37 Works

Data from: The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy

Simon Jakobsson & Regina Lindborg
1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union (EU) subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees/ha. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little...

Data from: Population demography and heterozygosity-fitness correlations in natural guppy populations: an examination using sexually selected fitness traits

Catherine E. Grueber, John L. Fitzpatrick, Alessandro Devigili, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W. Ramnarine & Jonathan P. Evans
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been examined in a wide diversity of contexts, and the results are often used to infer the role of inbreeding in natural populations. Although population demography, reflected in population-level genetic parameters such as allelic diversity or identity disequilibrium, is expected to play a role in the emergence and detectability of HFCs, direct comparisons of variation in HFCs across many populations of the same species, with different genetic histories, are rare. Here,...

Data from: Metabolome dynamics of diapause in the butterfly Pieris napi: distinguishing maintenance, termination and post-diapause phases

Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher, Vladimir Kostal, Martin Moos, Petr Simek, Soren Nylin, Rasmus Agren, Leif Varemo, Christer Wiklund, Christopher W. Wheat & Karl Gotthard
Diapause is a deep resting stage facilitating temporal avoidance of unfavourable environmental conditions that is used by many insects to adapt their life cycle to seasonal variation. Although considerable work has been invested in trying to understand each of the major diapause stages (induction, maintenance and termination), we know very little about the transitions between stages, especially diapause termination. Understanding diapause termination is critical for modelling and predicting spring emergence and winter physiology of insects,...

Data from: Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster

Olga Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick Nässel & Olof Leimar
A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in plant chemical defences drives latitudinal patterns of leaf herbivory

Xoaquón Moreira, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge C. Berny-Mier Y Terán, Bart G. H. Timmermans, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Felisa Covelo, Gaétan Glauser, Sergio Rasmann, Ayco J. M. Tack & Hans Henrik Bruun
A long-standing paradigm in ecology holds that herbivore pressure and thus plant defences increase towards lower latitudes. However, recent work has challenged this prediction where studies have found no relationship or opposite trends where herbivory or plant defences increase at higher latitudes. Here we tested for latitudinal variation in herbivory, chemical defences (phenolic compounds), and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen) in leaves of a long-lived tree species, the English oak Quercus robur. We further investigated...

Data from: Time-limited environments affect the evolution of egg - body size allometry

Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Will Sowersby, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer & Björn Rogell
Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the co-evolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. In order to rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound...

Data from: Phenological synchrony between a butterfly and its host plants: experimental test of effects of spring temperature

Diana Posledovich, Tenna Toftegaard, Christer Wiklund, Johan Ehrlén & Karl Gotthard
1. Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2. Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation...

Data from: Adaptive developmental plasticity in a butterfly: mechanisms for size and time at pupation differ between diapause and direct development

Sami M. Kivelä, Magne Friberg, Christer Wiklund & Karl Gotthard
Diapause (overwintering) and direct development are alternative developmental pathways in temperate insects. Diapause necessitates physiological preparations for dormancy, while direct development is associated with strong time constraints, resulting in selection for fast development under the direct development pathway. Physiological and behavioural preparations for pupation contribute to development time, so divergent selection in them is expected between the alternative developmental pathways. Critical mass for pupation induction is a central physiological parameter for the pupation process. Here,...

Data from: In situ warming strengthens trophic cascades in a coastal food web

Filip Svensson, Erik Karlsson, Anna Gårdmark, Jens Olsson, Anders Adill, Jenny Zie, Pauline Snoeijs & Johan S. Eklöf
Global warming may affect most organisms and their interactions. Theory and simple mesocosm experiments suggest that consumer top–down control over primary producer biomass should strengthen with warming, since consumer respiration increases faster with warming than plant photosynthesis. However, these predictions have so far not been tested on natural communities that have experienced warming over many generations. Natural systems display a higher diversity, heterogeneity and complexity than mesocosms, which could alter predicted effects of warming. Here...

Data from: Calcicolous plants colonize limed mires after long-distance dispersal

Niklas Lönnell & Kristoffer Hylander
Aim Dispersal range is a key factor for understanding species’ persistence in dynamic landscapes. However, dispersal, especially over long distances, is inherently difficult to study. Making use of a unique system of anthropogenically disturbed, geographically isolated mires, we assessed dispersal ranges for a group of plants restricted to wet calcareous conditions via empirical studies of colonization patterns. We hypothesized that more species would have colonized the less isolated mires and that colonization frequencies would be...

Data from: Waiving the extinction debt: can shade from coffee prevent extinctions of epiphytic plants from isolated trees?

Kristoffer Hylander & Sileshi Nemomissa
Aim: Local extinction after habitat modifications is often delayed, leading to an extinction debt. Our first aim was to develop a conceptual model for natural and human-mediated habitat improvements after a disturbance that may waive part of the predicted extinction debt. Second, we wanted to test this model on the distribution of epiphytic plants on trees that had been isolated in the agricultural matrix after forest clearing, around which coffee subsequently had been planted with...

Data from: Environmental stress correlates with increases in both genetic and residual variances: a meta-analysis of animal studies

Piotr K. Rowinski & Björn Rogell
Adaptive evolutionary responses are determined by the strength of selection and the amount of genetic variation within traits, however, both are known to vary across environmental conditions. As selection is generally expected to be strongest under stressful conditions, understanding how the expression of genetic variation changes across stressful and benign environmental conditions is crucial for predicting the rate of adaptive change. While theory generally predicts increased genetic variation under stress, previous syntheses of the field...

