193 Works

Data from: Single-cell selectivity and functional architecture of human lateral occipital complex

Thomas Decramer, Elsie Premereur, Mats Uytterhoeven, Wim Van Paesschen, Johannes Van Loon, Peter Janssen & Tom Theys
The human lateral occipital complex (LOC) is more strongly activated by images of objects compared to scrambled controls, but detailed information at the neuronal level is currently lacking. We recorded with microelectrode arrays in the LOC of two patients, and obtained highly selective single-unit, multi-unit and high-gamma responses to images of objects. Contrary to predictions derived from functional imaging studies, all neuronal properties indicated that the posterior subsector of LOC we recorded from occupies an...

Data from: In silico study of the role of cell growth factors in photosynthesis using a virtual leaf tissue generator coupled to a microscale photosynthesis gas exchange model

Moges Retta, Metadel Abera, Herman Berghuijs, Pieter V, Paul C Struik & Bart Nicolai
Computational tools that allow in silico analysis of the role of cell growth and division on photosynthesis are scarce. We present a freely available tool that combines a virtual leaf tissue generator and a two-dimensional microscale model of gas transport during C3 photosynthesis. A total of 270 mesophyll geometries were generated with varying degree of growth anisotropy, growth extent and extent of schizogenous airspace formation in the palisade mesophyll. The anatomical properties of the virtual...

Innate preference hierarchies coupled with adult experience, rather than larval imprinting or transgenerational acclimation, determine host plant use in Pieris rapae

Hampus Petrén, Gabriele Gloder, Diana Posledovich, Christer Wiklund & Magne Friberg
The evolution of host range drives diversification in phytophagous insects, and understanding the female oviposition choices is pivotal for understanding host specialization. One controversial mechanism for female host choice is Hopkins’ host selection principle, where females are predicted to increase their preference for the host species they were feeding upon as larvae. A recent hypothesis posits that such larval imprinting is especially adaptive in combination with anticipatory transgenerational acclimation, so that females both allocate and...

Volatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid

Tim Goelen, Islam S. Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Jetske G. De Boer, Frank Delvigne, Frédéric Francis, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
1. To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants and insects, there is mounting evidence that indicates that microorganisms emit volatile compounds that may play an important role in insect behaviour. 2. In this study, we assessed how volatile compounds emitted by phylogenetically diverse bacteria affected the olfactory response of...

Inter- and intraspecific trait variation shape multidimensional trait overlap between two plant invaders and the invaded communities

Kenny Helsen, Elisa Van Cleemput, Leonardo Bassi, Bente Graae, Ben Somers, Benjamin Blonder & Olivier Honnay
Invader success and ecosystem impact are both expected to be largely driven by the functional trait distinctiveness of the resident species relative to the invaded communities. To understand the importance of trait distinctiveness for plant invasions, and the native community’s trait response to the invasion, it is key to measure multiple traits simultaneously, and to incorporate intraspecific trait variation. Here we explored multidimensional patterns of inter- and intraspecific trait variation during the invasion of two...

Data from: Type Maastrichtian gastropod faunas evidencing rapid ecosystem recovery following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary

Johan Vellekoop, Kris Van Tilborgh, Paul Van Knippenberg, John Jagt, Peter Stassen, Stijn Goolaerts & Robert Speijer
The study of the global mass extinction event at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary can aid in understanding patterns of selective extinction and survival, and dynamics of ecosystem recovery. Outcrops in the Maastrichtian type area (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) comprise an exceptionally expanded K/Pg boundary succession that offers a unique opportunity to study marine ecosystem recovery within the first thousands of years following the mass extinction event. A quantitative analyses was performed on systematically sampled macrofossils...

Data from: Bacterial phylogeny predicts volatile organic compound composition and olfactory response of an aphid parasitoid

Tim Goelen, Islam Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
There is increasing evidence that microorganisms emit a wide range of volatile compounds (mVOCs, microbial volatile organic compounds) that act as insect semiochemicals, and therefore play an important role in insect behaviour. Although it is generally believed that phylogenetically closely related microbes tend to have similar phenotypic characteristics and therefore may elicit similar responses in insects, currently little is known about whether the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms have an impact on insect-microbe...

Data from: Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward moving damselfly

Lieven Therry, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Dries Bonte & Robby Stoks
Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden...

Data from: Regional environmental pressure influences population differentiation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

S. G. Vandamme, G. E. Maes, J. A. M. Raeymaekers, K. Cottenie, A. K. Imsland, B. Hellemans, G. Lacroix, E. Mac Aoidh, J. T. Martinsohn, P. Martínez, J. Robbens, R. Vilas & F. A. M. Volckaert
Unravelling the factors shaping the genetic structure of mobile marine species is challenging due to the high potential for gene flow. However, genetic inference can be greatly enhanced by increasing the genomic, geographic or environmental resolution of population genetic studies. Here we investigated the population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by screening 17 random and gene-linked markers in 999 individuals at 290 geographical locations throughout the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. A seascape genetics approach with the...

