95 Works

Data from: A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

Luke Mander, Stefan C. Dekker, Mao Li, Washington Mio, Surangi W. Punyasena & Timothy M. Lenton
Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity...

Data from: Hydrology controls recruitment of two invasive cyprinids: bigheaded carp reproduction in a navigable large river

Daniel K. Gibson-Reinemer, Levi E. Solomon, Richard M. Pendleton, John H. Chick & Andrew F. Casper
In the Mississippi River Basin of North America, invasive bigheaded carp (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp H. nobilis, also referred to as Asian carp) have spread rapidly over the past several decades. In the Illinois River, an important tributary of the Upper Mississippi River, reproduction appears to be sporadic and frequently unsuccessful, yet bigheaded carp densities in this river are among the highest recorded on the continent. Understanding the causative factors behind erratic...

Data from: A complete molecular phylogeny of Claravis confirms its paraphyly within small New World ground-doves (Aves: Peristerinae) and implies multiple plumage state transitions

Andrew D. Sweet, J. Dylan Maddox & Kevin P. Johnson
The three species in the genus Claravis (Aves: Peristerinae) are unique among members of the small New World ground-dove clade. All three species inhabit forested areas rather than open scrubby habitat, and exhibit obvious sexual dichromatism. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Claravis remain unknown. The only molecular phylogenetic study to include more than one species of Claravis indicated the genus is paraphyletic. Here we include molecular data from all three Claravis species, including sequences from...

Data from: Functional and population genomic divergence within and between two species of killifish adapted to different osmotic niches

Genevieve M. Kozak, Reid S. Brennan, Emma L. Berdan, Rebecca C. Fuller & Andrew Whitehead
Adaptation to salinity affects species distributions, promotes speciation, and guides many evolutionary patterns in fishes. To uncover the basis of a complex trait like osmoregulation, genome-level analyses are sensible. We combine population genomic scans with genome expression profiling to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with divergence between osmotic environments. We compared transcriptome sequence divergence between multiple freshwater and saltwater populations of the rainwater killifish, Lucania parva. We also compared sequence divergence between L. parva...

Data from: Male and female contributions to behavioral isolation in darters as a function of genetic distance and color distance

Rachel L. Moran, Muchu Zhou, Julian M. Catchen & Rebecca C. Fuller
Determining which reproductive isolating barriers arise first between geographically isolated lineages is critical to understanding allopatric speciation. We examined behavioral isolation among four recently diverged allopatric species in the orangethroat darter clade (Etheostoma: Ceasia). We also examined behavioral isolation between each Ceasia species and the sympatric rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum. We asked (1) is behavioral isolation present between allopatric Ceasia species, and how does this compare to behavioral isolation with E. caeruleum, (2) does male...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: The effects of insects, nutrients, and plant invasion on community structure and function above- and belowground

Phoebe Wright, Melissa A. Cregger, Lara Souza, Nathan J. Sanders & Aimée T. Classen
Soil nutrient availability, invasive plants, and insect presence can directly alter ecosystem structure and function, but less is known about how these factors may interact. In this 6-year study in an old-field ecosystem, we manipulated insect abundance (reduced and control), the propagule pressure of an invasive nitrogen-fixing plant (propagules added and control), and soil nutrient availability (nitrogen added, nitrogen reduced and control) in a fully crossed, completely randomized plot design. We found that nutrient amendment...

Data from: Snap-jaw morphology is specialized for high-speed power amplification in the Dracula ant, Mystrium camillae

Fredrick J. Larabee, Adrian A. Smith & Andrew V. Suarez
What is the limit of animal speed and what mechanisms produce the fastest movements? More than natural history trivia, the answer provides key insight into the form-function relationship of musculoskeletal movement and can determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. The fastest known animal movements belong to arthropods, including trap-jaw ants, mantis shrimp, and froghoppers, that have incorporated latches and springs into their appendage systems to overcome the limits of muscle power. In contrast to these...

Data from: Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

Jonathan D. Marcot, David L. Fox & Spencer R. Niebuhr
The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal...

