295 Works

Thermal performance under constant temperatures can accurately predict insect development times across naturally variable microclimates

Loke Von Schmalensee, Katrín Hulda Gunnarsdóttir, Joacim Näslund, Karl Gotthard & Philipp Lehmann
External conditions can drive biological rates in ectotherms by directly influencing body temperatures. While estimating the temperature dependence of performance-traits such as growth and development rate is feasible under controlled laboratory settings, predictions in nature are difficult. One major challenge lies in translating performance under constant conditions to fluctuating environments. Using the butterfly Pieris napi as model system, we show that development rate, an important fitness trait, can be accurately predicted in the field using...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in plant chemical defences drives latitudinal patterns of leaf herbivory

Xoaquón Moreira, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge C. Berny-Mier Y Terán, Bart G. H. Timmermans, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Felisa Covelo, Gaétan Glauser, Sergio Rasmann, Ayco J. M. Tack & Hans Henrik Bruun
A long-standing paradigm in ecology holds that herbivore pressure and thus plant defences increase towards lower latitudes. However, recent work has challenged this prediction where studies have found no relationship or opposite trends where herbivory or plant defences increase at higher latitudes. Here we tested for latitudinal variation in herbivory, chemical defences (phenolic compounds), and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen) in leaves of a long-lived tree species, the English oak Quercus robur. We further investigated...

Data from: Rapid post-fire re-assembly of species-rich bryophyte communities in Afroalpine heathlands

Kristoffer Hylander, Carl Alexander Frisk, Sileshi Nemomissa & Maria Ulrika Johansson
Questions: In some fire-prone ecosystems, bryophytes play a crucial role by providing the surface fuel that controls the fire-return interval. Afroalpine heathlands are such an ecosystem, yet almost nothing is known about the bryophytes in this system. We do not know the level of species richness, or if there is a successive accumulation of species over time, or if some species are adapted to specific phases along the successional gradient, for example early-successional species sensitive...

FishMob: Interactions between fisher mobility and spatial resource heterogeneity

Emilie Lindkvist
Migration or other long-distance movement into other regions is a common strategy of fishers and fishworkers living and working on the coast to adapt to environmental change. This model attempts to understand the general dynamics of fisher mobility for over larger spatial scales. The model can be used for investigating the complex interplay that exists between mobility and fish stock heterogeneity across regions, and the associated outcomes of mobility at the system level. The model...

Precipitation-catchment aquatic C emissions

Sivakiruthika Natchimuthu, Markus B. Wallin, Leif Klemedtsson, Patrick Crill & David Bastviken

Data from: Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

Cuong Q. Tang, Aelys M. Humphreys, Diego Fontaneto & Timothy G. Barraclough
1. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson Tree Process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. 2. Here we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic...

Data from: Alate production in an aphid in relation to ant tending and alarm pheromone

Karolina Tegelaar & Olof Leimar
1. Winged dispersal is vital for aphids as predation pressure and host plant conditions fluctuate. 2. Ant-tended aphids also need to disperse, but this may represent a cost for the ants, resulting in an evolutionary conflict of interest over aphid dispersal. 3. The combined effects of aphid alarm pheromone, indicating predation risk, and ant attendance on the production of winged aphids were examined in an experiment with Aphis fabae (Homoptera: Aphididae) (Scopoli 1763) aphids and...

Data from: Estimation of effective population size in continuously distributed populations: there goes the neighborhood

Maile C. Neel, Kevin McKelvey, Robin S. Waples, Nils Ryman, Michael W. Lloyd, Ruth Short Bull, Fred W. Allendorf & Michael K. Schwartz
Use of genetic methods to estimate effective population size (N^e) is rapidly increasing, but all approaches make simplifying assumptions unlikely to be met in real populations. In particular, all assume a single, unstructured population, and none has been evaluated for use with continuously distributed species. We simulated continuous populations with local mating structure, as envisioned by Wright's concept of neighborhood size (NS), and evaluated performance of a single-sample estimator based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), which...

Data from: Implications of a temperature increase for host plant range: predictions for a butterfly

Hélène Audusseau, Sören Nylin & Niklas Janz
Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between temperature, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a temperature increase as such. However,...