Data from: Decrease in diversity and changes in community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of apple trees with increasing orchard management intensity across a regional scale

Maarten Van Geel, Bart Lievens & Olivier Honnay
Understanding which factors drive the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important due to the role of these soil microorganisms in ecosystem functioning and current environmental threats to AMF biodiversity. Additionally, in agro-ecosystems, this knowledge may help to evaluate their use in making agriculture more sustainable. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing of small subunit rRNA gene amplicons to quantify AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of cultivated apple trees across...

Data from: Signatures of selection in the three-spined stickleback along a small scale brackish water - freshwater transition zone

Nellie Konijnendijk, Takahito Shikano, Dorien Daneels, Filip A. M. Volckaert, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers & Filip A.M. Volckaert
Local adaptation is often obvious when gene flow is impeded, such as observed at large spatial scales and across strong ecological contrasts. However, it becomes less certain at small scales such as between adjacent populations or across weak ecological contrasts, when gene flow is strong. While studies on genomic adaptation tend to focus on the former, less is known about the genomic targets of natural selection in the latter situation. In this study, we investigate...

Data from: Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome across species, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure

Sara Debecker, Iago Sanmartín-Villar, Miguel De Guinea-Luengo, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera & Robby Stoks
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast–slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive–reactive personality continuum. Few studies have investigated these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we investigated...

Data from:Microgeographic differentiation in thermal performance curves between rural and urban populations of an aquatic insect

Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op De Beeck, Kristien I. Brans, Lizanne Janssens & Robby Stoks
The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization (“urban heat islands”), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three...

Data from: Overyielding in young tree plantations is driven by local complementarity and selection effects related to shade tolerance

Thomas Van De Peer, Kris Verheyen, Quentin Ponette, Nuri Nurlaila Setiawan & Bart Muys
1. Overyielding in mixed-species forests has been demonstrated in a vast body of literature, and the focus of functional biodiversity research is now shifting towards a mechanistic understanding of these observations. 2. We explored diversity-productivity relationships (DPRs) at two sites of a large-scale tree diversity experiment, with benign (Zed) and harsh (Ged) environmental conditions for plantation establishment. Additive partitioning methodologies were adopted to detect phenomenological patterns in the productivity data, and the trait structure of...

Data from: Parasite escape through trophic specialization in a species flock

Pascal I. Hablützel, Maarten P.M. Vanhove, Pablo Deschepper, Arnout F. Grégoir, Anna K. Roose, Filip A.M. Volckaert & Joost A.M. Raeymaekers
Adaptive radiation occurs when species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. Since opportunities for parasite infection and transmission may greatly vary among these niches, adaptive radiation is expected to be associated with a turnover of the parasite community. As major agents of natural and sexual selection, parasites may play a central role in host diversification. The study of parasite turnover may thus be of general relevance and could significantly improve our understanding...

Data from: Nectar bacteria affect life history of a generalist aphid parasitoid by altering nectar chemistry

Marijke Lenaerts, Tim Goelen, Caro Paulussen, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Jan Steensels, Wim Van Den Ende, Kevin Verstrepen, Felix Wäckers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
1. Nectar is a crucial energy resource that strongly mediates the interactions between plants and animal pollinators or plant defenders. Previous research has shown that nectar is commonly colonized by microorganisms, most commonly bacteria and yeasts, which can have a strong impact on nectar chemistry. However, at present little is known about the effects of microorganisms on the fitness of animals feeding on nectar. 2. We used three nectar bacteria representing different metabolic groups (Asaia...

Data from: Distinctive fungal communities in an obligate African ant-plant mutualism

Christopher C.M. Baker, Dino J. Martins, Julianne N. Pelaez, Johan P.J. Billen, Anne Pringle, Megan E. Frederickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Christopher C. M. Baker & Johan P. J. Billen
Three ant species nest obligately in the swollen-thorn domatia of the African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium, a model system for the study of ant-defence mutualisms and species coexistence. Here we report on the characteristic fungal communities generated by these ant species in their domatia. First, we describe behavioural differences between the ant species when presented with a cultured fungal isolate in the laboratory. Second, we use DNA metabarcoding to show that each ant species has...

Data from: Sex change and effective population size: implications for population genetic studies in marine fish

Ilaria Coscia, Julien Chopelet, Robin S. Waples, Bruce Mann & Stefano Mariani
Large variance in reproductive success is the primary factor that reduces effective population size (Ne) in natural populations. In sequentially hermaphroditic (sex-changing) fish, the sex ratio is typically skewed and biased towards the 'first' sex, while reproductive success increases considerably after sex change. Therefore, sex-changing fish populations are theoretically expected to have lower Ne than gonochorists (separate sexes), assuming all other parameters are essentially equal. In this study, we estimate Ne from genetic data collected...

