128 Works

Ready Student One: Exploring the predictors of student learning in virtual reality

Jack Madden, Jonathan P. Schuldt, B Kim, Andrea S. Won & Natasha G. Holmes
Immersive virtual reality (VR) has enormous potential for education, but classroom resources are limited. Thus, it is important to identify whether and when VR provides sufficient advantages over other modes of learning to justify its deployment. In a between-subjects experiment, we compared three methods of teaching Moon phases (a hands-on activity, VR, and a desktop simulation) and measured student improvement on existing learning and attitudinal measures. While a substantial majority of students preferred the VR...

Replication Files for Nutrition and the Gut Microbiota in 10–18-Month Old Children Living in Urban Slums of Mumbai, India

Samantha Huey, Aparna Thorat, Varsha Thakker, Julia L. Finkelstein, Lingjing Jiang, Marcus Fedarko, Daniel McDonald, Cameron Martino, Farhana Ali, David G. Russell, Harsha Chopra, Kripa Rajagopalan, Jere Douglas Haas, Rob Knight, S.A. Udipi & P. Ghugre

Regional Invasive Species & Climate Change Management Challenge: Gardening with climate-smart native plants in the Northeast

Bethany A. Bradley, Amanda Bayer, Bridget Griffin, Sydni Joubran, Brittany B. Laginhas, Lara Munro, Sam Talbot, Jenica M. Allen, Audrey Barker-Plotkin, Evelyn M. Beaury, Carrie Brown-Lima, Emily J. Fusco, Hayley Mount, Bailey Servais & Toni Lyn Morelli
An estimated 80% of ornamental plants for sale are non-native. This means that the average yard does a poor job of supporting native flora and fauna. By shifting our plantings towards natives, we can dramatically increase the diversity of bees, butterflies, birds and other animals. In contrast, non-native plants do not support local food webs and can become invasive. Native plants increase biodiversity and reduce risks associated with invasive species, which supports resilient ecosystems in...

Making Grey Literature Available through Institutional Repositories

Nathan Rupp & LeRoy Jason LaFleur
The Cornell University Library exists to support the three-fold mission of the University: research, education, and extension (Cornell is the land grand institution for the State of New York). It supports this mission through the services it provides and the material it collects; it collects material produced by the university itself as well as outside publishers. In recent years, university librarians have recognized that a significant amount of material worth collecting in support of the...

Data from: Tracking the cultural niches of North American birds through time

Justin G. Schuetz & Alison Johnston
1. Conservation efforts are constrained by our poor grasp of changing relationships between humans and other species. We used Internet query data describing relative public interest in different species of birds, and combined them with citizen science data describing relative encounter rates with those same taxa, to gain perspective on shifting relationships between people and birds in the United States. 2. National-level interest in birds increased an average of 12.6% across sequential 5-year periods while...

Ecogeographical patterns of body size differ among North American paper wasp species

Sara Miller & Michael Sheehan
Species with widespread distributions frequently show clines in body size across broad geographic areas. These clines may be the result of “ecogeographical rules” that describe spatial patterns of phenotypic diferences driven by environmental variation. Intraspeciic variation in body size, and the mechanisms causing this variation, have been poorly described in social wasps. This study examined ecogeographical patterns of body size for 12 native species and one non-native species of North American paper wasps (genus: Polistes)...

Breeding season length predicts duet coordination and consistency in Neotropical wrens (Troglodytidae)

Karan Odom
Many animals produce coordinated signals, but few are more striking than the elaborate male-female vocal duets produced by some tropical songbirds. Yet, little is known about the factors driving the extreme levels of vocal coordination between mated pairs in these taxa. We examined evolutionary patterns of duet coordination and their potential evolutionary drivers in Neotropical wrens (Troglodytidae), a songbird family well-known for highly coordinated duets. Across 23 wren species we show that the degree of...

Divergent neurogenomic responses shape social learning of both personality and mate preference

Pablo Delclos, Santiago Forero & Gil Rosenthal
Behavior plays a fundamental role in shaping the origin and fate of species. Mating decisions can act to promote or restrict gene flow, as can personality traits that influence dispersal and niche use. Mate choice and personality are often both learned and therefore influenced by an individual’s social environment throughout development. Likewise, the molecular pathways that shape these behaviors may also be co-expressed. In this study on swordtail fish (Xiphophorus birchmanni), we show that female...