Data from: Performance of forest bryophytes with different geographical distributions transplanted across a topographically heterogeneous landscape

C. Johan Dahlberg, Johan Ehrlén & Kristoffer Hylander
Most species distribution models assume a close link between climatic conditions and species distributions. Yet, we know little about the link between species' geographical distributions and the sensitivity of performance to local environmental factors. We studied the performance of three bryophyte species transplanted at south- and north-facing slopes in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. At the same sites, we measured both air and ground temperature. We hypothesized that the two southerly distributed species Eurhynchium...

Data from: Internet-delivered therapist-guided physical activity for mild to moderate depression: a randomized controlled trial

Morgan Ström, Carl-Johan Uckelstam, Gerhard Andersson, Peter Hassmén, Göran Umefjord & Per Carlbring
Objective: The main hypothesis, and the objective of the study, was to test if the participants allocated to the treatment group would show a larger reduction in depressive symptoms than those in the control group. Methods: This study was a randomized nine week trial of an Internet-administered treatment based on guided physical exercise for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A total of 48 participants with mild to moderate depression, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for...

Data from: Comparison of capture and storage methods for aqueous macrobial eDNA using an optimized extraction protocol: advantage of enclosed filter

Johan Spens, Alice R. Evans, David Halfmaerten, Steen W. Knudsen, Mita E. Sengupta, Sarah S. T. Mak, Eva E. Sigsgaard & Micaela Hellström
Aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging efficient non-invasive tool for species inventory studies. To maximize performance of downstream quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications, quality and quantity of the starting material is crucial, calling for optimized capture, storage and extraction techniques of eDNA. Previous comparative studies for eDNA capture/storage have tested precipitation and ‘open’ filters. However, practical ‘enclosed’ filters which reduce unnecessary handling have not been included. Here, we fill this gap...

Data from: Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney

Andrzej A. Romaniuk, Alexandra N. Shepherd, David V. Clarke, Alison J. Sheridan, Sheena Fraser, László Bartosiewicz & Jeremy S. Herman
Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have...

Data from: Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster

Olga Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick Nässel & Olof Leimar
A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold...

Data from: Adaptive developmental plasticity in a butterfly: mechanisms for size and time at pupation differ between diapause and direct development

Sami M. Kivelä, Magne Friberg, Christer Wiklund & Karl Gotthard
Diapause (overwintering) and direct development are alternative developmental pathways in temperate insects. Diapause necessitates physiological preparations for dormancy, while direct development is associated with strong time constraints, resulting in selection for fast development under the direct development pathway. Physiological and behavioural preparations for pupation contribute to development time, so divergent selection in them is expected between the alternative developmental pathways. Critical mass for pupation induction is a central physiological parameter for the pupation process. Here,...

Data from: Quantifying the importance of functional traits for primary production in aquatic plant communities

Camilla Gustafsson & Alf Norkko
1. Aquatic plant meadows are important coastal habitats that sustain many ecosystem functions such as primary production and carbon sequestration. Currently, there is a knowledge gap in understanding which plant functional traits e.g. leaf size or plant height underlie primary production in aquatic plant communities. 2. To study how plant traits are related to primary production, we conducted a field survey in the Baltic Sea, Finland, which is characterized by high plant species and functional...

Maps of northern peatland extent, depth, carbon storage and nitrogen storage

Gustaf Hugelius, Julie Loisel, Sarah Chadburn, Robert B. Jackson, Miriam Jones, Glen MacDonald, Maija Marushchak, David Olefeldt, Maara Packalen, Matthias B. Siewert, Claire Treat, Merritt Turestsky, Carolina Voigt & Zicheng Yu
This dataset is grids of peatland extent, peat depth, peatland organic carbon storage, peatland total nitrogen storage and approximate extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands. The grids are geotiff files in 10 km pixel resolution projected in the World Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Note that the peat depth grid shows potential peat depth everywhere,also where there is no peatland cover. For files on peatland organic carbon, total nitrogen extent and extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands, there are separate files...

