34 Works

Data from: Seed banks are biodiversity reservoirs: species-area relationships above versus below ground

Vigdis Vandvik, Kari Klanderud, Eric Meineri, Inger E. Måren & Joachim Töpper
Soil seed banks offer plants the possibility to disperse through time. This has implications for population and community dynamics, as recognised by ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast, the conservation and restoration literature often find seed banks to be depauperate, weedy and without much conservation value or restoration potential. One explanation for these contrasting views might lie in a systematic bias in the sampling of seed banks versus established plant communities. We use the species–area...

Data from: The developmental race between maturing host plants and their butterfly herbivore – the influence of phenological matching and temperature

Diana Posledovich, Tenna Toftegaard, Christer Wiklund, Johan Ehrlén & Karl Gotthard
1. Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants that are limited in time are widespread. Therefore, many insect–plant interactions result in a developmental race, where herbivores need to complete their development before plants become unsuitable, while plants strive to minimize damage from herbivores by outgrowing them. 2. When spring phenologies of interacting species change asymmetrically in response to climate warming, there will be a change in the developmental state of host plants at the...

Data from: Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits

Baharan Kazemi, Gabriella Gamberale Stille, Olof Leimar & Gabriella Gamberale-Stille
Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative...

Data from: The effect of brain size evolution on feeding propensity, digestive efficiency and juvenile growth

Alexander Kotrschal, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Sönke Szidat & Niclas Kolm
One key hypothesis in the study of brain size evolution is the expensive tissue hypothesis; the idea that increased investment into the brain should be compensated by decreased investment into other costly organs, for instance the gut. While the hypothesis is supported by both comparative and experimental evidence, little is known about the potential changes in energetic requirements or digestive traits following such evolutionary shifts in brain and gut size. Organisms may meet the greater...

Data from: Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time entanglement–based quantum key distribution

Jonathan Jogenfors, Ashraf Mohamed Elhassan, Johan Ahrens, Mohamed Bourennane & Jan-Åke Larsson
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values...

Data from: Effect of soil pH increase by biochar on NO, N2O and N2 production during denitrification in acid soils

Alfred Obia, Gerard Cornelissen, Jan Mulder & Peter Dörsch
Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and...

A database of radionuclide biological half-life values for wildlife

N.A. Beresford, K. Beaugelin-Seiller, C. Wells, S. Vives-Lynch, J. Vives I Batlle, M.D. Wood, K. Tagami, A. Real, J. Burgos, S. Fesenko, M. Cujic, A. Kryshev, N. Pachal, B.S. Su, C.L. Barnett, S. Uchida, T. Hinton, J. Mihalík, K. Stark, C. Willrodt & J.S. Chaplow
Data comprise biological and ecological half-life values for marine, freshwater, terrestrial and riparian organisms. The database includes 1908 biological half-life values for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine, freshwater, terrestrial and riparian). The compilation of values from a range of sources was conducted by an international working group under the auspices of an International Atomic Energy Agency programme.

Data from: Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

Hélène Audusseau, Gundula Kolb & Niklas Janz
Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should...

Data from: Natural light exposure, sleep and depression among day workers and shiftworkers at Arctic and Equatorial latitudes

Elaine Cristina Marqueze, Suleima Vasconcelos, Johanna Garefelt, Debra J. Skene, Claudia Roberta Moreno & Arne Lowden
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between individual natural light exposure, sleep need, and depression at two latitudes, one extreme with a few hours of light per day during winter, and the other with equal hours of light and darkness throughout the year. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a sample of Brazilian workers (Equatorial, n = 488 workers) and a Swedish sample (Arctic, n = 1,273). Results: The reported mean total natural light...