Data from: Age influences the thermal suitability of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

Courtney Murdock, Kerri Miazgowicz, Erin Mordecai, Sadie Ryan, Richard Hall, Harry Owen, Temitayo Adanlawo, Kavya Balaji, Marta Shocket, Oswaldo Villena, Leah Johnson, Blanka Tesla, Leah Demakovsky, Matt Bonds, Calistus Ngonghala & Melinda Brindley
Models predicting disease transmission are vital tools for long-term planning of malaria reduction efforts, particularly for mitigating impacts of climate change. We compared temperature-dependent malaria transmission models when mosquito life history traits were estimated from a truncated portion of the lifespan (a common practice) to traits measured across the full lifespan. We conducted an experiment on adult female Anopheles stephensi, the Asian urban malaria mosquito, to generate daily per capita values for mortality, egg production,...

Genetic drift does not sufficiently explain patterns of electric signal variation among populations of the mormyrid electric fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae

Jason Gallant, Sophie Picq, Joshua H Sperling, Catherine Cheng & Bruce Carlson
Communication signals serve crucial survival and reproductive functions. In Gabon, the widely distributed mormyrid fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae emits an electric organ discharge (EOD) signal with a dual role in communication and electrolocation that exhibits remarkable variation: populations of P. kingsleyae have either biphasic or triphasic EODs, a feature which characterizes interspecific signal diversity among the Paramormyrops genus. We quantified variation in EODs of 327 P. kingsleyae from 9 populations and compared it to genetic variation...

Data from: Acoustically advertising male harbour seals in southeast Alaska do not make biologically relevant acoustic adjustments in the presence of vessel noise

Leanna P. Matthews, Michelle E. H. Fournet, Christine Gabriele, Susan E. Parks & Holger Klinck
Aquatically breeding harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) males use underwater vocalizations during the breeding season to establish underwater territories, defend territories against intruder males, and possibly to attract females. Vessel noise overlaps in frequency with these vocalizations and could negatively impact breeding success by limiting communication space. In this study we investigated whether harbour seals employed anti-masking strategies to maintain communication in the presence of vessel noise in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Harbour...

Data from: Morphological innovation and biomechanical diversity in plunge-diving birds

Chad Eliason, Lorian Cobra Straker, Sunghwan Jung & Shannon Hackett
Innovations in foraging behavior can drive morphological diversity by opening up new ways of interacting with the environment, or limit diversity through functional constraints associated with different foraging behaviors. Several classic examples of adaptive radiations in birds show increased variation in ecologically relevant traits. However, these cases primarily focus on geographically narrow adaptive radiations, consider only morphological evolution without a biomechanical approach, or do not investigate tradeoffs with other non-focal traits that might be affected...

Data from: Mean annual temperature influences local fine root proliferation in tropical montane wet forest

Suzanne Pierre, Timothy J. Fahey, Creighton Litton, Christian Giardina & Jed Sparks
Mean annual temperature (MAT) is an influential climate factor affecting the bioavailability of growth-limiting nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In tropical montane wet forests, warmer MAT drives higher N bioavailability, while patterns of P availability are inconsistent across MAT. Two important nutrient acquisition strategies, fine root proliferation into bulk soil and root association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are dependent on C availability to the plant via primary production. The case study presented here tests...

Data from: Latent developmental and evolutionary shapes embedded within the grapevine leaf

Dan Chitwood, Robert VanBuren, Zoë Migicovsky, Margaret Frank & Jason Londo
Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. In addition, leaf shape varies among individuals, populations and species as a result of evolutionary processes and environmental influences. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically, the effects of distinct developmental and evolutionary processes are separable, even within the shape of a...

Data from: Scented nectar and the challenge of measuring honest signals in pollination

Amy Parachnowitsch, Rosalie Burdon, Rob Raguso, Robert Gegear, Ellen Pierce & André Kessler
1. Nectar scents are thought to function as honest signals of reward used by pollinators, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2. Using Penstemon digitalis, we examined honest signalling of the nectar volatile (S)-(+)-linalool and pollinator responses to linalool in both field and laboratory settings. Because our previous work showed that linalool emission was associated with higher female fitness and that nectar is scented with linalool, we hypothesized that linalool was an honest signal...

Common field data limitations can substantially bias sexual selection metrics

Emily Cramer, Sara Ann Kaiser, Mike S Webster & T Brandt Ryder
Sexual selection studies widely estimate several metrics, but values may be inaccurate because standard field methods for studying wild populations produce limited data (e.g., incomplete sampling, inability to observe copulations directly). We compared four selection metrics (Bateman gradient, opportunity for sexual selection, opportunity for selection, and s’max) estimated with simulated complete and simulated limited data for 15 socially monogamous songbird species with extra-pair paternity (4-54% extra-pair offspring). Inferring copulation success from offspring parentage creates non-independence...

