128 Works

Ecogeographical patterns of body size differ among North American paper wasp species

Sara Miller & Michael Sheehan
Species with widespread distributions frequently show clines in body size across broad geographic areas. These clines may be the result of “ecogeographical rules” that describe spatial patterns of phenotypic diferences driven by environmental variation. Intraspeciic variation in body size, and the mechanisms causing this variation, have been poorly described in social wasps. This study examined ecogeographical patterns of body size for 12 native species and one non-native species of North American paper wasps (genus: Polistes)...

Data for: Nest cavity reuse by the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker

Walter Koenig
Although primary cavity-nesting species are capable of excavating new cavities, they often reuse old ones. To determine potential factors driving such reuse, we studied nest-cavity reuse in the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), a cooperative breeding species that reuses old cavities for 57.2% of nests at Hastings Reservation in central coastal California, USA. We found no evidence for significant fitness costs or benefits of cavity reuse compared to using newly constructed cavities. In contrast, several lines...

Breeding season length predicts duet coordination and consistency in Neotropical wrens (Troglodytidae)

Karan Odom
Many animals produce coordinated signals, but few are more striking than the elaborate male-female vocal duets produced by some tropical songbirds. Yet, little is known about the factors driving the extreme levels of vocal coordination between mated pairs in these taxa. We examined evolutionary patterns of duet coordination and their potential evolutionary drivers in Neotropical wrens (Troglodytidae), a songbird family well-known for highly coordinated duets. Across 23 wren species we show that the degree of...

Adaptation to herbivory and detritivory drives the convergent evolution of large abdominal cavities in a diverse freshwater fish radiation (Otophysi: Characiformes)

Michael Burns
Convergent evolution is often interpreted as evidence of natural selection favoring an optimal phenotype during adaptation. Morphological convergence is frequently found among lineages that converge on diet, but most studies have focused on morphological traits that relate exclusively to food handling and processing. In vertebrates, there is a strong inverse relationship between intestine length and trophic level. However, little is known about whether adaptation to a low trophic level influences the evolution of abdominal cavities...

Reproduction Materials for: Anthropogenic Climate Change Has Slowed Global Agricultural Productivity Growth

Ariel Ortiz-Bobea, Toby R. Ault, Carlos M. Carrillo, Robert G. Chambers & David B. Lobell
Agricultural research has fostered productivity growth, but the historical influence of anthropogenic climate change on that growth has not been quantified. We develop a robust econometric model of weather effects on global agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) and combine this model with counterfactual climate scenarios to evaluate impacts of past climate trends on TFP. Our baseline model indicates that anthropogenic climate change has reduced global agricultural TFP by about 21% since 1961, a slowdown that...

Unsupervised Formal Grammar Induction with Confidence

Jacob Collard

Regional Invasive Species & Climate Change Management Challenge: Taking Action. Managing invasive species in the context of climate change

Beaury Evelyn M., Audrey Barker-Plotkin, Carrie Brown-Lima, Emily J. Fusco, Bridget Griffin, Sydni Joubran, Brittany B. Laghina, Toni Lyn Morelli, Lara Munro, Michael Nelson, Sam Talbot & Bethany A. Bradley
Climate change is likely to alter the timing and effect of invasive species management, as well as the suite of species we are managing. Despite concern about the effects of climate change, lack of information about how and when to take action is a barrier to climate-smart invasive species management. Here, we outline strategies for incorporating climate change into management along with examples of tools that can inform proactive decision-making.

His and Her Earnings Following Parenthood in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom

Kelly Musick, Megan Doherty Bea & Pilar Gonalon-Pons

Data from: Osteosarcopenia in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter case-control study

Maryam Kazemi, Brittany Jarrett, Stephen Parry, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, Kathleen Hoeger & Steven Spandorfer
Context: Osteosarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle and bone mass and/or function usually associated with aging) shares pathophysiological mechanisms with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the relationship between osteosarcopenia and PCOS remains unclear. Objective: We evaluated skeletal muscle index% (SMI%=[appendicular muscle mass/weight {kg}]×100) and bone mineral density (BMD) in PCOS (hyperandrogenism+oligoamenorrhea), and contrasted these musculoskeletal markers against 3 reproductive phenotypes: (1) HA (hyperandrogenism+eumenorrhea); (2) OA (normoandrogenic+oligoamenorrhea) and, (3) controls (normoandrogenic+eumenorrhea). Endocrine predictors of SMI% and BMD...

