7,866 Works

I. The Formation of Planetesimals. II. Tidal Friction and Generalized Cassini's Laws in the Solar System

William Roger Ward
NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document. In Part 1, four stages in the accretion of planetesimals are described. The initial stage is the condensation of dust particles from the gaseous solar nebula as it cools. These dust particles settle into a thin disk which is gravitationally unstable. A first generation of planetesimals, whose radii range up to ~10⁻¹ kilometer, form from the...

Frameworks for High Dimensional Convex Optimization

Palma Alise den Nijs London
We present novel, efficient algorithms for solving extremely large optimization problems. A significant bottleneck today is that as the size of datasets grow, researchers across disciplines desire to solve prohibitively massive optimization problems. In this thesis, we present methods to compress optimization problems. The general goal is to represent a huge problem as a smaller problem or set of smaller problems, while still retaining enough information to ensure provable guarantees on solution quality and run...

Exhumed Fluvial Deposits: New Paleohydrological Tools Indicate Long-Duration Fluvial Activity on Early Mars

Alistair Thompson Hayden
Fluvial sinuous ridges are common landforms on Mars that have been used for interpreting the history of ancient martian rivers. They are typically interpreted as eroded casts of an ancient river at a snapshot in time. However, some ridges might instead be channel belts that preserve river history, leading to significant differences in interpretation of paleohydrology, including flow direction, duration, and discharge. In this thesis, I used analog sites on Earth and techniques from fluvial...

Higgs scalars and the nonleptonic weak interactions

Christopher Thaddeus Hill
NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document. We study the contributions to the nonleptonic weak Hamiltonian of Higgs bosons within the context of two typical gauge models of the flavor interactions and the SU(3) of color strong interactions (QCD). Processes mediated by charged bosons lead to [...] = 1 transitions and [...] = 0 parity violations. The effects of QCD upon the general...

Nonlinear Optics in Chip-based Microresonators and their Applications

Myoung-Gyun Suh
Optical micro-resonators have been studied for decades as a platform to investigate optical physics, and to miniaturize bulky optical systems. In the last decade, optical frequency combs, which have revolutionized the precision measurement of time and frequency, have been demonstrated in optical micro-resonators via the combined effect of parametric oscillation and cascaded four-wave mixing. More recently, soliton mode-locking has made possible low-noise/reproducible generation of these miniature combs (microcombs). In this thesis, we demonstrated the generation...

Temporally Changing Roles of Morphogen Dorsal in the Drosophila Early Embryo

Jihyun Irizarry
Morphogen gradients provide positional cues during development, with cell fate specification proceeding in a morphogen concentration-dependent manner during patterning. However, morphogens also are dynamic as their concentrations change not only in space but also in time, but how these dynamics are translated into cell fate specification over time is not well understood. To provide a better understanding of morphogens’ temporal roles, we studied how Drosophila dorsal-ventral body patterning is controlled by the dynamic morphogen Dorsal...

Investigating Unexpected but Advantageous Integrated Systems for Solar Water Splitting

Paul D. Nunez
Advantageous systems are frequently utilized for solar water splitting sometimes are not the most well-understood. Based on fundamental understandings of semiconductor physics, certain combinations of materials should never be advantageous for applications in solar water splitting. (Un)fortunately, these expectations are unrealized. Specifically, we address herein how photogenerated current is able to pass through a-TiO₂ from n-Si as well as the formation of a barrier height from electroless-deposited Pt on p-Si. Chapter 2 addresses how charge...

From Metasurfaces to Compact Optical Metasystems

MohammadSadegh Faraji-Dana
Optical metasurfaces are a class of ultra-thin diffractive optical elements, which can control different properties of light such as amplitude, phase, polarization and direction at various wavelengths. The compatibility of optical metasurfaces with standard micro- and nano-fabrication processes makes them highly-suitable for realization of compact and planar form optical devices and systems. In addition, optical metasurfaces have achieved unique and unprecedented functionalities not possible by conventional diffractive or refractive optical elements. In this thesis, after...

Data from: Gut microbiota regulate motor deficits and neuroinflammation in a model of Parkinson’s disease

Timothy R. Sampson, Justine W. Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G. Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E. Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M. Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight & Sarkis K. Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology. Antibiotic treatment ameliorates, while microbial re-colonization promotes, pathophysiology in...

Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR) OMI NO2 v3.0C - Gridded pixels, daily profiles

Qindan Zhu, Joshua Laughner & Ron Cohen
The BEHR reprocesses tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite using high resolution a priori NO2 profiles, surface reflectivity, and surface elevation data. This product uses NO2 profiles for the day retrieved, simulated by the WRF-Chem model at 12 km spatial resolution. The use of high spatial resolution NO2 profiles has been shown to better resolve urban/rural differences in NO2 column densities, and the use of day-to-day (rather than monthly average) profiles...

A Study on the Mechanism of Molecular Transport with Systems of Gaseous Paraffins and of Convective Transport from Single Cylinders, Single Spheres, and Arrays of Spheres into Turbulently Flowing Streams

Terry Randolph Galloway
PART I. Intermolecular pair potential functions for the Leonard-Jones ∞-6, 12-6, and 9-6 form, and of the three parameter forms of Morse and of Kihara for a spherical core, were used to fit new gas phase viscosity data at low pressure for the normal paraffins through n-decane. The intermolecular force parameters were obtained and found to be unique for the Morse and Kihara potentials. All potential models underestimated the temperature dependence of the viscosity, but...

The Kinetics of Redox Reactions of Mn(II) and Mn(III) in Aqueous Systems: Homogenous Autoxidation of Mn(II) and the Formation and Disappearance of Mn(III) Complexes

J. Kenneth Klewicki
The kinetics of manganese redox reactions are important for understanding redox cycles in natural waters. This study examined the kinetics of the homogenous oxidation of Mn(II) and formation and disappearance of Mn(III) complexes. The oxidation of Mn(II) was studied to determine the homogenous oxidation rate in the absence of solid surfaces and biological activity. Experiments were conducted at 35, 45, 50, and 60°C. The pH was 8.0. The reaction solution was prepared so that at...

“On Lily Bart’s Specializations and Survival in the Upper Class”: What Women Want: Desire and the Modern American Novel

Victoria Liu
[Introduction] Lily Bart, the queen of easy elegance and perfectly-timed blushes, experiences a dramatic fall in status in Edith Wharton’s The House of Mirth. Once a socialite whose presence hosts vied for, Lily progressively falls into more and more dishonorable positions until she ultimately perishes. What factors are at play in such a drastic change? For one, Lily’s love of risk does not serve her well in the competitive game of the elite class, where...

Progress Toward an Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ineleganolide

Jennifer Lyn Roizen
Investigations toward an enantioselective total synthesis of ineleganolide (1) are disclosed. These studies have driven the development of a novel asymmetric ketone alkylation to form C(α)-tetrasubstituted carbonyl compounds. Products of these alkylations have been converted to α-hydroxy ketones, acids, and esters, completing an asymmetric formal synthesis of (–)-quinic acid. Additionally, one of these products, a chloroalkene, has been advanced in the synthesis of the [6–7–5–5]-fused core of ineleganolide. The chloroalkene can be converted through a...

On the Development of Defocusing Digital Particle Image Velocimetry with Full Characterization

Emilio Castaño Graff
Defocusing Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is the first volumetric, three-dimensional PIV method ever put into practice. This manuscript contains the details of its development, a detailed analysis of its performance (both through simulation and real measurements), and a series of experimental demonstrations of the capability of the technique. The system is capable of resolving upwards of 7,000 vectors per pair with an absolute error on the order of 0.03% of the volume size.

Light Dependent Regulation of Sleep/Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Larval Zebrafish

Shijia Chen
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved behavior and essential to survival. The classic two process model of sleep regulation proposes that sleep results from the interaction between circadian and homeostatic processes, but the details remain elusive. Most sleep research is performed using nocturnal rodents, and diurnal vertebrates are under-represented. It is unclear whether circadian regulatory mechanisms of sleep in nocturnal animals can be directly translated into diurnal animals. In this thesis, I first briefly describe sleep...

The Development of a Synthetic Strategy Toward Dihydrooxepine-Containing Epipolythiodiketopiperazines: Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Acetylaranotin and Related Investigations

Julian Andrew Codelli
To the chemist, the epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) fungal metabolites represent a fascinating family of natural products, not only for their unique structural elements, but also for the unusual modes by which they are hypothesized to exert their biological activities. Though efforts at the total synthesis of these molecules have led to an evolution of innovative synthetic methodologies and strategies, challenges remain—particularly with respect to acid-sensitive and highly oxygenated ETP structures, such as those containing one or...

