42 Works

Data from: Testes size increases with sperm competition risk and intensity in bony fish and sharks

Amy G. Rowley, Toby S. Daly-Engel & John L. Fitzpatrick
Female multiple mating provides the opportunity for sexual selection to continue after gamete release, generating strong selection on male reproductive traits. In particular, in species where female multiple mating is common, males are expected to invest more in testicular tissue to afford them a numerical advantage during sperm competition. However, although testes size (correcting for body size) is a commonly used proxy of the strength of sperm competition, there is surprisingly scant direct evidence linking...

Data from: Quantifying the importance of functional traits for primary production in aquatic plant communities

Camilla Gustafsson & Alf Norkko
1. Aquatic plant meadows are important coastal habitats that sustain many ecosystem functions such as primary production and carbon sequestration. Currently, there is a knowledge gap in understanding which plant functional traits e.g. leaf size or plant height underlie primary production in aquatic plant communities. 2. To study how plant traits are related to primary production, we conducted a field survey in the Baltic Sea, Finland, which is characterized by high plant species and functional...

Data from: Persistent postmating, prezygotic reproductive isolation between populations

Martin D. Garlovsky & Rhonda R. Snook
Studying reproductive barriers between populations of the same species is critical to understand how speciation may proceed. Growing evidence suggests postmating, prezygotic (PMPZ) reproductive barriers play an important role in the evolution of early taxonomic divergence. However, the contribution of PMPZ isolation to speciation is typically studied between species in which barriers that maintain isolation may not be those that contributed to reduced gene flow between populations. Moreover, in internally fertilizing animals, PMPZ isolation is...

Data from: Testosterone in ancient hair from an extinct species

Lee Koren, Devorah Matas, Patrícia Pečnerová, Love Dalén, Alexei Tikhonov, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards & Eli Geffen
Testosterone is a key regulator in vertebrate development, physiology, and behaviour. Whereas technology allows extraction of a wealth of genetic information from extant as well as extinct species, complimentary information on steroid hormone levels may add a social, sexual, and environmental context. Hair shafts have been previously used to sequence DNA from >50,000 14C years old Siberian woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Hair-testing has also been used to measure endogenous steroids in multiple extant species. Here...

Data from: Oxygen limitation is not the cause of death during lethal heat exposure in an insect

Philipp Lehmann, Marion Javal & John Terblanche
Oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) is a controversial hypothesis claiming to explain variation in, and mechanistically determine, animal thermal limits. The lack of support from Insecta is typically argued to be a consequence of their high-performance respiratory systems. However, no studies have reported internal body oxygen levels during thermal ramping so it is unclear if changes in ambient gas are partially or fully offset by a compensatory respiratory system. Here we provide such an...

Data from: Butterfly-host plant synchrony determines patterns of host use across years and regions

Tenna Toftegaard, Diana Posledovich, Jose A. Navarro-Cano, Christer Wiklund, Karl Gotthard & Johan Ehrlen
Variation in the degree of synchrony among host plants and herbivores can disrupt or intensify species interactions, alter the strength of natural selection on traits associated with phenological timing, and drive novel host plant associations. We used field observations from three regions during four seasons to examine how timing of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to six host plant species (Arabis hirsuta, Cardamine pratensis, Arabis glabra, Arabidopsis thaliana, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Capsella bursa-pastoris) influenced...

Data from: Seasonally varying marine influences on the coastal ecosystem detected through molecular gut analysis

Vasiliki Verschut, Alma Strandmark, Rodrigo Esparza-Salas & Peter A. Hamback
Terrestrial predators on marine shores benefit from the inflow of organisms and matter from the marine ecosystem, often causing very high predator densities and indirectly affecting the abundance of other prey species on shores. This indirect effect may be particularly strong if predators shift diets between seasons. We therefore quantified the seasonal variation in diet of two wolf spider species that dominate the shoreline predator community, using molecular gut content analyses with general primers to...

Data from: Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades

Gunnar Brehm, Dirk Zeuss & Robert K. Colwell
The body size of an animal is probably its most important functional trait. For arthropods, environmental drivers of body size variation are still poorly documented and understood, especially in tropical regions. We use a unique dataset for two species-rich, phylogenetically independent moth taxa (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Arctiinae), collected along an extensive tropical elevational gradient in Costa Rica, to investigate the correlates and possible causes of body-size variation. We studied 15,047 specimens (794 species) of Geometridae and...

Data from: Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes

Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin B. Hawley, Marie Gustafsson-Sendén, Ingrid Ekström & Jonas K. Olofsson
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in...