Data from: Differences in offspring size predict the direction of isolation asymmetry between populations of a placental fish

Matthew Schrader, Rebecca C. Fuller & Joseph Travis
Crosses between populations or species often display an asymmetry in the fitness of reciprocal F1 hybrids. This pattern, referred to as isolation asymmetry or Darwin’s Corollary to Haldane’s rule, has been observed in taxa from plants to vertebrates, yet we still know little about which factors determine its magnitude and direction. Here we show that differences in offspring size predict the direction of isolation asymmetry observed in crosses between populations of a placental fish, Heterandria...

Integrating socio-ecological suitability with human-wildlife conflict risk: Case study for translocation of a large ungulate

Nicholas McCann, Eric Walberg, James Forester, Michael Schrage, David Fulton & Mark Ditmer
1. Translocations are essential for reestablishing wildlife populations. As they sometimes fail, it is critical to assess factors that influence their success pre-translocation. 2. Socio-ecological suitability models (SESMs) integrate social acceptance and ecological suitability to enable identification of areas where wildlife populations will expand, which makes it likely that SESMs will also be useful for predicting translocation success. 3. To inform site-selection for potential elk (Cervus canadensis) reintroduction to northeastern Minnesota, USA, we developed broad-scale...

Foraging networks and social tolerance in a cooperatively breeding primate (Callithrix jacchus)

María Fernanda De La Fuente, Cédric Sueur, Paul Garber, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Antonio Souto & Nicola Schiel
Within-group competition over food resources can be a major cost of social living. In the wild, foragers are confronted with social (e.g. hierarchical rank) and ecological (e.g. food availability and distribution) challenges that affect their foraging decisions and feeding success. Exhibiting prosocial behaviors, such as tolerance at feeding sites, can benefit group members by developing affiliative social relationships, enhancing access to resources and maximizing fitness. We examined social tolerance at feeding sites in Callithrix jacchus,...

Ecological opportunity and the rise and fall of crocodylomorph evolutionary innovation

Thomas Stubbs, Stephanie Pierce, Armin Elsler, Philip Anderson, Emily Rayfield & Michael Benton
Understanding the origin, expansion and loss of biodiversity is fundamental to evolutionary biology. The approximately 26 living species of crocodylomorphs (crocodiles, caimans, alligators and gharials) represent just a snapshot of the group’s rich 230-million-year history, whereas the fossil record reveals a hidden past of great diversity and innovation, including ocean and land-dwelling forms, herbivores, omnivores and apex predators. In this macroevolutionary study of skull and jaw shape disparity, we show that crocodylomorph ecomorphological variation peaked...

Increasing morphological disparity and decreasing optimality for jaw speed and strength during the radiation of jawed vertebrates

William Deakin, Philip Anderson, Wendy Den Boer, Thomas Smith, Jennifer Hill, Martin Rücklin, Philip Donoghue & Emily Rayfield
The Siluro-Devonian adaptive radiation of jawed vertebrates, which underpins almost all living vertebrate biodiversity, is characterised by the evolutionary innovation of the lower jaw. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the jaw evolved from a rostral gill arch, but when the jaw took on a feeding function remains unclear. We quantified the variety of form in the earliest jaws in the fossil record and , from which we generated a range of theoretical morphospacelogies...

Fraternity and Sorority New Members’ Self-Regulation of Alcohol Use

Andrew Wall, Janet Reis & Dan Bureau

Data from: Constraints of cold and shade on the phenology of spring ephemeral herb species

Carol K. Augspurger & Carl F. Salk
Spring ephemeral herb species in temperate deciduous forests are active above-ground only briefly each year. This study tested experimentally how two countervailing constraints – cold and darkness – influence the phenology of six spring herb species. Dormancy of underground structures, maintained by cold temperatures in a growth chamber, was broken at six 25-day intervals from January or February to June in two consecutive years. Upon emergence, survival and flowering were measured on cohorts grown outdoors....