Data from: Seed dispersal by ungulates as an ecological filter: a trait-based meta-analysis

Aurélie Albert, Alistair G. Auffret, Eric Cosyns, Sara A. O. Cousins, Bram D'Hondt, Carsten Eichberg, Amy E. Eycott, Thilo Heinken, Maurice Hoffmann, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Juan E. Malo, Anders Mårell, Maarten Mouissie, Robin J. Pakeman, Mélanie Picard, Jan Plue, Peter Poschlod, Sam Provoost, Kiowa Alraune Schulze & Christophe Baltzinger
Plant communities are often dispersal-limited and zoochory can be an efficient mechanism for plants to colonize new patches of potentially suitable habitat. We predicted that seed dispersal by ungulates acts as an ecological filter – which differentially affects individuals according to their characteristics and shapes species assemblages – and that the filter varies according to the dispersal mechanism (endozoochory, fur-epizoochory and hoof-epizoochory). We conducted two-step individual participant data meta-analyses of 52 studies on plant dispersal...

Data from: Edge influence on vegetation at natural and anthropogenic edges of boreal forests in Canada and Fennoscandia

Karen A. Harper, S. Ellen Macdonald, Michael S. Mayerhofer, Shekhar R. Biswas, Per-Anders Esseen, Kristoffer Hylander, Katherine J. Stewart, Azim U. Mallik, Pierre Drapeau, Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson, Daniel Lesieur, Jari Kouki & Yves Bergeron
1. Although anthropogenic edges are an important consequence of timber harvesting, edges due to natural disturbances or landscape heterogeneity are also common. Forest edges have been well-studied in temperate and tropical forests, but less so in less productive, disturbance-adapted boreal forests. 2. We synthesized data on forest vegetation at edges of boreal forests and compared edge influence among edge types (fire, cut, lake/wetland; old vs. young), forest types (broadleaf vs. coniferous) and geographic regions. Our...

Data from: Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Masahito Tsuboi, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer & Niclas Kolm
Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using...

Data from: Intergenomic interactions between mitochondrial and Y-linked genes shape male mating patterns and fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

Winston K. W. Yee, Björn Rogell, Bernardo Lemos, Damian K. Dowling & Winston K.W. Yee
Under maternal inheritance, mitochondrial genomes are prone to accumulate mutations that exhibit male-biased effects. Such mutations should, however, place selection on the nuclear genome for modifier adaptations that mitigate mitochondrial-incurred male harm. One gene region that might harbor such modifiers is the Y-chromosome, given the abundance of Y-linked variation for male fertility, and because Y-linked modifiers would not exert antagonistic effects in females because they would be found only in males. Recent studies in Drosophila...

Data from: Air humidity thresholds trigger active moss spore release to extend dispersal in space and time

Victor Johansson, Niklas Lönnell, Üllar Rannik, Sebastian Sundberg & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Understanding the complete dispersal process is important for making realistic predictions of species distributions, but mechanisms for diaspore release in wind-dispersed species are often unknown. However, diaspore release under conditions that increase the probability of longer dispersal distances and mechanisms that extend dispersal events in time may have evolutionary advantages. 2. We quantified air humidity thresholds regulating spore release in the moss Brachythecium rutabulum. We also investigated the prevailing micrometeorological conditions when these thresholds...

Data from: Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe

Jenny Hagenblad, Jennifer Hülskötter, Kamal Prasad Acharya, Jörg Brunet, Olivier Chabrerie, Sara A. O. Cousins, Pervaiz A. Dar, Martin Diekmann, Pieter De Frenne, Martin Hermy, Aurélien Jamoneau, Annette Kolb, Isgard Lemke, Jan Plue, Zafar A. Reshi & Bente Jessen Graae
Background: Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species’ native...

Data from: Phytoplankton community interactions and environmental sensitivity in coastal and offshore habitats

Jennifer R. Griffiths, Susanna Hajdu, Andrea S. Downing, Olle Hjerne, Ulf Larsson & Monika Winder
Assessing the relative importance of environmental conditions and community interactions is necessary for evaluating the sensitivity of biological communities to anthropogenic change. Phytoplankton communities have a central role in aquatic food webs and biogeochemical cycles, therefore, consequences of differing community sensitivities may have broad ecosystem effects. Using two long-term time series (28 and 20 years) from the Baltic Sea, we evaluated coastal and offshore major phytoplankton taxonomic group biovolume patterns over annual and monthly time-scales...