Development and Function of Sleep Regulatory Circuits in Zebrafish

Justin Liu
Sleep is widely accepted as an essential behavior for optimum mental and physical health, yet the genetic and neural circuits that govern sleep remain poorly understood. In this thesis, I briefly introduce the behavioral criteria that define sleep, currently known sleep regulatory mechanisms, and the distinct advantages of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a simple animal model for studying sleep. I then investigate two factors previously implicated in sleep behavior: epidermal growth factor receptor and...

Resonant Nanocantilever Chemical Vapor Sensors

Heather Catherine McCaig
Chemical vapor sensors are used in a wide variety of fields such as security, environmental monitoring, the food and beverage industry, and healthcare to detect disease biomarkers on exhaled breath. An electronic nose is composed of an array of cross-responsive chemical vapor sensors, in which every sensor responds to a varying degree to each chemical vapor, creating a "fingerprint" for that vapor. Incorporating an electronic nose into a highly-miniaturized vapor detection system, capable of bringing...

Understanding Lithosphere and Mantle Dynamics with Numerical Models Constrained by Observations

Xiaolin Mao
Numerical studies play an important role in understanding lithospheric and mantle dynamics. In this thesis, we first develop and use multiphysics geodynamic models to study the evolution of subduction. Our geodynamic models are constrained by different geological and geophysical observations, including topography. We then use 3D numerical simulations of dynamic rupture with off-fault inelastic deformation to study the scaling between damage zone thickness and fault width. Finally, we study the mechanical strength and anisotropy in...

Theory of Dynamical Processes in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

Yun-Hua Hong
The focus of this dissertation is on the theory of the electronic dynamical processes in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The first part of the dissertation introduces the calculation method of electronic eigenstates used through the dissertation, the sp3s* tight-binding (TB) method, and the application of the symmetry-adapted linear combination (SALC) of atomic orbitals to the TB method. The combination of the SALC and TB method reduces the computational load, and generates reliable electronic eigenstates and...

Cell-Selective Chemoproteomics for Biological Discovery

Shannon Elizabeth Stone
Cellular protein synthesis changes rapidly in response to internal and external cues in ways that vary from cell to cell. Global proteomic analyses of microbial communities, tissues, and organisms have provided important insights into the behavior of such systems, but can obscure the diversity of responses characteristic of different cellular subpopulations. Recent advances in cell-specific proteomics—fueled in part by the development of bioorthogonal chemistries, more sensitive mass spectrometers and more advanced mining algorithms—have yielded unprecedented...

Chromatin Topology and Transcription in Myogenesis

Katherine Irene Fisher-Aylor
High-throughput sequencing and the resulting development of biochemical "-Seq" experiments such as ChIP-Seq, DNase-Seq, and Methyl-Seq over the past decade has given rise to a wealth of predicted enhancers and other cis-regulatory regions (CRMs). These new assays provide a new opportunity to compare the number, location, and possible nature of CRMs that are predicted by various new biochemical techniques to instances of known CRMs, which until recently have primarily been located—for reasons of technological limitations—at...

Novel Parylene Filters for Biomedical Applications

Yang Liu
Medical engineering plays a more and more important role in driving the fundamental biology research moving forward. The work presented in this thesis targets at engineer smart parylene filters for various biomedical applications. Three novel parylene membranes are discussed. The first device is parylene magnesium-embedded filter for circulating tumor cells isolation. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that slough off the edges of a primary tumor and are swept away by the bloodstream or lymphatic...

r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Neutron Star Mergers with the New Nuclear Reaction Network SkyNet

Jonas Lippuner
At the Big Bang, only the lightest elements, mainly hydrogen and helium, were produced. Stars synthesize heavier elements, such as helium, carbon, and oxygen, from lighter ones through nuclear fusion. Iron-group elements are created in supernovae (both type Ia and core-collapse). It has been known for 60 years that the slow and rapid neutron capture processes (s- and r-process) are each responsible for creating about half of the elements beyond the iron group. The s-process...

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