Data from: Understanding past population dynamics: Bayesian coalescent-based modeling with covariates

Mandev S. Gill, Philippe Lemey, Shannon N. Bennett, Roman Biek & Marc A. Suchard
Effective population size characterizes the genetic variability in a population and is a parameter of paramount importance in population genetics and evolutionary biology. Kingman's coalescent process enables inference of past population dynamics directly from molecular sequence data, and researchers have developed a number of flexible coalescent-based models for Bayesian nonparametric estimation of the effective population size as a function of time. Major goals of demographic reconstruction include identifying driving factors of effective population size, and...

Data from: Environment not dispersal limitation drives clonal composition of arctic Daphnia in a recently deglaciated area

Tsegazeabe Hadush Haileselasie, Joachim Mergeay, Lawrence J. Weider, Ruben Sommaruga, Thomas A. Davidson, Mariana Meerhoff, Hartmut Arndt, Klaus Jürgens, Erik Jeppesen & Luc De Meester
One of the most prominent manifestations of the ongoing climate warming is the retreat of glaciers and ice sheets around the world. Retreating glaciers result in the formation of new ponds and lakes, which are available for colonization. The gradual appearance of these new habitat patches allows us to determine to what extent the composition of asexual Daphnia (water flea) populations is affected by environmental drivers versus dispersal limitation. Here we used a landscape genetics...

Data from: Muscle-tendon unit length changes differ between young and adult sprinters in first stance phase of sprint running

Jeroen Aeles, Ilse Jonkers, Sofie Debaere, Christophe Delecluse & Benedicte Vanwanseele
The aim of this study was to compare young and adult sprinters on several biomechanical parameters that were previously highlighted as performance-related and to determine the behaviour of several muscle-tendon units (MTU) in the first stance phase following a block start in sprint running. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematic data were collected from 16 adult and 21 young well-trained sprinters. No difference between the groups was found in some of the previously-highlighted performance-related...

Data from: Thermal evolution offsets the elevated toxicity of a contaminant under warming: a resurrection study in Daphnia magna

Chao Zhang, Mieke Jansen, Luc De Meester & Robby Stoks
Synergistic interactions between temperature and contaminants are a major challenge for ecological risk assessment, especially under global warming. While thermal evolution may increase the ability to deal with warming, it is unknown whether it may also affect the ability to deal with the many contaminants that are more toxic at higher temperatures. We investigated how evolution of genetic adaptation to warming affected the interactions between warming and a novel stressor: zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in...

Data from: Specialized mutualisms may constrain the geographical distribution of flowering plants

Karl J. Duffy & Steven D. Johnson
It is commonly assumed that the geographical distributions of plants are governed mainly by abiotic variables. However, interactions with other organisms, such as pollinators, also have the potential to influence plant distributions. To investigate this, we developed niche models for 32 plant taxa that have specialized pollination systems and which are native to a biodiversity hotspot (South Africa). We found that the distributions of these taxa are best explained by a combination of biotic (pollinators)...

Data from: Climate change increases ecogeographic isolation between closely related plants

Karl J. Duffy & Hans Jacquemyn
1. Ecogeographic isolation is a fundamental prezygotic barrier to reproduction and a step toward diversification in flowering plants. However, whether ecogeographic isolation acts as a reproductive barrier between species and thus as a mechanism for species divergence is unclear and is expected to change as species distributions shift under climate change. 2. Using a Maxent framework, we quantified the extent of ecogeographic isolation of nine closely related species of the European plant genus Pulmonaria, which...

Data from: Parallel evolution and adaptation to environmental factors in a marine flatfish: implications for fisheries and aquaculture management of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

Fernanda Dotti Do Prado, Manuel Vera, Miguel Hermida, Carmen Bouza, Belén G. Pardo, Román Vilas, Andrés Blanco, Carlos Fernández, Francesco Maroso, Gregory E. Maes, Cemal Turan, Filip A.M. Volckaert, John B. Taggart, Adrian Carr, Rob Ogden, Einar E. Nielsen, The Aquatrace Consortium, Paulino Martínez & Filip A. M. Volckaert
Unraveling adaptive genetic variation represents, in addition to the estimate of population demographic parameters, a cornerstone for the management of aquatic natural living resources, which in turn, represent the raw material for breeding programs. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a marine flatfish of high commercial value living on the European continental shelf. While wild populations are declining, aquaculture is flourishing in Southern Europe. We evaluated the genetic structure of turbot throughout its natural distribution range...

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