Data from: Agricultural practices for food safety threaten pest control services for fresh produceDaniel S. Karp, Rebekah Moses, Sasha Gennet, Matthew S. Jones, Shimat Joseph, Leithen K. M'Gonigle, Lauren C. Ponisio, William E. Snyder & Claire Kremen
Over the past decade, several foodborne disease outbreaks provoked widespread reforms to the fresh produce industry. Subsequent concerns about wildlife vectors and contaminated manures created pressure on growers to discontinue use of manure-based composts and remove nearby semi-natural vegetation. Despite widespread adoption, impacts of these practices on ecosystem services such as pest control have not been assessed. We used a landscape-scale field experiment to quantify associations between compost applications, semi-natural vegetation, pest control services and...
Data from: Mixed population genomics support for the central marginal hypothesis across the invasive range of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) in AustraliaDaryl R. Trumbo, Brendan Epstein, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Ross A. Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf & Andrew Storfer
Understanding factors that cause species' geographic range limits is a major focus in ecology and evolution. The central marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts that species cannot adapt to conditions beyond current geographic range edges because genetic diversity decreases from core to edge due to smaller, more isolated edge populations. We employed a population genomics framework using 24 235–33 112 SNP loci to test major predictions of the CMH in the ongoing invasion of the cane toad...
Shrub Consumption and Immediate Changes in Shrub Community and Spatial Patterns by Reintroduced Fire in Yosemite National Park, California, USA; Supplemental InformationJames Lutz, T. J. Furniss, S. J. Germain, K. M. L. Becker, Erika Blomdahl, S. A. Jeronimo, C. Alina Cansler, J. A. Freund, M. E. Swanson & A. J. Larson
Fire behavior in the Yosemite Forest Dynamics Plot during the Rim Fire as captured by the USFS Fire Behavior Assessment Team and reported in Ewell, C., D.F. Smith, M. Hilden, S. Greene, D. Coultrap, K. Robinson, N. Vaillant, A. Reiner, T. Norman. 2015. 2013 Rim Fire Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park Fire Behavior Assessment Team Summary Report. Each video was started based on a thermocouple trigger when the fire reached it.
Data from: Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca)Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdett, Alan Rabinowitz & Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and...
Data from: Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesisBridget R. Deemer, John A. Harrison, Siyue Li, Jake J. Beaulieu, Tonya DelSontro, Nathan Barros, José F. Bezerra-Neto, Stephen M. Powers, Marco A. Dos Santos & J. Arie Vonk
Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and...
Data from: Distinct processes drive diversification in different clades of GesneriaceaeEric H. Roalson & Wade R. Roberts
Using a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis including 768 Gesneriaceae species (out of ~3300 species) and more than 29,000 aligned bases from 26 gene regions, we test Gesneriaceae for diversification rate shifts and the possible proximal drivers of these shifts: geographic distributions, growth forms, and pollination syndromes. Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures analyses found five significant rate shifts in Beslerieae, core Nematanthus, core Columneinae, core Streptocarpus, and Pacific Cyrtandra. These rate shifts correspond with shifts in diversification...
Data from: A global test for phylogenetic signal in shifts in flowering time under climate changeNicole E. Rafferty & Paul D. Nabity
1.Shifts in the timing of flowering are a conspicuous biological signal of climate change. These shifts have been documented across the globe for diverse communities. Although many species are flowering earlier, others have exhibited no shifts or delays in flowering. 2.How species respond phenologically will shape interactions both with other community members and with the abiotic environment, altering fitness, abundance, and ultimately persistence. 3.To understand if variability in phenological response is influenced by evolutionary history,...
Data from: Does movement behaviour predict population densities? a test with 25 butterfly speciesCheryl B. Schultz, B. Guy Pe'er, Christine Damiani, Leone Brown & Elizabeth E. Crone
Diffusion, which approximates a correlated random walk, has been used by ecologists to describe movement, and forms the basis for many theoretical models. However, it is often criticized as too simple a model to describe animal movement in real populations. We test a key prediction of diffusion models, namely, that animals should be more abundant in land cover classes through which they move more slowly. This relationship between density and diffusion has rarely been tested...
Data from: Genome-wide screening of candidate genes for improving fertility in Egyptian native Rahmani sheepNermin K. El-Halawany, Xiang Zhou, Ahmad F. Al-Tohamy, Yasmin A. El-Sayad, Abd-El-Monsif A. Shawky, Jennifer J. Michal, Zhihua Jiang, Nermin El-Halawany & Yasmin A. El-Sayd
raw SNP data_Rahmani sheep
Data from: Sylleptic branching in winter-headed apple (Malus × domestica) trees: accession-dependent responses and their relationships with other tree architectural characteristicsStijn Vanderzande, Niek Hias, Daniel Edge-Garza, Evelyne Costes, Mark W. Davey & Johan Keulemans
Well-feathered apple trees are essential for commercial orchards to optimize yields. However, most cultivars do not form these sylleptic branches readily in commercial nurseries due to high apical dominance. Several treatments exist to promote their formation in the nurseries, one of which is heading. However, not all cultivars are expected to react similarly to these treatments. We studied the branching response of 155 genotypes following heading and its relation to other architectural traits as a...
Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversityBrian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...
Data from: Testosterone activates sexual dimorphism including male-typical carotenoid but not melanin plumage pigmentation in a female birdWillow R. Lindsay, Douglas G. Barron, Michael S. Webster & Hubert Schwabl
In males it is frequently testosterone (T) that activates the expression of sexually selected morphological and behavioral displays, but the role of T in regulating similar traits in females is less clear. Here we combine correlational data with results from T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) manipulations in both sexes to assess the role of T in mediating sexually dimorphic coloration and morphology in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We show that (1) natural variation in...
Data from: Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devilsBrendan Epstein, Menna Jones, Rodrigo Hamede, Sarah Hendricks, Hamish McCallum, Elizabeth P. Murchison, Barbara Schönfeld, Cody Wiench, Paul Hohenlohe & Andrew Storfer
Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species’ range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid,...
Data from: Testing the Münch hypothesis of long distance phloem transport in plantsMichael Knoblauch, Jan Knoblauch, Daniel L Mullendore, Jessica A Savage, Benjamin A Babst, Sierra D Beecher, Adam C Dodgen, Kaare H Jensen & Noel Michele Holbrook
Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure differentials that are supposed to drive the movement of sugars and other solutes in the phloem, but this hypothesis has long faced major challenges. The key issue is whether the conductance of sieve tubes, including sieve plate pores, is sufficient to allow pressure flow. We show...
Data from: An approach for identifying cryptic barriers to gene flow that limit species' geographic rangesSteven J. Micheletti & Andrew Storfer
Species' geographic range limits are most often not demarcated by obvious dispersal barriers. Poor-quality habitat at the edge of a species' range can prevent range expansion by preventing outward migration or through reducing adaptive potential resulting from decreased genetic diversity. We identified habitat variables that constrain gene flow across the entire geographic range of an endemic salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) in the eastern United States, and we tested whether increased resistance resulting from these variables provides...
Data from: Costs of selfing prevent the spread of a self-compatibility mutation that causes reproductive assuranceNathan C. Layman, M. Thilina R. Fernando, Christopher Herlihy, Jeremiah W. Busch & Christopher R. Herlihy
In flowering plants, shifts from outcrossing to partial or complete self-fertilization have occurred independently thousands of times, yet the underlying adaptive processes are difficult to discern. Selfing’s ability to provide reproductive assurance when pollination is uncertain is an oft-cited ecological explanation for its evolution, but this benefit may be outweighed by genetic costs diminishing its selective advantage over outcrossing. We directly studied the fitness effects of a self-compatibility (SC) mutation that was backcrossed into a...
Data from: Quantifying the coevolutionary potential of multistep immune defensesScott Landis Nuismer & Mark F. Dybdahl
Coevolutionary models often assume host infection by parasites depends on a single bout of molecular recognition. As detailed immunological studies accumulate, however, it becomes increasingly apparent that the outcome of host-parasite interactions more generally depends on complex multiple step infection processes. For example, in plant and animal innate immunity, recognition steps are followed by downstream effector steps that kill recognized parasites, with the outcome depending on an escalatory molecular arms race. Here, we explore the...
Data from: Phytoplankton responses to nitrogen enrichment in Pacific Northwest, USA mountain lakesJason J. Williams, Marc Beutel, Andrea Nurse, Stephanie E. Hampton, Jasmine E. Saros & Barry Moore
Limited information is available about threshold lake nitrogen concentrations necessary to stimulate phytoplankton species and biomass responses in remote nitrogen-limited mountain lakes. We conducted in situ enrichment bioassays in mountain lakes within Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks in Washington State, USA to characterize phytoplankton species and biomass responses to nitrogen enrichment, and associated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration thresholds. Based on biomass and growth measurements, phytoplankton were nitrogen-limited or co-limited by nitrogen...
Data from: Nitrogen cycling and export in California chaparral: the role of climate in shaping ecosystem responses to fireErin J. Hanan, Christina Naomi Tague & Joshua P. Schimel
Climate change models predict that interannual rainfall variability will increase in California over the next several decades; these changes will likely influence how frequently California ecosystems burn and how they respond to fire. Fires uncouple N mobilization from uptake by destroying plant biomass and increasing nitrification. Following fire, autumn and winter rains can leach N into streams from slopes that have been denuded. The amount of N exported depends on how rapidly soil microbes metabolize...
Data from: Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bearsKimberly S. Rigano, Jamie L. Gehring, Brandon D. Evans Hutzenbiler, Annie V. Chen, O. Lynne Nelson, Chantal A. Vella, Charles T. Robbins & Heiko T. Jansen
Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at...
Washington State University20
University of Idaho4
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
California Polytechnic State University1
University of Kansas1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Montana1
University of Washington1
Utah State University1
University of California System1