57 Works

Asymmetric regulation of caterpillar development by changes in photoperiod

Olle Lindestad, Karl Gotthard & Inger Aalberg Haugen
Many insects possess the plastic ability to either develop directly to adulthood, or enter diapause and postpone reproduction until the next year, depending on environmental cues (primarily photoperiod) that signal the amount of time remaining until the end of the growth season. These two alternative pathways often differ in co-adapted life history traits, e.g. with slower development and larger size in individuals headed for diapause. The developmental timing of these differences may be of adaptive...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of forktail damselflies (genus Ischnura) reveals a dynamic macroevolutionary history of female colour polymorphisms

Rachel Blow, Beatriz Willink & Erik Svensson
Colour polymorphisms are popular study systems among biologists interested in evolutionary dynamics, genomics, sexual selection and sexual conflict. In many damselflies, such as in the globally distributed genus Ischnura (forktails), female colour polymorphisms occur in some species. Female-polymorphic species contain two or three female morphs, one of which is male-coloured (androchrome or male mimic) and co-exists with sexually dimorphic (heterochrome) females. These female colour polymorphisms are considered to be maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict, but...

Out in the open: behavior’s effect on predation-risk and thermoregulation by aposematic caterpillars

Matthew Nielsen & Johanna Mappes
Warning coloration should be under strong stabilizing selection but often displays considerable intraspecific variation. Opposing selection on color by predators and temperature is one potential explanation for this seeming paradox. Despite the importance of behavior for both predator avoidance and thermoregulation, its role in mediating selection by predators and temperature on warning coloration has received little attention. Wood tiger moth caterpillars, Arctia plantaginis, have aposematic coloration, an orange patch on the black body. The size...

Low persistence of genetic rescue across generations in the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)

Karin Norén, Anna Lotsander, Malin Hasselgren, Malin Larm, Johan Wallén & Anders Angerbjörn
Genetic rescue can facilitate the recovery of small and isolated populations suffering from inbreeding depression. Long-term effects are however complex and examples spanning over multiple generations under natural conditions are scarce. The aim of this study was to test for long-term effects of natural genetic rescue in a small population of Scandinavian Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). By combining a genetically verified pedigree covering almost 20 years with a long-term dataset on individual fitness (n=837 individuals),...

Climate effects on the breeding ecology of pied flycatchers at the north of their range

Marta Lomas Vega, Thord Fransson & Cecilia Kullberg
The file “Raw data.csv” contains all data used for the analyses of the article “The effects of four decades of climate change on the breeding ecology of an avian sentinel species across a 1500-km latitudinal gradient are stronger at high latitudes” (DOI: 10.1002/ece3.7459). This data was used to investigate the effect of climate warming on the breeding time and breeding success of European pied flycatchers breeding in Sweden during 1982-2017. The data set contains 29035...

Raw data: Direct and insect-mediated effects of pathogens on plant growth and fitness

Laura Van Dijk, Johan Ehrlen & Ayco Tack
1. Plants are attacked by a large diversity of pathogens. These pathogens can affect plant growth and fitness directly, but also indirectly by inducing changes in the host plant that affect interactions with beneficial and antagonistic insects. Yet, we lack insights into the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pathogens on their host plants, and how these effects differ among pathogen species. 2. In this study, we examined four fungal pathogens on the...

Variation in developmental rates is not linked to environmental unpredictability in annual killifishes

Piotr Rowinski, Will Sowersby, Joacim Näslund, Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Karl Gotthard & Björn Rogell
Comparative evidence suggests that adaptive plasticity may evolve as a response to predictable environmental variation. However, less attention has been placed on unpredictable environmental variation, which is considered to affect evolutionary trajectories by increasing phenotypic variation (or bet-hedging). Here, we examine the occurrence of bet-hedging in egg developmental rates in seven species of annual killifish that originate from a gradient of variation in precipitation rates, under three treatment incubation temperatures (21°C, 23°C, and 25°C). In...

Data and script for: Weapons evolve faster than sperm in bovids and cervids

John Fitzpatrick
In polyandrous species, males face reproductive competition both before and after mating. Sexual selection thus shapes the evolution of both pre- and postcopulatory traits, creating competing demands on resource allocation to different reproductive episodes. Traits subject to strong selection exhibit accelerated rates of phenotypic divergence, and examining evolutionary rates may inform us about the relative importance and potential fitness consequences of investing in traits under either pre- or postcopulatory sexual selection. Here, we used a...