Data from: Experience-dependent mushroom body plasticity in butterflies: consequences of search complexity and host range

Laura J.A. Van Dijk, Niklas Janz, Alexander Schäpers, Gabriella Gamberale Stille, Mikael A. Carlsson, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille & Laura J. A. Van Dijk
An ovipositing insect experiences many sensory challenges during her search for a suitable host plant. These sensory challenges become exceedingly pronounced when host range increases, as larger varieties of sensory inputs have to be perceived and processed in the brain. Neural capacities can be exceeded upon information overload, inflicting costs on oviposition accuracy. One presumed generalist strategy to diminish information overload is the acquisition of a focused search during its lifetime based on experiences within...

Data from: Possible glimpses into early speciation: the effect of ovarian fluid on sperm velocity accords with post-copulatory isolation between two guppy populations

Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro & Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative...

Data from: The shape of success in a turbulent world: wave exposure filtering of coral reef herbivory

Sonia Bejarano, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Iliana Chollett, Robert Allen, George Roff, Alyssa Marshell, Robert Steneck, Sebastian C. A. Ferse & Peter J. Mumby
While environmental filters are well-known factors influencing community assembly, the extent to which these modify species functions, and entire ecosystem processes, is poorly understood. Focusing on a high-diversity system, we ask whether environmental filtering has ecosystem-wide effects beyond community assembly. We characterise a coral reef herbivorous fish community for swimming performance based on ten functional traits derived from fish morphology. We then investigate whether wave exposure modifies the functional make-up of herbivory, and the absolute...

Data from: Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Kotrschal Alexander, Severine D. Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K. Cornwallis, Hanne Lovlie, Niclas Kolm & A. Kotrschal
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species...

Data from: Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size

Alexander Kotrschal, Hong-Li Zeng, Wouter Van Der Bijl, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Kurt Kotrschal, Kristiaan Pelckmans & Niclas Kolm
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain...

Data from: Template for using biological trait groupings when exploring large-scale variation in seafloor multifunctionality

Anna Villnäs, Judi Hewitt, Martin Snickars, Mats Westerbom & Alf Norkko
Understanding large-scale spatial variation in ecosystem properties and associated functionality is key for successful conservation of ecosystems. This study provides a template for how to estimate differences in ecosystem functionality over large spatial scales by using groupings of biological traits. We focus on trait groupings that describe three important benthic ecosystem properties, namely bioturbation, community stability and juvenile dispersal. Recognizing that groups of traits interact and are constrained within an organism, we statistically define important...

Data from: Direct and plant trait-mediated effects of the local environmental context on butterfly oviposition patterns

Alicia Valdés & Johan Ehrlén
Variation in the intensity of plant-animal interactions over different spatial scales is widespread and might strongly influence fitness and trait selection in plants. Differences in traits among plant individuals have been shown to influence variation in interaction intensities within populations, while differences in environmental factors and community composition are shown to be important for variation over larger scales. However, little is still known about the relative importance of the local environmental context vs. plant traits...

Data from: Nutrient deficiencies and the restriction of compensatory mechanisms in copepods

Alfred Burian, Julia Grosse, Monika Winder & Henricus T. S. Boschker
1.The flexible regulation of feeding behaviour and nutrient metabolism is a prerequisite for consumers to grow and survive under variable food conditions. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological trade-offs that restrict regulatory mechanisms in consumers to evaluate the consequences of nutrient limitations for trophic interactions. 2.Here, we assessed behavioural and physiological adjustments to nutrient deficiencies in copepods and examined whether energy limitation, food digestibility or co-limitation with a second nutrient restricted compensatory mechanisms....

Data from: Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change

Emilie Lindkvist, Örjan Ekeberg & Jon Norberg
As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown....

Data from: Monthly microclimate models in a managed boreal forest landscape

Caroline Greiser, Eric Meineri, Miska Luoto, Johan Ehrlén & Kristoffer Hylander
The majority of microclimate studies have been done in topographically complex landscapes to quantify and predict how near-ground temperatures vary as a function of terrain properties. However, in forests understory temperatures can be strongly influenced also by vegetation. We quantified the relative influence of vegetation features and physiography (topography and moisture-related variables) on understory temperatures in managed boreal forests in central Sweden. We used a multivariate regression approach to relate near-ground temperature of 203 loggers...

Data from: Learning of salient prey traits explains Batesian mimicry evolution

Baharan Kazemi, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Therese Wåtz, Christer Wiklund & Olof Leimar
Batesian mimicry evolution entails an initial major mutation that produces a rough resemblance to the model, followed by smaller improving changes. To examine the learning psychology of this process, we applied established ideas about mimicry in Papilio polyxenes asterius of the model Battus philenor. We performed experiments with wild birds as predators and butterfly wings as semi-artificial prey. Wings of hybrids of P. p. asterius and P. machaon were used to approximate the first mutant,...

Data from: Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies

Sandra Stålhandske, Karl Gotthard & Olof Leimar
Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate...

Data from: Female fecundity variation affects reproducibility of experiments on host plant preference and acceptance in a phytophagous insect

Alexander Schäpers, Hampus Petrén, Christopher W. Wheat, Christer Wiklund & Magne Friberg
Reproducibility is a scientific cornerstone. Many recent studies, however, describe a reproducibility crisis and call for assessments of reproducibility across scientific domains. Here, we explore the reproducibility of a classic ecological experiment—that of assessing female host plant preference and acceptance in phytophagous insects, a group in which host specialization is a key driver of diversification. We exposed multiple cohorts of Pieris napi butterflies from the same population to traditional host acceptance and preference tests on...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    37

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    37

Affiliations

  • Stockholm University
    37
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    4
  • Uppsala University
    4
  • Linköping University
    4
  • University of Helsinki
    3
  • University of Padua
    2
  • University of the West Indies
    2
  • University of Tartu
    2
  • University of Western Australia
    2
  • University of California, Davis
    2