Data from: Species-specific variation in germination rates contributes to spatial coexistence more than adult plant water use in four closely-related annual flowering plants

Aubrie James, Timothy Burnette, Jasmine Mack, David James, Vince Eckhart & Monica Geber
1. Spatial partitioning is a classic hypothesis to explain plant species coexistence, but evidence linking local environmental variation to spatial sorting, demography, and species’ traits is sparse. If co-occurring species’ performance is optimized differently along environmental gradients because of trait variation, then spatial variation might facilitate coexistence. 2. We used a system of four naturally co-occurring species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) to ask if distribution patchiness corresponds to variation in two environmental variables that contribute to...

Seasonal survival and reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Rose Swift, Amanda D. Rodewald, James Johnson, Brad Andres & Nathan Senner
1. Events during one stage of the annual cycle can reversibly affect an individual’s condition and performance not only within that stage, but also in subsequent stages (i.e., reversible state effects). Despite strong conceptual links, however, few studies have been able to empirically link individual-level reversible state effects with larger-scale demographic processes. 2. We studied both survival and potential reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica). Specifically, we estimated...

Data from: Attack and aggregation of a major squash pest: parsing the role of plant chemistry and beetle pheromones across spatial scales

Lauren Brzozowski, Jeffrey Gardner, Michael Hoffmann, André Kessler, Anurag Agrawal & Michael Mazourek
1. Successful management of insect crop pests requires an understanding of the cues and spatial scales at which they function to affect rates of attack of preferred and non-preferred host plants. A long-standing conceptual framework in insect-plant ecology posits that there is hierarchical structure spanning host location, acceptance, and attack that could be exploited for integrated pest management. 2. We investigated how plant- and insect-derived chemical cues affect successive decisions of host choice in aggregating...

Data from: Acorn woodpeckers vocally discriminate current and former group members from non-group members

Michael Pardo, Casey Hayes, Eric Walters & Walter Koenig
In species with long-term social relationships, the ability to recognize individuals after extended separation, and the ability to discriminate between former social affiliates that have died and those that have left the group but may return, are likely to be beneficial. Few studies, however, have investigated whether animals can make these discriminations. We presented acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), a group-living, cooperatively breeding bird, with playbacks of current group members, former group members still living nearby,...

Lost and found: frogs in a biodiversity hotspot rediscovered with environmental DNA

Carla Martins Lopes, Délio Baêta, Alice Valentini, Mariana Lúcio Lyra, Ariadne Fares Sabbag, João Luiz Gasparini, Tony Dejean, Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad & Kelly Raquel Zamudio
Declines and extinctions are increasing globally and challenging conservationists to keep pace with biodiversity monitoring. Organisms leave DNA traces in the environment and this free DNA in soil, water, and air is referred to as environmental DNA (eDNA). The analysis of eDNA is a highly sensitive method with the potential to rapidly assess local diversity and the status of threatened species. We searched for DNA traces of 30 target amphibian species of conservation concern, at...

Data from: Ecological and social drivers of neighbor recognition and the dear enemy effect in a poison frog

James Tumulty & Mark Bee
Navigating social relationships frequently rests on the ability to recognize familiar individuals using phenotypic characteristics. Across diverse taxa, animals vary in their capacities for social recognition but the ecological and social sources of selection for recognition are often unclear. In a comparative study of two closely related species of poison frogs, we identified a species difference in social recognition of territory neighbors and investigated potential sources of selection underlying this difference. In response to acoustic...

Personality-specific carry-over effects on breeding

Steph Harris, Stephanie M Harris, Sebastien Descamps, Lynne Sneddon, Milena Cairo, Philip Bertrand & Samantha Patrick
Carry-over effects describe the phenomenon whereby an animal’s previous conditions influence its subsequent performance. Carry-over effects are unlikely to affect individuals uniformly, but the factors modulating their strength are poorly known. Variation in the strength of carry-over effects may reflect individual differences in pace-of-life: slow-paced, shyly behaved individuals are thought to favour allocation to self-maintenance over current reproduction, compared to their fast-paced, boldly behaved conspecifics (the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis). Therefore, detectable carry-over effects on breeding...

The island biogeography of the eBird citizen-science program

Frank La Sorte & Marius Somveille
Aim: Island biotas face an array of unique challenges under global change. Monitoring and research efforts, however, have been hindered by the large number of islands, their broad distribution and geographic isolation. Global citizen-science initiatives have the potential to address these deficiencies. Here, we determine how the eBird citizen-science program is currently sampling island bird assemblages annually and how these patterns are developing over time. Location: Global. Taxa: Birds. Methods: We compiled occurrence information of...