Structural plasticity of olfactory neuropils in relation to insect diapause

Maertha Eriksson, Niklas Janz, Sören Nylin & Mikael A Carlsson
1. Many insects that live in temperate zones spend the cold season in a state of dormancy, referred to as diapause. As the insect must rely on resources that were gathered before entering diapause, keeping a low metabolic rate is of utmost importance. Organs that are metabolically expensive to maintain, such as the brain, can therefore become a liability to survival if they are too large. 2. Insects that go through diapause as adults generally...

Data from: Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades

Gunnar Brehm, Dirk Zeuss & Robert K. Colwell
The body size of an animal is probably its most important functional trait. For arthropods, environmental drivers of body size variation are still poorly documented and understood, especially in tropical regions. We use a unique dataset for two species-rich, phylogenetically independent moth taxa (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Arctiinae), collected along an extensive tropical elevational gradient in Costa Rica, to investigate the correlates and possible causes of body-size variation. We studied 15,047 specimens (794 species) of Geometridae and...

Data from: Oxygen limitation is not the cause of death during lethal heat exposure in an insect

Philipp Lehmann, Marion Javal & John Terblanche
Oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) is a controversial hypothesis claiming to explain variation in, and mechanistically determine, animal thermal limits. The lack of support from Insecta is typically argued to be a consequence of their high-performance respiratory systems. However, no studies have reported internal body oxygen levels during thermal ramping so it is unclear if changes in ambient gas are partially or fully offset by a compensatory respiratory system. Here we provide such an...

Data from: Heterospecific mating interactions as an interface between ecology and evolution

Daisuke Kyogoku & David Wheatcroft
Reproductive interference (costly interspecific sexual interactions) are well-understood to promote divergence in mating-relevant traits (i.e. reproductive character displacement: RCD), but it can also reduce population growth, eventually leading to local extinction of one of the species. The ecological and evolutionary processes driven by reproductive interference can interact with each other. These interactions are likely to influence whether the outcome is co-existence or extinction, but remain little studied. In this paper, we first develop an eco-evolutionary...

Data from: Testosterone in ancient hair from an extinct species

Lee Koren, Devorah Matas, Patrícia Pečnerová, Love Dalén, Alexei Tikhonov, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards & Eli Geffen
Testosterone is a key regulator in vertebrate development, physiology, and behaviour. Whereas technology allows extraction of a wealth of genetic information from extant as well as extinct species, complimentary information on steroid hormone levels may add a social, sexual, and environmental context. Hair shafts have been previously used to sequence DNA from >50,000 14C years old Siberian woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Hair-testing has also been used to measure endogenous steroids in multiple extant species. Here...

Brain size affects responsiveness in mating behavior to variation in predation pressure and sex-ratio

Alberto Corral Lopez
Despite ongoing advances in sexual selection theory, the evolution of mating decisions remains enigmatic. Cognitive processes often require simultaneous processing of multiple sources of information from environmental and social cues. However, little experimental data exist on how cognitive ability affects such fitness-associated aspects of behavior. Using advanced tracking techniques, we studied mating behaviors of guppies artificially selected for divergence in relative brain size, with known differences in cognitive ability, when predation threat and sex-ratio was...

Data from: Pollination treatment affects fruit set and modifies marketable and storable fruit quality of commercial apples

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter Hambäck & Henrik Smith
Insect-mediated pollination increases yields of many crop species and some evidence suggests that it also influences crop quality. However, the mechanistic linkages between insect-mediated pollination and crop quality are poorly known. In this study, we explored how different pollination treatments affected fruit set, dry matter content (DMC), mineral content and storability of apples. Apple flowers supplementary pollinated with compatible pollen resulted in higher initial fruit set rates, higher fruit DMC and a tendency for lower...

Data from: Ancient DNA from mastics solidifies connection between material culture and genetics of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia

Natalia Kashuba, Emrah Kırdök, Hege Damlien, Mikael A. Manninen, Bengt Nordqvist, Per Persson & Anders Götherström
The discussion of an early postglacial dual-route colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula is largely based on associating genomic data to an early dispersal of lithic technology from the East European Plain. However, a direct link between the two has been lacking. We tackle this problem by analysing human DNA from birch bark pitch mastics, “chewing gums”, from Huseby Klev, a site in western Sweden with eastern lithic technology. We generate genome-wide data for three individuals,...

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