Data from: Male butterflies use an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to tailor ejaculates

Helena Larsdotter-Mellström, Kerstin Eriksson, Niklas Janz, Sören Nylin & Mikael A. Carlsson
1. When females mate with multiple partners, the risk of sperm competition depends on female mating history. To maximize fitness, males should adjust their mating investment according to this risk. In polyandrous butterflies males transfer a large, nutritious ejaculate at mating. Larger ejaculates delay female remating and confer an advantage in sperm competition. 2. We test if male ejaculate size in the butterfly Pieris napi (Lepidoptera) varies with female mating history and thus sperm competition,...

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: Towards a mechanistic understanding of insect life history evolution: oxygen-dependent induction of moulting explains moulting sizes

Sami M. Kivelä, Magne Friberg, Christer Wiklund, Olof Leimar & Karl Gotthard
Moults characterise insect growth trajectories, typically following a consistent pattern known as Dyar's rule; proportional size increments remain constant across inter-instar moults. Empirical work suggests that oxygen limitation triggers moulting. The insect respiratory system, and its oxygen supply capacity, grows primarily at moults. It is hypothesized that the oxygen demand increases with increasing body mass, eventually meeting the oxygen supply capacity at an instar-specific critical mass where moulting is triggered. Deriving from this hypothesis, we...

Data from: Brain size affects the behavioral response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Wouter Van Der Bijl, Malin Thyselius, Alexander Kotrschal & Niclas Kolm
Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four...

Data from: Thermal plasticity of growth and development varies adaptively among alternative developmental pathways

Sami Mikael Kivelä, Beatrice Svensson, Alma Tiwe & Karl Gotthard
Polyphenism, the expression of discrete alternative phenotypes, is often a consequence of a developmental switch. Physiological changes induced by a developmental switch potentially affect reaction norms, but the evolution and existence of alternative reaction norms remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in the butterfly Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), thermal reaction norms of several life history traits vary adaptively among switch-induced alternative developmental pathways of diapause and direct development. The switch was affected both by...

Data from: Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines

Sandra Stålhandske, Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher & Olof Leimar
The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range...

Data from: Within species support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: a negative association between brain size and visceral fat storage in females of the Pacific seaweed pipefish

Masahito Tsuboi, Jun Shoji, Atsushi Sogabe, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Niclas Kolm
The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the high cost of brain development and maintenance is predicted to constrain adaptive brain size evolution (the expensive tissue hypothesis, ETH). Here, we test the ETH in a teleost fish with predominant female mating competition (reversed sex roles) and male pregnancy, the pacific seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. The relative size of the brain and other energetically expensive organs (kidney, liver,...

Data from: Maintained functional diversity in benthic communities in spite of diverging functional identities

Benjamin Weigel, Thorsten Blenckner & Erik Bonsdorff
Ecological studies based on time-series often investigate community changes centered on species abundance or biomass but rarely expose the consequential functional aspects underlying such changes. Functional diversity measures have proven to be more accurate predictors for ecosystem functioning than traditional taxonomic approaches and hence gained much attention. There are only limited studies available that analyse the functional implications behind decadal changes of entire communities. We studied zoobenthic communities of two habitats, sheltered and exposed, of...

Data from: Water use by Swedish boreal forests in a changing climate

Thomas B. Hasper, Göran Wallin, Shubhangi Lamba, Marianne Hall, Fernando Jaramillo, Hjalmar Laudon, Sune Linder, Jane L. Medhurst, Mats Räntfors, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson & Johan Uddling
The rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have the potential to substantially affect the terrestrial water and energy balance by altering the stomatal conductance and transpiration of trees. Many models assume decreases in stomatal conductance and plant water use under rising [CO2], which has been used as a plausible explanation for the positive global trend in river run-off over the past century. Plant water use is, however, also affected by changes...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Stockholm University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • Ghent University
  • University of Bergen
  • University of Helsinki
  • Karolinska Institute
  • University of Bath
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • University of Pennsylvania