Data from: Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and colour preferences in a killifish

Ashley M. Johnson, Shannon Stanis & Rebecca C. Fuller
Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in colour patterns, colour preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at different-coloured objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight...

Data from: Maternal predator-exposure has life-long consequences for offspring learning in threespined sticklebacks

Daniel P. Roche, Katie E. McGhee & Alison M. Bell
Learning is an important form of phenotypic plasticity that allows organisms to adjust their behaviour to the environment. An individual’s learning performance can be affected by its mother’s environment. For example, mothers exposed to stressors such as restraint and forced swimming often produce offspring with impaired learning performance. However, it is unclear whether there are maternal effects on offspring learning when mothers are exposed to ecologically relevant stressors such as predation risk. Here, we examined...

Data from: Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Ashley M. Johnson, Gregory F. Grether, F. Helen Rodd & Rebecca C. Fuller
Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism’s ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this...

Data from: The critical role of local refugia in postglacial colonization of Chinese pine: joint inferences from DNA analyses, pollen records, and species distribution modeling

Qian Hao, Guillaume De Lafontaine, Dongshu Guo, Hongya Gu, Feng Sheng Hu, Yue Han, Zhaoliang Song & Hongyan Liu
The importance of long-distance migration from low to high latitudes relative to local spread from northern refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) remains a focus of debate for many temperate tree species. We assessed the dynamics of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis), a widespread species endemic to northern China, since the LGM by integrating cytoplasmic DNA data, mapped pollen records and ecological niche modeling. Genetic variation among 544 individuals from 50 populations spanning the entire...

Data from: Fire increases drought vulnerability of Quercus alba juveniles by altering forest microclimate and nitrogen availability

Tyler Refsland & Jennifer Fraterrigo
1. Shifts in rainfall patterns due to climate change are expected to increase drought stress and mortality in forests. Natural and anthropogenic fire regimes are also changing, highlighting the need to understand the interactive effects of fire and drought on tree ecophysiological response and growth. 2. Using rainout shelters, we imposed summer drought on natural and planted populations of Quercus alba juveniles located in periodically burned and unburned sites in Shawnee National Forest, IL, USA....

Data from: The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

Dena M. Smith & Jonathan D. Marcot
Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle...

Data from: Fast and cost-effective genetic mapping in apple using next-generation sequencing

Kyle M. Gardner, Thomas F. Cooke, Patrick J. Brown, Scott Cann, Fabrizio Costa, Carlos D. Bustamante, Riccardo Velasco, Michela Troggio, Sean Myles, P. Brown & C. Bustamante
Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) produces vast amounts of DNA sequence data, but it is not specifically designed to generate data suitable for genetic mapping. Recently developed DNA library preparation methods for NGS have helped solve this problem, however, by combining the use of reduced representation libraries with DNA sample barcoding to generate genome-wide genotype data from a common set of genetic markers across a large number of samples. Here we use such a method, called...

Data from: Long-term nitrogen addition causes the evolution of less cooperative mutualists

Dylan Jones Weese, Katy D. Heath, Bryn T. M. Dentinger & Jennifer Ann Lau
Human activities have altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, and as a result, elevated N inputs are causing profound ecological changes in diverse ecosystems. The evolutionary consequences of this global change have been largely ignored even though elevated N inputs are predicted to cause mutualism breakdown and the evolution of decreased cooperation between resource mutualists. Using a long-term (22 year) N addition experiment, we find that elevated N inputs have altered the legume-rhizobium mutualism (where...

Data from: Trpc2 Pseudogenization dynamics in bats reveal ancestral vomeronasal signaling, then pervasive loss

Laurel R. Yohe, Ramatu Abubakar, Christina Giordano, Elizabeth Dumont, Karen Sears, Stephen J. Rossiter, Liliana M. Davalos & Karen E. Sears
Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals vomerolfaction detects chemical cues mediating many social and reproductive behaviors and is highly conserved, but all bats exhibit degraded vomeronasal structures with the exception of two families (Phyllostomidae and Miniopteridae). These families either regained vomerolfaction after ancestral loss, or...

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