Emergent social cohesion for coping with community disruptions in disasters

Chao Fan, Yucheng Jiang & Ali Mostafavi
Social cohesion is an important determinant of community well-being, especially in times of distress such as disasters. This study investigates the phenomena of emergent social cohesion, which is characterized by abrupt, temporary, and extensive social ties with the goal of sharing and receiving information regarding a particular event influencing a community. In the context of disasters, emergent social cohesion, enabled by social media usage, could play a significant role in improving the ability of communities...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Adaptation to herbivory and detritivory drives the convergent evolution of large abdominal cavities in a diverse freshwater fish radiation (Otophysi: Characiformes)

Michael Burns
Convergent evolution is often interpreted as evidence of natural selection favoring an optimal phenotype during adaptation. Morphological convergence is frequently found among lineages that converge on diet, but most studies have focused on morphological traits that relate exclusively to food handling and processing. In vertebrates, there is a strong inverse relationship between intestine length and trophic level. However, little is known about whether adaptation to a low trophic level influences the evolution of abdominal cavities...

VCF file of multiple single-cyst-derived Ro1 and Ro2 lines of New York fields on Globodera rostochiensis genome

Xiaohong Wang, Huijun Yang, Pierre-Yves Véronneau, David Thurston & Benjamin Mimee
The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is a regulated pest posing a serious threat to potato production worldwide. Although the endemic pathotype (Ro1) of G. rostochiensis has been confined to New York State for several decades as a result of quarantine regulations and management with resistant potato cultivars, a virulent pathotype, Ro2, has emerged, for which control measures are scarce. The ability to detect Ro2 early in fields is necessary to sustain the success of...

Phenological synchronization of seasonal bird migration with vegetation greenness across dietary guilds

Frank La Sorte & Catherine Graham
1. The seasonal movement of animals has been linked to seasonal variation in ecological productivity, and it has been hypothesized that primary consumers synchronize migration with vegetation phenology. Within temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, herbivorous bird species often track the phenology of vegetation greenness during spring migration. Phenological synchronization with vegetation greenness by migratory birds in other dietary guilds, across the full extent of their annual distributions during both spring and autumn migration, has...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

R code for Snyder, Ellner, and Hooker, \"Time and chance: using age partitioning to understand how luck drives variation in reproductive success\"

Robin Snyder, Stephen Ellner & Giles Hooker
Over the course of individual lifetimes, luck usually explains a large fraction of the between- individual variation in lifespan or lifetime reproductive output (LRO) within a population, while variation in individual traits or “quality” explains much less. To understand how, where in the life cycle, and through which demographic processes luck trumps trait variation, we show how to partition by age the contributions of luck and trait variation to LRO variance, and how to quantify...

Data from: Cascading effects of climate variability on the breeding success of an edge population of an apex predator

Laura Gangoso, Duarte Viana, Adriaan Dokter, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jordi Figuerola, Sergio Barbosa & Willem Bouten
1. Large-scale environmental forces can influence biodiversity at different levels of biological organization. Climate, in particular, is often associated to species distributions and diversity gradients. However, its mechanistic link to population dynamics is still poorly understood. 2. Here, we unraveled the full mechanistic path by which a climatic driver, the Atlantic trade winds, determines the viability of a bird population. 3. We monitored the breeding population of Eleonora’s falcons in the Canary Islands for over...

Data from: Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Erysimum, Brassicaceae)

Tobias Züst, Susan Strickler, Adrian Powell, Makenzie Mabry, Hong An, Mahdieh Mirzaei, Thomas York, Cynthia Holland, Pavan Kumar, Matthias Erb, Georg Petschenka, José-María Gomez, Francisco Perfectti, Caroline Mueller, Chris Pires, Lukas Mueller & Georg Jander
Phytochemical diversity is thought to result from coevolutionary cycles as specialization in herbivores imposes diversifying selection on plant chemical defenses. Plants in the speciose genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) produce both ancestral glucosinolates and evolutionarily novel cardenolides as defenses. Here we test macroevolutionary hypotheses on co-expression, co-regulation, and diversification of these potentially redundant defenses across this genus. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. cheiranthoides and foliar transcriptomes of 47 additional Erysimum species to construct a...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • Cornell University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Stanford University
  • University of British Columbia
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Washington
  • University of Georgia
  • Texas A&M University