Changes in forest structure drive temperature preferences of boreal understory plant communities

Ditte Marie Christiansen, Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Johan Ehrlén & Kristoffer Hylander
1. The local climate in forest understories can deviate substantially from ambient conditions. Moreover, forest microclimates are often characterized by cyclic changes driven by management activities such as clear-cutting and subsequent planting. To understand how and why understory plant communities change, both ambient climate change and temporal variation in forest structure has to be considered. 2. We used inventories from 11436 productive forest sites in Sweden repeated every 10th year 1993 - 2017 to examine...

Measuring ecosystem services: Guidance on developing ecosystem service indicators

Claire Brown, Belinda Reyers, Lisa Ingwall-King, Abisha Mapendembe, Jeanne Nel, Patrick O'Farrell, Nadine Bowles-Newark & Mark Dixon

Writing science with LaTeX

Peter Jansson
An introduction to authoring with LaTeX for the sciences. The text assumes no prior knowledge of LaTeX. It is intended for students and professionals who wants a brief introduction as a basis for further self-learning. It should be sufficient for writing any document that is based on a template or specific class.
v.5: The section on referencing has been partially rewritten and reorganised. Minor corrections throughout the text.

v.4: Revisions made to follow developments in Overleaf....

DNA metabarcoding reveals trophic niche diversity of micro and mesozooplankton species: supplementary data and code

Andreas Novotny, Sara Zamora-Terol & Monika Winder
Alternative pathways of energy transfer guarantee the functionality and productivity in marine food webs that experience strong seasonality. Nevertheless, the complexity of zooplankton interactions is rarely considered in trophic studies because of the lack of detailed information about feeding interactions in nature. In this study, we used DNA metabarcoding to highlight the diversity of trophic niches in a wide range of micro- and mesozooplankton including ciliates, rotifers, cladocerans, copepods, and their prey, by sequencing 16-...

Thermal performance under constant temperatures can accurately predict insect development times across naturally variable microclimates

Loke Von Schmalensee, Katrín Hulda Gunnarsdóttir, Joacim Näslund, Karl Gotthard & Philipp Lehmann
External conditions can drive biological rates in ectotherms by directly influencing body temperatures. While estimating the temperature dependence of performance-traits such as growth and development rate is feasible under controlled laboratory settings, predictions in nature are difficult. One major challenge lies in translating performance under constant conditions to fluctuating environments. Using the butterfly Pieris napi as model system, we show that development rate, an important fitness trait, can be accurately predicted in the field using...

Fast life-histories are associated with larger brain size in killifishes

Will Sowersby, Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Alexander Kotrschal, Joacim Näslund, Piotr Rowiński, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer & Björn Rogell
The high energetic demands associated with the vertebrate brain are proposed to result in a trade-off between the pace of life-history and relative brain size. However, because both life-history and brain size also have a strong relationship with body size, any associations between the pace of life-history and relative brain size may be confounded by coevolution with body size. Studies on systems where contrasts in the pace of life-history occur without concordant contrasts in body...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

Data from: Urbanization affects oak–pathogen interactions across spatial scales

Laura Van Dijk, Xoaquin Moreira, Anna Barr, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Bastien Castagneyrol, Maria Faticov, Bess Hardwick, Jan Ten Hoopen, Raul De La Mata, Ricardo Matheus Pires, Tomas Roslin, Dmitry Schigel, Bart Timmermans & Ayco Tack
The world is rapidly urbanizing, thereby transforming natural landscapes and changing the abundance and distribution of organisms. However, insights into the effects of urbanization on species interactions, and plant-pathogen interactions in particular, are lacking. We investigated the effects of urbanization on powdery mildew infection on Quercus robur at continental and within-city scales. At the continental scale, we compared infection levels between urban and rural areas of different-sized cities in Europe, and investigated whether plant traits,...

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Data from: Rapid post-fire re-assembly of species-rich bryophyte communities in Afroalpine heathlands

Kristoffer Hylander, Carl Alexander Frisk, Sileshi Nemomissa & Maria Ulrika Johansson
Questions: In some fire-prone ecosystems, bryophytes play a crucial role by providing the surface fuel that controls the fire-return interval. Afroalpine heathlands are such an ecosystem, yet almost nothing is known about the bryophytes in this system. We do not know the level of species richness, or if there is a successive accumulation of species over time, or if some species are adapted to specific phases along the successional gradient, for example early-successional species sensitive...

