern Sweden. Within the range of the weather radar (WR) Ängelholm, we operated a “BirdScan” (BS) dedicated bird...

Data from: Pleistocene diversification in an ancient lineage: a role for glacial cycles in the evolutionary history of Dioon Lindl. (Zamiaceae).

Brian L. Dorsey, Timothy J Gregory, Chodon Sass & Chelsea D. Specht
Premise of the study: Recent estimates of crown ages for cycad genera (Late Miocene) challenge us to consider what processes have produced the extant diversity of this ancient group in such relatively little time. Pleistocene climate change has driven major shifts in species distributions in Mexico and may have led to speciation in the genus Dioon by forcing populations to migrate up in elevation thereby becoming separated by topography. Methods: We inferred orthologs from transcriptomes...

Data from: Genome-wide association and genomic prediction models of tocochromanols in fresh sweet corn kernels

Matheus Baseggio, Matthew Murray, Maria Magallanes-Lundback, Nicholas Kaczmar, James Chamness, Edward Buckler, Margaret Smith, Dean DellaPenna, William Tracy, Michael Gore, Margaret E. Smith, Michael A. Gore, William F. Tracy & Edward S. Buckler
Sweet corn (Zea mays L.), a highly consumed fresh vegetable in the United States, varies for tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol) levels, but makes limited contribution to daily intake of vitamin E and antioxidants. We performed a genome-wide association study of six tocochromanol compounds and 14 derivative traits across a sweet corn inbred line association panel to identify genes associated with natural variation for tocochromanols and vitamin E in fresh kernels. Concordant with prior studies in...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: Landscape context shifts the balance of costs and benefits from wildflower borders on multiple ecosystem services

Heather Grab, Katja Poveda, Bryan Danforth, Gregory Loeb & Greg Loeb
In the face of global biodiversity declines driven by agricultural intensification, local diversification practices are broadly promoted to support farmland biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services. The creation of flower rich habitats on farmland has been subsidized in both the US and EU to support biodiversity and promote delivery of ecosystem services. Yet, theory suggests that the landscape context in which local diversification strategies are implemented will influence their success. However, few studies have empirically evaluated...

Data from: Similar hybrid composition among different age and sex classes in the Myrtle–Audubon's warbler hybrid zone

David P. L. Toews, Irby J. Lovette, Darren E. Irwin & Alan Brelsford
Hybrid zones provide a key natural context within which to study the barriers between incipient species. In some avian hybrid zones, there is indirect evidence of selection against hybrid offspring, yet the source of that selection is often unclear. We examined the frequency distribution of hybrids between Myrtle Warblers (Setophaga coronata coronata) and Audubon's Warblers (S. c. auduboni), using data to quantify—for the first time at a genomic scale—the composition of hybrids in this hybrid...

Data from: Lifespan bias explains live-dead discordance in abundance of two common bivalves

Kelly E. Cronin, Gregory P. Dietl, Patricia H. Kelley & Stewart M. Edie
Lifespan bias potentially alters species abundance in death assemblages through the overrepresentation of short-lived organisms compared to their long-lived counterparts. Although previous work found that lifespan bias did not contribute significantly to live-dead discordance in bivalve assemblages, lifespan bias better explained discordance in two groups: longer-lived bivalve species and species with known lifespans. More studies using local, rather than global, species-wide, lifespans and mortality rates would help to determine the prevalence of lifespan bias, especially...

Data from: Genetic diversity of Persian Arabian horses and their relationship to other native Iranian horse breeds

Raheleh Sadeghi, Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak, Seyed Reza Miraei Ashtiani, Florencia Schlamp, Elissa J. Cosgrove & Doug F. Antczak
The principal aims of this study were to explore genetic diversity and genome-wide selection signatures in Persian Arabian horses and to determine genetic relationship of Persian Arabians with other Iranian horse breeds. We evaluated 71 horses from 8 matrilineal strains tracing to 47 mares from the mid to late 19th century, using the equine 670k SNP BeadChip. Mean observed and expected heterozygosity were (0.43) and (0.45), respectively, average inbreeding measures (FROH and FPED) were low,...

Data from: A wood-warbler produced through both interspecific and intergeneric hybridization

David P.L. Toews, Henry M. Streby, Lowell Burket, Scott A. Taylor & David P. L. Toews
Hybridization between divergent taxa can provide insight into the breakdown of characters used in mate choice, as well as reproductive compatibility across deep evolutionary timescales. Hybridization can also occur more frequently in declining populations, as there is a smaller pool of conspecific mates from which to choose. Here we report an unusual combination of factors that has resulted in a rare, three-species hybridization event amongst two genera of warblers, one of which is experiencing significant...