Data from: Adaptation in temporally variable environments: stickleback armor in periodically breaching bar-built estuaries

Antoine Paccard, Ben A. Wasserman, Dieta Hanson, Louis Astorg, Dan Durston, Sara Kurland, Travis M. Apgar, Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Eric P. Palkovacs, Andrew P. Hendry, Rowan D.H. Barrett & Rowan D. H. Barrett
The evolutionary consequences of temporal variation in selection remain hotly debated. We explored these consequences by studying threespine stickleback in a set of bar-built estuaries along the central California coast. In most years, heavy rains induce water flow strong enough to break through isolating sand bars, connecting streams to the ocean. New sand bars typically re-form within a few weeks or months, thereby re-isolating populations within the estuaries. These breaching events cause severe and often...

Data from: Grazers affect selection on inflorescence height both directly and indirectly and effects change over time

Michel Thomann, Johan Ehrlén & Jon Ågren
Selection mediated by one biotic agent will often be modified by the presence of other biotic interactions, and the importance of such indirect effects might change over time. We conducted an 11-year field experiment to test the prediction that large grazers affect selection on floral display of the dimorphic herb Primula farinosa not only directly through differential grazing damage, but also indirectly by affecting vegetation height and thereby selection mediated by pollinators and seed predators....

Data from: Host use dynamics in a heterogeneous fitness landscape generates oscillations in host range and diversification

Mariana P. Braga, Sabrina B.L. Araujo, Salvatore Agosta, Daniel Brooks, Eric Hoberg, Soren Nylin, Niklas Janz & Walter A. Boeger
Colonization of novel hosts is thought to play an important role in parasite diversification, yet little consensus has been achieved about the macroevolutionary consequences of changes in host use. Here we offer a mechanistic basis for the origins of parasite diversity by simulating lineages evolved in silico. We describe an individual-based model in which (i) parasites undergo sexual reproduction limited by genetic proximity, (ii) hosts are uniformly distributed along a one-dimensional resource gradient, and (iii)...

Data from: Scale‐dependent spatial patterns in benthic communities around a tropical island seascape

Eoghan A. Aston, Gareth J. Williams, J. A. Mattias Green, Andrew J. Davies, Lisa M. Wedding, Jamison M. Gove, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Timothy T. Jones & Jeanette Clark
Understanding and predicting patterns of spatial organization across ecological communities is central to the field of landscape ecology, and a similar line of inquiry has begun to evolve sub‐tidally among seascape ecologists. Much of our current understanding of the processes driving marine community patterns, particularly in the tropics, has come from small‐scale, spatially‐discrete data that are often not representative of the broader seascape. Here we expand the spatial extent of seascape ecology studies and combine...

Data from: Land use legacy effects on woody vegetation in agricultural landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia

Girma Shumi, Jannik Schultner, Ine Dorresteijn, Patrícia Rodrigues, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Feyera Senbeta & Joern Fischer
Aim: Past land use legacy effects – extinction debts and immigration credits – might be particularly pronounced in regions characterized by complex and dynamic landscape change. The aim of this study was to evaluate how current woody plant species distribution, composition and richness related to historical and present land uses. Location: A smallholder farming landscape in southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: We surveyed woody plants in 72 randomly selected 1 ha sites in farmland, and grouped them...

Data from: Phenotypic biomarkers of climatic impacts on declining insect populations: a key role for decadal drought, thermal buffering and amplification effects and host plant dynamics

Jofre Carnicer, Constantí Stefanescu, Maria Vives-Ingla, Carlos López, Sofia Cortizas, Christopher Wheat, Roger Vila, Joan Llusià & Josep Penuelas
1. Widespread population declines have been reported for diverse Mediterranean butterflies over the last three decades, and have been significantly associated to increased global change impacts. The specific landscape and climatic drivers of these declines remain uncertain for most declining species. 2. Here we analyse whether plastic phenotypic traits of a model butterfly species (Pieris napi) perform as reliable biomarkers of vulnerability to extreme temperature impacts in natural populations, showing contrasting trends in thermally exposed...

Data from: The fluctuating world of a tundra predator guild: bottom-up constraints overrule top-down species interactions in winter

Marianne Stoessel, Bodil Elmhagen, Mikael Vinka, Peter Hellström & Anders Angerbjörn
Global warming is predicted to change ecosystem functioning and structure in Arctic ecosystems by strengthening top-down species interactions, i.e. predation pressure on small herbivores and interference between predators. Yet, previous research is biased towards the summer season. Due to greater abiotic constraints, Arctic ecosystem characteristics might be more pronounced in winter. Here we test the hypothesis that top-down species interactions prevail over bottom-up effects in Scandinavian mountain tundra (Northern Sweden) where effects of climate warming...

Data from: The influence of distance to perennial surface water on ant communities in Mopane woodlands, northern Botswana

Fredrik Dalerum, Tarryn Anne Retief, Carl Peter Havemann, Christian T. Chimimba, Benrdt Janse Van Rensburg & Berndt Janse Van Rensburg
Studies of biodiversity along environmental gradients provide information on how ecological communities change in response to biotic and abiotic factors. For instance, distance to water is associated with several factors that shape the structure and the functioning of ecosystems at a range of spatial scales. We investigated the influence of distance to a perennial water source on ant communities in a semi-arid savanna in northern Botswana. Ant abundance, taxonomic richness and both alpha and beta...