Long non-coding RNA PCAT1 drives clear cell renal cell carcinoma by upregulating YAP via sponging miR-656 and miR-539

Rui Wang, Bin Zheng, Hongyan Liu & Xiuxian Wan
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common RCC subtype with high metastasis, poor prognosis and conventional chemotherapy resistance. Prostate cancer associated transcript 1 (PCAT1) is an important lncRNA that was reported to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion of several types of cancer cells. However, its role in ccRCC is still undetermined. This study found that PCAT1 levels were elevated in ccRCC tumors as well as several ccRCC cells, and...

Culture performance, gene marker, and transcriptome data for fungal isolates (Chalara longipes, Laccaria bicolor, Serpula lacrymans, and Trichoderma harzianum)

Fahri Hasby, Florian Barbi, Stefano Manzoni & Björn Lindahl
Metatranscriptomics holds the prospect of predicting fungal phenotypes based on patterns of gene expressions, providing new opportunities to obtain information about metabolic processes without disturbance of natural systems, and with taxonomic resolution. Acquisition of fungal metabolic carbon and its subsequent partitioning between biomass production and respiration, i.e. the carbon-use efficiency, are central parameters in biogeochemical modelling. However, current available techniques for estimating these parameters in natural systems are all associated with practical and theoretical shortcomings,...

‘Dunbar’s number’ deconstructed

Patrik Lindenfors, Andreas Wartel & Johan Lind
A widespread and popular belief posits that humans possess a cognitive capacity that is limited to keeping track of and maintaining stable relationships with approximately 150 people. This influential number, ‘Dunbar’s number’, originates from an extrapolation of a regression line describing the relationship between relative neocortex size and group size in primates. Here we test if there is statistical support for this idea. Our analyses on complementary datasets using different methods yield wildly different numbers....

Data from: Sensitivity to habitat fragmentation across European landscapes in three temperate forest herbs

Tobias Naaf, Jannis Till Feigs, Siyu Huang, Jörg Brunet, Sara A. O. Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Martin Diekmann, Sanne Govaert, Per-Ola Hedwall, Kenny Helsen, Jonathan Lenoir, Jaan Liira, Camille Meeussen, Jan Plue, Pedro Poli, Fabien Spicher, Pieter Vangansbeke, Thomas Vanneste, Kris Verheyen, Stephanie I. J. Holzhauer & Katja Kramp
Context. Evidence for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the viability of temperate forest herb populations in agricultural landscapes is so far based on population genetic studies of single species in single landscapes. However, forest herbs differ in their life histories, and landscapes have different environments, structures and histories, making generalizations difficult. Objectives. We compare the response of three slow-colonizing forest herbs to habitat loss and fragmentation and set this in relation to differences...

A genetic switch for male UV-iridescence in an incipient species pair

Vincent Ficarrotta, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling S. Loh, Caroline M. Francescutti, Anna Ren, Kalle Tunström, Christopher W. Wheat, Adam H. Porter, Brian A. Counterman & Arnaud Martin
Mating cues evolve rapidly and can contribute to species formation and maintenance. However, little is known about how sexual signals diverge and how this variation integrates with other barrier loci to shape the genomic landscape of reproductive isolation. Here, we elucidate the genetic basis of UV iridescence, a courtship signal that differentiates the males of Colias eurytheme butterflies from a sister species, allowing females to avoid costly heterospecific matings. Anthropogenic range expansion of the two...

Rotary catalysis of bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase studied by single-molecule experiments

Ryohei Kobayashi, Hiroshi Ueno, Chun-Biu Li & Hiroyuki Noji
The reaction scheme of rotary catalysis and the torque generation mechanism of bovine mitochondrial F1 (bMF1) were studied in single-molecule experiments. Under ATP-saturated concentrations, high-speed imaging of single 40 nm gold bead attached to the γ subunit of bMF1 showed two types of intervening pauses during the rotation that were discriminated by short dwell and long dwell. Using ATPgS as a slowly hydrolyzing ATP derivative as well as using a functional mutant bE188D with slowed...

Data from: Spring and autumn phenology in an understorey herb are uncorrelated and driven by different factors

Elsa Fogelström, Giulia Zacchello, Daniela Guasconi, Johan Petter Dahlgren & Johan Ehrlén
Premise: Climate warming has altered the start and end of growing seasons in temperate regions. Ultimately, these changes occur at the individual level, but little is known about how previous seasonal life history events, temperature, and plant resource state simultaneously influence the spring and autumn phenology of plant individuals. Methods: We studied the relationships between the timing of leaf-out and shoot senescence over three years in a natural population of the long-lived understory herb Lathyrus...

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  • 2021

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  • Stockholm University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Zhejiang University
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University
  • Central South University
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  • Capital Medical University
  • Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
  • Sichuan University