Pigmentation Genes Show Evidence of Repeated Divergence and Multiple Bouts of Introgression in Setophaga Warblers

David Toews, Marcella Baiz, Andrew Wood, Alan Brelsford & Irby Lovette
Species radiations have long served as model systems in evolutionary biology. However, it has only recently become possible to study the genetic bases of the traits responsible for diversification, and only in a small number of model systems. Here we use genomes of 36 species of North, Central, and South American warblers to highlight the role of pigmentation genes—involved in melanin and carotenoid processing—in the diversification of this group. We show that agouti signaling protein...

Migratory lineages rapidly evolve larger body sizes than non-migratory relatives in ray-finned fishes

Michael Burns
Migratory animals respond to environmental heterogeneity by predictably moving long distances in their lifetime. Migration has evolved repeatedly in animals, and many adaptations are found across the tree of life that increase migration efficiency. Life history theory predicts that migratory species should evolve a larger body size than non-migratory species and some empirical studies have shown this pattern. A recent study analyzed the evolution of body size between diadromous and non-diadromous shads, herrings, anchovies and...

A test of the riverine barrier hypothesis in the largest subtropical river basin in the neotropics

Leonardo Campagna, Cecilia Kopuchian, Darío A. Lijtmaer, Gustavo S. Cabanne, Natalia C. García, Pablo D. Lavinia, Pablo L. Tubaro, Irby Lovette & Adrián S. Di Giacomo
The riverine barrier hypothesis proposes that large rivers represent geographic barriers to gene flow for terrestrial organisms, leading to population differentiation and ultimately allopatric speciation. Here we asses for the first time if the subtropical Paraná-Paraguay River system in the Del Plata basin, second in size among South American drainages, acts as a barrier to gene flow for birds. We analyzed the degree of mitochondrial and nuclear genomic differentiation in seven species with known subspecies...

Metapopulation dynamics and foraging plasticity in a highly vagile seabird, the southern rockhopper penguin

Nicolas Lois, Leonardo Campagna, Ulises Balza, Michael Polito, Klemens Pütz, Juliana Vianna, Annick Morgenthaler, Esteban Frere, Ricardo Saenz-Samaniego, Andrea Raya Rey & Bettina Mahler
Population connectivity is driven by individual dispersal potential and modulated by natal philopatry. In seabirds, high vagility facilitates dispersal yet philopatry is also common, with foraging area overlap often correlated with population connectivity. We assess the interplay between these processes by studying past and current connectivity and foraging niche overlap among southern rockhopper penguin colonies of the coast of southern South America using genomic and stable isotope analyses. We found two distinct genetic clusters and...

Investigating social and environmental predictors of natal dispersal in a cooperative breeding bird

Young Ha Suh, Mario Pesendorfer, Angela Tringali, Reed Bowman & John Fitzpatrick
Natal dispersal is a crucial life history trait that affects both individual fitness and population structure, yet drivers of variation in dispersal probability and distance are difficult to study in wild populations. In cooperatively breeding species, individuals typically delay dispersal beyond their first breeding season and remain on the natal territory as nonbreeders, which prolongs social dynamics that can affect dispersal decisions. Using a 35-year data set covering almost 600 dispersal events in the cooperatively...

Increasing agricultural habitat reduces solitary bee offspring number and weight in apple orchards through reduced floral diet diversity and increased fungicide risk

Mary Centrella, Laura Russo, Natalia Moreno-Ramirez, Brian Eitzer, Maria Van Dyke, Bryan Danforth & Katja Poveda
1. Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk, and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. 2. We established populations of the non-native mason bee O. cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test...

High genomic diversity in the bank vole at the northern apex of a range expansion: the role of multiple colonizations and end-glacial refugia

Silvia Marková, Michaela Horníková, Hayley Lanier, Heikki Henttonen, Jeremy Searle, Lawrence Weider & Petr Kotlík
The history of repeated northern glacial cycling and southern climatic stability has long dominated explanations for how genetic diversity is distributed within temperate species in Eurasia and North America. However, growing evidence indicates the importance of cryptic refugia for northern colonization dynamics. An excellent geographic region to assess this is Fennoscandia, where recolonization at the end of the last glaciation was restricted to specific routes and temporal windows. We used genomic data to analyze genetic...

Data from: User experience methods and maturity in academic libraries

Scott W. H. Young, Zoe Chao & Adam Chandler
This article presents a mixed-methods study of the methods and maturity of user experience (UX) practice in academic libraries. The authors apply qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical analysis to a research dataset derived from a survey of UX practitioners. Results reveal the type and extent of UX methods currently in use by practitioners in academic libraries. Themes extracted from the survey responses also reveal a set of factors that influence the development of UX...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • Cornell University
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  • University of California, Berkeley
    7
  • United States Department of Agriculture
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    4
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    4
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    3
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    3
  • Texas A&M University
    3