Data from: Selection by parasitoid females among closely related hosts based on volatiles: Identifying relevant chemical cues

Lisa Fors, Raimondas Mozuraitis, Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Thomas A. Verschut & Peter A. Hambäck
Parasitoid fitness is influenced by the ability to overcome host defense strategies and by the ability of parasitoid females to select high-quality host individuals. When females are unable to differentiate among hosts, their fitness will decrease with an increasing abundance of resistant hosts. To understand the effect of mixed host populations on female fitness, it is therefore necessary to investigate the ability of female parasitoids to select among hosts. Here, we used behavioral assays, headspace...

Data from: Brain size predicts behavioural plasticity in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): an experiment

Gabor Herczeg, Tamás J. Urszán, Stephanie Orf, Gergely Nagy, Alexander Kotrschal & Niclas Kolm
Understanding how animal personality (consistent between-individual behavioural differences) arises has become a central topic in behavioural sciences. This endeavour is complicated by the fact that not only the mean behaviour of individuals (behavioural type), but also the strength of their reaction to environmental change (behavioural plasticity) varies consistently. Personality and cognitive abilities are linked and we suggest that behavioural plasticity could also be explained by differences in brain size (a proxy for cognitive abilities), since...

Data from: Management trade-offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: direct and indirect effects of organic production

Ulrika Samnegard, Georgina Alins, Virginie Boreux, Jordi Bosch, Daniel García, Anne-Kathrin Happe, Alexandra Klein, Marcos Miñarro, Karsten Mody, Mario Porcel, Anselm Rodrigo, Laura Roquer-Beni, Marco Tasin, Peter A. Hambäck & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Apple is considered the most important fruit crop in temperate areas and profitable production depends on multiple ecosystem services, including the reduction of pest damage and the provision of sufficient pollination levels. Management approaches present an inherent trade-off as each affects species differently. 2. We quantified the direct and indirect effects of management (organic versus integrated pest management (IPM)) on species richness, ecosystem services and fruit production in 85 apple orchards in three European...

Data from: Biased generalization of salient traits drives the evolution of warning signals

Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Baharan Kazemi, Alexandra Balogh & Olof Leimar
The importance of receiver biases in shaping the evolution of many signalling systems is widely acknowledged. Here we show that receiver bias can explain which traits evolve to become warning signals. For warning colouration, a generalization bias for a signalling trait can result from predators learning to discriminate unprofitable from profitable prey. However, since the colour patterns of prey are complex traits with multiple components, it is crucial to understand which of the many aspects...

Data from: Multimodal MRI suggests that male homosexuality may be linked to cerebral midline structures

Amirhossein Manzouri & Ivanka Savic
The neurobiology of sexual preference is often discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism. Yet, our knowledge about possible cerebral differences between homosexual men (HoM), heterosexual men (HeM) and heterosexual women (HeW) are extremely limited. In the present MRI study we addressed this issue investigating measures of cerebral anatomy and function, which were previously reported to show sex difference. Specifically, we asked whether there were any signs of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism among HoM, if...

Data from: Resource overlap and dilution effects shape host plant use in a myrmecophilous butterfly

Alicia Valdés & Johan Ehrlén
1. The effects of consumers on fitness of resource organisms are a complex function of the spatio-temporal distribution of the resources, consumer functional responses and trait preferences, and availability of other resources. 2. The ubiquitous variation in the intensity of species interactions has important consequences for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of natural populations. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes causing this variation and their operational scales. Here, we examine how variation in the...

Data from: Microevolutionary selection dynamics acting on immune genes of the green veined white butterfly, Pieris napi

Naomi L.P. Keehnen, Jason Hill, Sören Nylin & Christopher W. Wheat
Insects rely on their innate immune system to successfully mediate complex interactions with their microbiota, as well as the microbes present in the environment. Previous work has shown that components of the canonical immune gene repertoire evolve rapidly and have evolutionary characteristics originating from interactions with fast-evolving microorganisms. Although these interactions are likely to vary among populations, there is a poor understanding of the microevolutionary dynamics of immune genes, especially in non-Dipteran insects. Here we...

Data from: Sensory deficiencies affect resources selection and associational effects at two spatial scales

Thomas A. Verschut, Brian D. Inouye & Peter A. Hambäck
Many insect species have limited sensory abilities and may not be able to perceive the quality of different types of resources while approaching patchily distributed resources. These restrictions may lead to differences in selection rates between separate patches and between different resource types within a patch, which may have consequences for associational effects between resources. In this study, we used an oviposition assay containing different frequencies of apple and banana substrates divided over two patches...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Stockholm University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Oviedo
  • McGill University
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • University of Helsinki
  • Uppsala University
  • Karolinska Institute
  • University of Sheffield