Data from: On again, off again: acute stress response and negative feedback together predict resilience to experimental challenges

Cedric Zimmer, Conor C. Taff, Daniel R. Ardia, Thomas A. Ryan, David W. Winkler & Maren N. Vitousek
1. Individuals often vary markedly in their ability to cope with stressors, but the drivers of this variation remain poorly understood. Many studies have tested relationships among individual variation in glucocorticoid levels and the response to challenges – often finding inconsistent patterns; however, few have addressed whether variation in the capacity to terminate the stress response through negative feedback is associated with stress resilience. 2. While conceptual models predict that interactions among different components of...

Data from: Narrow thermal tolerance and low dispersal drive higher speciation in tropical mountains

Nicholas R. Polato
Species richness is greatest in the tropics and much of this diversity is concentrated in mountains. Janzen (1967) proposed that reduced seasonal temperature variation selects for narrower thermal tolerances and limited dispersal along tropical elevation gradients. These locally adapted traits should, in turn, promote reproductive isolation and higher speciation rates in tropical mountains compared to temperate ones. Here we show that tropical and temperate montane stream insects have diverged in thermal tolerance and dispersal capacity,...

Data from: Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections

Thomas S. Jenkinson, David Rodriguez, Rebecca A. Clemons, Lucas A. Michelotti, Kelly R. Zamudio, Luís Felipe Toledo, Joyce E. Longcore & Timothy Y. James
Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographic invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. We experimentally investigated the in vivo competitive differences between two divergent lineages of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). These Bd...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Supplementing non-target taxa: bird feeding alters the local distribution of mammals

J. Hunter Reed & David N. Bonter
Although the effects of bird feeding on avian species have been extensively examined, few studies evaluate the indirect effects of bird feeding on non-target taxa. Bird seed could provide direct nourishment to several mammalian species (e.g., Lagomorpha, Rodentia, and (Cetartiodactyla), potentially altering their distribution and behavior with possible unintended consequences for some avian populations, particularly those not directly benefiting from the resource. To examine how bird feeders may influence the presence and behavior of mammals,...

Data from: Dolphins simplify their vocal calls in response to increased ambient noise

Leila Fouda, Jessica E. Wingfield, Amber D. Fandel, Aran Garrod, Kristin B. Hodge, Aaron N. Rice & Helen Bailey
Ocean noise varies spatially and temporally and is driven by natural and anthropogenic processes. Increased ambient noise levels can cause signal masking and communication impairment, affecting fitness and recruitment success. However, the effects of increasing ambient noise levels on marine species, such as marine mammals that primarily rely on sound for communication, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of concurrent ambient noise levels on social whistle calls produced by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...

Data from: Lions and leopards coexist without spatial, temporal or demographic effects of interspecific competition

Jennifer R.B. Miller, Ross T. Pitman, Gareth K.H. Mann, Angela K. Fuller, Guy A. Balme, Jennifer R. B. Miller & Gareth K. H. Mann
1. Although interspecific competition plays a principle role in shaping species behaviour and demography, little is known about the population-level outcomes of competition between large carnivores, and the mechanisms that facilitate coexistence. 2. We conducted a multi-landscape analysis of two widely distributed, threatened large carnivore competitors to offer insight into coexistence strategies and assist with species-level conservation. 3. We evaluated how interference competition affects occupancy, temporal activity and population density of a dominant competitor, the...

Data from: You can’t have it all: heritability and constraints of predator-induced developmental plasticity in a Neotropical treefrog

Justin Charles Touchon & Jeanne Marie Robertson
Many organisms have evolved phenotypic plasticity but examples of a heritable genetic basis or genetic constraints for plasticity across environments remain scarce. Tadpoles of the Neotropical treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus alter tail coloration and shape differently in response to fish or aquatic insect predators. To assess the genetic basis of plasticity we raised 1020 tadpoles from 17 maternal half-sib pairs (34 unique families) individually with chemical cues of fish or aquatic insects, or with cue-free control...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Georgia
  • Michigan State University
  • University of Adelaide
  • Stanford University
  • The Ohio State University
  • Lund University
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Agricultural Research Service